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THE 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



FIRST edit 


ion, published in three volumes, 1768 — 1771. 


SECOND , 


, ,, ten , 


, 1777— 1784. 


THIRD , 


, „ eighteen , 


, 1788— 1797. 


FOURTH , 


, ,, twenty , 


, 1801 — 1810. 


FIFTH , 


, „ twenty , 


, 1815—1817. 


SIXTH , 


, „ twenty , 


, 1823 — 1824. 


SEVENTH . , 


, „ twenty-one , 


, 1830 — 1842. 


EIGHTH , 


, „ twenty-two , 


, 1853—1860 


NINTH , 


, „ twenty-five , 


, 1875— 1889. 


TENTH , 


, ninth edition and eleven 






supplementary volumes, 


1902 — 1903. 


ELEVENTH , 


, published in twentynine volume 


s, 1910 — 1911. 



COPYRIGHT 

in all countries subscribing tq the 
..■'.. Bern Q&nventKm 
' • ' by 

THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS 

of tie 
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE 



AH ' rights reserved 



THE 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA 



DICTIONARY 

OF 

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL 

INFORMATION 

ELEVENTH EDITION 



VOLUME II! 

AUSTRIA LOWER to BISECTRIX 



New York 

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 
342 Madison Avenue 



Copyright, In tlie'Uhrted'Slates of America, 1910, 

by 

The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company. 



INITIALS USED IN VOLUME III. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL 

CONTRIBUTORS, 1 WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE 

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED. 



A. c. p. 

A. C. S. 
A. P. P. 

A. Go.* 
A. G. G. 

A. HI. 

A. H. N. 

A. H.-S. 
A. H. S. 
A. J. L. 

A. L. 
A.N. 
A. P. H. 

A. Sp. 

A. St H. G. 

A. W.* 
A. W. H.* 



Anna C. Paues, Ph.D. J 

Lecturer in Germanic Philology at Newnbam College, Cambridge. Formerly^ Bible, English. 
Fellow of Newnham College. Author of A Fourteenth Century Biblical Version ; &c. I 



-j Beaumont and VaUJLu, 



Algernon Charles Swinburne. 

See biographical article: Swinburne, Algernon C. 

Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hist.Soc. Tt>i . 

Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls' j Balnaves; 
College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893-^ Barnes, Ruber C, 
iqoi. Lothian prizeman (Oxford), 1892; Arnold prizeman, 1898. Author of Bilnev. 
England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c. "- 

r 

Rev. Alexander Gordon,. M. A. 

Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester. 

Sir Alfred George Greenhill, M.A., F.R.S. 

Formerly Professor of Mathematics in the Ordnance College, Woolwich. Author, 
of Differential and Integral Calculus with Applications; Hydrostatics; Notes on 
Dynamics; &c. 



Beza. 



Ballistics. 



Oxford. Author of A Handbook of European J Austria-Hungary: History {in 
Editor of the 3rd edition of T. H. Dyer's 1 part). 



Arthur Hassall, M. A. 

Student and Tutor of Christ Church, 

History; The Balance of Power; &c. 
History of Modern Europe. 

Albert Henry Newman, LL.D., D.D. f 

Professor of Church History, Baylor University, Texas. Professor at McMaster J T>onti«ta- A^erim*. 
University, Toronto, 1881-1901. Author of The Baptist Churches in the United 1 Ba P us,s - American. 
States; Manual of Church History; A Century of Baptist Achievement. I 

A. Houtum-Schindler, CLE. f Azerbaijan; Bakhtiari; 

General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak. \ Bander Abbasi; Barfurush 

Rev. Archibald Henry Sayce, D.Litt., LL.D. J Babylon; Babylonia arid 

See the biographical article: Sayce, A. H. 1 Assyria; Belshazzar; 

L Berossus. 

Editor of the Rio News) Bahia: State; 
[Bahia: City. 

Andrew Lang. 

See the biographical article: Lang, Andrew. 

Alfred Newton, F.R.S. 

See the biographical article: Newton, Alfred, 

Alfred Peter Hillier, M.D., M.P. 

President, South African Medical Congress, 1893. Author of South African Studies; 
&c. Served in Kaffir War, 1878-1879. Partner with Dr L. S. Jameson in medical 
practice in South Africa till 1896. Member of Re'form Committee, Johannesburg, and 
Political Prisoner at Pretoria, 1895-1896. M.P. for Hitchin division of Herts, 1910, 

Archibald Sharp. 

Consulting Engineer and Chartered Patent Agent. 

Alfred St Hill Gibbons. 

Major, East Yorkshire Regiment. Explorer in South Central Africa. Author of -j Barotse, Barotseland. 
Africa from South to North through Marotseland. 



Sir 



Andrew Jackson Lamoureux. 

Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University. 
(Rio de Janeiro), 1879-1901. 



j Ballads. 

\ Birds of Paradise. 



Basutoland: History {in par$ \ 
Bechuanaland {in part). 



\ Bicycle. 



Arthur Willey, F.R.S., D.Sc 

Director of Colombo Museum, Ceylon. 

Arthur William Holland. 

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. 



■\ Balanoglossus. 

("Austria-Hungary: History (in 

\ part); ■■> ;- 5 

Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900. L Bavaria: History {in pari). 



1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume. 

v 



rles Francis Bastable, M.A., LL.D. r 

Regius Professor of Laws and Professor of Political Economy in the University of J „• * ir 

Dublin. Author of Public Finance; Commerce of Nations; Theory of International 1 "HBCtailism. 



Bible : New Testament 
Chronology. 



vi INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

A. W. Po. Alfred William Pollard, M.A. r 

Assistant Keeper of Printed Books, British Museum. Fellow of King's College, 

London. Hon. Secretary Bibliographical Society. Editor of Books about Books; \ Bibliography and Bibliology. 

and Bibliographica. Joint-editor of the Library. Chief Editor of the " Globe " 
Chaucer. ..,.-. I 

B. K. Prince Bojidar Karageorgevitch (d. 1908). r 

Artist, art critic, designer and goldsmith. Contributor to the Paris Figaro, the J _ ... . „ 
Magazine of Art, &c. Author of Enchanted India. Translator of the works of Tolstoi 1 Bashkirtsen. 
and Jokai, &c. [_ 

C. The Earl of Crewe, K.G., F.S.A. J 

See the biographical article: Crewe, ist Earl of. j Banville. 

C. A. C. Charles Arthur Conant. r 

Member of Commission on International Exchange of U.S., 1903. Treasurer, J Banks and Banking : 

Morton Trust Co., New York, 1902-1906. Author of History of Modern Banks] American 

of Issue; The Principles of Money and Banking; &c. [_ . ' . 

C. B.* Charles Bemont, D. es L., Litt.D. (Oxon.). f „ . 

See the biographical article: Bemont, C. -j^BalUze ; Beam. 

C. F. A. Charles Francis Atkinson. r &„~t rian «„„„«.,•.. «,.,. 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, ist City of London (Royal A !l , succession War. 
Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour. [ Military. 

C. F. B. Charles Francis Bastable, M.A., LL.D 

Regius Pre " 
Dublin. P 
Trade; &c. 

C. H. T. Ctjthbert Hamilton Turner, M.A. 

Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford; Fellow of the British Academy. Speaker's 
Lecturer in Biblical Studies in the University of Oxford, 1906-1909. First Editor 
of the Journal of Theological Studies, 1899-1902. Author of " Chronology of the 
New Testament," and " Greek Patristic Commentaries on the Pauline Epistles " 
in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, &c. 

C. H. W. J. Rev. Claude Hermann Walter Johns, M.A., Litt.D. r 

Master of St Catharine's College, Cambridge. Lecturer in Assyriology, Queens' 
College, Cambridge, and King's College, London. Author of Assyrian Deeds and \ Babylonia^ Law. 
Documents of the 7th Century B.C. ; The Oldest Code of Laws ; Babylonian and Assyrian 
Laws ; Contracts and Letters ; &c. |_ 

C. J. L. Sir Charles James Lyall, K.C.S.I., CLE., LL.D. (Edin.). 

Secretary, Judicial and Public Department, India Office. Fellow of King's f 
College, London. Secretary to Government of India in Home Department, 1889- \ Bihar! Lai. 
1894. Chief Commissioner, Central Provinces, India, 1895-1898. Author of 
Translations of Ancient Arabic Poetry; &c. L 

C. Mi. Chedomille Mijatovich. r 

Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- •„ , . 
potentiary of the King of Servia to the Court of St James's, 1 895-1900, and 1902- ] Be 'Srade. 
I903- [ 

C. PI. Rev. Charles Plummer, M.A. r 

Fellow and Chaplain of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1901. -J Bede. 
Author of Life and Times of Alfred the Great; &c. I 

C. R, B. Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S. r 

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow Dpofuc. 
of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. \ Beal;us » 
Lothian prizeman (Oxford), 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of] Behaim. 
Henry the Navigator ; The Dawn of Modern Geography ; &c. I 

C. W. W. Sir Charles William Wilson, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836-1907). 

Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary 
Commission, 1858-1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Com- 
mission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886-1894. Director-General 
of Military Education, 1895-1898. Author of From Korti to Khartoum; Life of 
Lord Clive; &c. 

D. B. Ma. Duncan Black Macdonald, D.D. r 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, U.S.A. \ Bafram. 

D. C. B. Demetrius Charles Boulger. r u 1 • r 

Author of England and Russia in Central Asia] History of China; Life of Gordon;} Be ' glum: . ^ograpky and 
India in the 19th Century ; History of Belgium ; Belgian Life in Town and Country ; &c. \ Matishcs. 

J). F. T. Donald Francis Tovey. .. 

Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Essays in Musical Analysis — comprising The Bach, J. S.; 
Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical | Beethoven. 
works. I 



Beirut {in pari). 



D. G. H. David George Hogarth, M.A. Baalbek- 

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford R arra . ' 
FellowjDf the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naukratis, 1899 and J J,-*-.?// 



1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at Ather.o, Belrul W» part); 
1897-1900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. [ Bengazi. 

D. H. David Hannay. f Austrian Succession W«: 

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of Royal Navy \ Naval; 
1 217-1688; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c. '1 Aviles; Bainbridge, Williaw 

LBarbary Pirates. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



yn 



D.Mn. 

D. S. M.* 

ft. Sj-S. 

E.B. 

G.Br. 

E. CI. 

E. C. B. 

£• F. S« 

E. G. 
E. G. B. 

E. H. M. 

Ed. M. 
E. Ma. 
E. M. T. 

E. N. S. 
E. Pr. 

E. Tn. 
E.V. 
F C. B. 

F. C. C. 



Director of the London i Berry, Charles Albert. 



Rev. Dugald Mactadyen, M.A. 

Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. 
Missionary Society. 

David Samuel Margoliouth, M.A., D.Litt. r 

Laudian Professor of Arabic, Oxford; Fellow of New College. Author of Arabic J • 
Papyri of the Bodleian Library; Mohammed and the Rise of Islam; Cairo, Jerusalem'] " xunl ' 
and Damascus. [ 

David Seth-Smith, F.Z.S. f 

Curator of Birds to the Zoological Society of London. Formerly President of the . 
Avicultural Society. Author of Parrakeels; a Practical Handbook to those Species 
kept in Captivity. 

Edward Breck, Ph.D. 

Formerly Foreign Correspondent of the New York Herald and the New York Times. • 
Author of Wilderness Pets. 



Aviary. 



Base-Ball. 



Formerly Fellow and Tutor" 



Ernest Barker, M.A. 

Fellow and Lecturer of St John's College, Oxford, 
of Merton College. Craven Scholar (Oxford), 1895. 

Edward Clodd. f 

Vice-President of the Folk- Lore Society. Author of Story of Primitive Man ; i Baer. 
Primer of Evolution; Tom Tit Tot; Animism; Pioneers of Evolution [ 



Baldwin I. to IV. 
Jerusalem. 



0! 



Right Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., D.Litt. (Dubl.). 
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. 



Edward Fairbrother Strange. 

Assistant-Keeper, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. 
Council, Japan Society. Author of numerous works on art subjects; 
of Bell's " Cathedral " Series. 



Edmund Gosse, LL.D. 

See the biographical article : Gosse, Edmund. 



Member of 
Joint-editor " 



Basilian Monks; 

Benedict of Nursia; 

Benedictines; 

St Bernardin of Siena. 



Beardsley, Aubrey Vincent. 

Baggesen; Ballade; 
Barnfleld; 

Beaumont, Sir John; 
Belgium: Literature; 
Biography. 



Bankruptcy: Comparative Law. 



Autographs. 



Edward Granville Browne, M.A., M.R.C.S., M.R.A.S. 

Sir Thomas Adams's Professor of Arabic and Fellow of Pembroke College, Cam- 
bridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of A Traveller's Narrative, -j Babiism. 
written to Illustrate the Episode of the Bab ; The New History of Mirzd AH Muhammed 
the Bab ; Literary History of Persia ; &c. 

Ellis H^vell Minns, M.A. C 

Lecturer and Assistant Librarian, and formerly Fellow of Pembroke College, -< Bastarnae. 
Cambridge. University Lecturer in Palaeography. [ 

Eduard Meyer, D.Litt. (Oxon.), LL.D., Ph.D. f Bactria; Bagoas; 

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des -\ Bahram; Balash; 
Alterthums; Geschichte des alien Agyptens;Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstamme; &c. I Behistun. 

Edward Manson. 

Barrister-at-Law. Joint-editor of Journal of Comparative Legislation, Author of 
Short View of the Law of Bankruptcy; &c. ^ 

Sir Edward Maunde Thompson, G.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., Litt.D. 

Director and Principal Librarian, British Museum, 1888-1909. Fellow of the British 
Academy. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France and of the Royal 
Prussian Academy of Sciences. Author of Handbook of Greek and Latin Palaeo- 
graphy. Editor of the Chronicon Angliae, &c. Joint-editor of Publications of the 
Palaeographical Society. 

E. N. Stockley. C 

Captain, Royal Engineers. Instructor in Construction at the School of Military J R arrac lr g 
Engineering, Chatham. For some time in charge of the Barracks Design Branch of 1 ,>a^^ac, ' 5 • 
the War Office. I 

Edgar Prestage. f 

Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Com- J Azurara; 
mendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal 1 BaiTOS. 
Academy of Sciences and Lisbon Geographical Society. 

Rev. Ethelred Leonard Taunton (d 1907). 

Author of The English Black Monks of St Benedict; History of the Jesuits in England, 

Rev. Edmund Venables, M.A., D.D. (1819-1895). 

Canon and Precentor of Lincoln. Author of Episcopal Palaces of England. 

Francis Crawford Burkitt, M.A., D.D. 

Norrisian Professor of Divinity, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. 
Part-editor of The Four Gospels in Syriac transcribed from the Sinailic - 
Palimpsest. Author of The Gospel History and its Transmission; Early Eastern 
Christianity; &c. 

Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Th. (Giessen). 

Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. 
Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c. 



.{ 
{ 



Baronius. 



Basilica (in pari). 



Bible: New Testament, Higher 
Criticism. 



Baptism. 



viii 




f. 


6. 




F. 


G. 


M. B 


p. 


LI. 


G ; 


p. 


L. 


L. 


p. 


P. 




p. 


R. 


C. 


F. 


R. 


H. 


F. 


W. 


R.* 


6. 


A. 


«♦ 


G.A.Gr. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



G. B. B. 
G. B. G.* 

G. E. 

G. F. Z. 
G. G. S. 

G. H. C. 

G. Sa. 
G. W. T. 

H.Br. 

H. Ch. 

H. C. R* 
H.Fr. 
H. F. G. 



HBeaeohsfield, Earl of. 
-{ Bernicia. 



Bes. 



Frederick. Greenwood. 

See the biographical article : Greenwood, Frederick. 

Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A. 

Fellow and Lecturer of Clare College, Cambridge. 

Francis Llewelyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A. 

Reader in Egyptology, Oxford. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Archaeo- _ 
logical Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of the Imperial German 
Archaeological Institute. 

Lady Lugard. ■ . 

See the biographical article : Lugard, Sir F. J. D. 

FrAjNk Podmore, M.A. (d. 1910). f 

Pembroke College, Oxford. Author of Studies in Psychical Research; Modern "j Automatic Writing, 

Spiritualism; &c. 

Frank R. Cana. 

Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union. 



Bauchl. 



rBasutoland (in part) ; 
J Bahr-el-Ghazal (in part) 
iBechuanaland (in pari). 

J Baiburt; 
1 Bashkala. 



Francis Richard Maunsell, C.M.G. 

Lieut.-Col., Royal Artillery. Military Vice-Consul, Sivas, Trebizond, Van (Kurd- 
istan), 1897-1898. Military Attache, British Embassy, Constantinople, 1901-1905. 
Author of Central Kurdistan ; &c. 

Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S. 

,: Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902.- 
President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889. 

George A. Boulenger, F.R.S., D.Sc, Ph.D. 

In charge of the Collections of Reptiles and Fishes, Department of Zoology, British" 
Museum. Vice-President of the Zoological Society of London. 

George 'Abraham Grierson, C.I.E., Ph.D. D.Litt. (Dublin). 

Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1873-1903. In charge of Linguistic Survey of 
India, 1898-1902. Gold Medallist, Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice-President of the - 
Royal Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author of The 
Languages of India ; &c. 

Gerard Baldwin Brown, M.A. f 

Professor of Fine Arts, University of Edinburgh. Formerly Fellow of Brasenose ~\ Basilica (in part). 
College, Oxford. Author of From Schola to Cathedral; The Fine Arts; &c. I 



I Aventurine; 
[Beryl. 

1 Axolotl; 
I Batrachia. 



Bengali; 
Bihari. 



Bible: Old Testament) 
Textual Criticism, and 
Higher Criticism. 



Belgium: History. 



George Buchanan Gray, M.A., D.D., D.Litt. (Oxon.) " " '■ 

Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Exegesis, Mansfield College, Oxford. . 
Examiner in Hebrew, University of Wales. Author of The Divine Discipline of 
Israel; &c. 

Rev. George Edmundson, M.A., F.R.Hist.S. 

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909. < 
Hoh. Member Dutch Historical Society, and Foreign Member, Netherlands Associa- 
tion of Literature. 

. G. F. Zimmer, A.M.Inst.C.E. 

Author of Mechanical Handling of Material. 

Geokge Gregory Smith, M.A. f 

Professor of English Literature, Queen's University, Belfast. Author of The Days "{ Barbour, John. 
of James IV.; The Transition Period; Specimens of Middle Scots; &c. I 

George Herbert Carpenter, B.Sc. [" 

Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. President of the J Bee 
Association of Economic Biologists. Member of the Royal Irish Academy. Author | 
of Insects: their Structure and Life ; &c. ' I 



Biseuit. 



George Edward Bateman Satntsbury, LL.D., D.Litt. 
See the biographical article: Saintsbury, G. E. B. 



Rev. Griffithes Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D. 

Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old 
Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford. 

Henry Bradley, M.A., Ph.D. 

Joint-editor of the New English Dictionary (Oxford). Fellow of the British Academy. 
Author of The Story of the Goths; The Making of English; &c. 

Hugh Chisholm, M.A. 

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the nth edition of -j Balfour, A. J. 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Co-editor of the 10th edition. 



Balzac, H. de, 

Avempace; Averroes; 
Avieenna; BaidawT; 
Baladhuri; BehS ud-DIn 
Beha ud-DIn Zuhair; 
Blrunl. 

-{ Beowulf. 



Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, Bart., K.C.B. 
See the biographical article: Rawlinson, Sir H. C. 

Henri Frantz. 

Art Critic, Gazette des Beaux Arts (Paris). 

Hans Friedrich Gadow, F.R.S., Ph.D. 

Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge 
Author of " Amphibia and Reptiles " in the Cam bridge Natural History. 



Bagdad: City. 

Barye; Bastien-Lepage; 
Baudry, P. J. A. 

Bird. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



IX 



ri. H. H.* 

H.H. J. 
H. HL, R. 

H. M. W. 

H. N. D. 
H. W. C. D. 

H. W. S. 
LA. 

J. An. 

J. A. H. 

J. B. B. 
J. D. B. 
J. F.-K. 

J. F. St. 

J. H. R. 
J. HI. R. 

J. M. M. 

J. P.-B. 
J. G. Sc. 

J. P. E. 



Herbert Hensley Henson, M.A., D.D. 

Canon of Westminster Abbey and Rector of St Margaret's, Westminster. Proctor 
in Convocation since 1902. Formerly Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford. Select 
Preacher (Oxford), 1895-1896; (Cambridge), 190 1. Author of Apostolic Christianity; 
Moral Discipline in the Christian Church; The National Church; Christ and the Nation; 
&c. 

Sir Harry Hamilton Johnston, D.Sc., G.C.M.G., K.C.B. 
See the biographical article: Johnston, Sir H. H. 



Bible, English: Revised Ver- 



sion. 



-I Ban^u Languages. 



Editor of The Times Engineering \ Bell: House Bell. 



Hugh Munro Ross. 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Lincoln College, Oxford. 
Supplement. Author of British Railways. 

H. Marshall Ward, M.A., F.R.S., D.Sc. (d. 1905). 

Formerly Professor of Botany, Cambridge. President of the British Mycological . 
Society. Author of Timber and some of its Diseases; The Oak; Sack's Lectures on 
the Physiology of Plants ; Grasses ; Disease in Plants ; &c. 

Henry Newton Dickson, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.G.S. 

Professor of Geography, University College, Reading. Author of Elementary 
Meteorology; Papers on Oceanography; &c. 

Henry William Carless Davis, M.A. 

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls', Oxford, 1895-- 
1902. Author of Charlemagne ; England under the Normans and Angevins, 1066-1272. 

H. Wickham Steed, 

Correspondent of The Times at Rome (1897-1902) and Vienna. 

Israel Abrahams, M.A. 

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature, University of Cambridge. President, „ 
Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Litera- 
ture; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; &c. 

Joseph Anderson, LL.D. 

Keeper of the National Museum of Antiquities, Edinburgh, and Assistant Secretary 
of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Honorary Professor of Antiquities to - 
the Royal Scottish Academy. Author of Scotland in Early Christian and Pagan 
Times. 



John Allen Howe, B.Sc. 

Curator and Librarian at the Museum of Practical Geology, London. 



Bacteriology (in part); 
Berkeley, Miles Joseph. 



Baltic Sea. 



Becket; ' 

Bene&ietus Abbas. 

Austria-Hungary: History (in 

part) ; 
Bertani. 



John Bagnell Bury, LL.D., Litt.D. 

See the biographical article: Bury, J. B. 



Bahya 



Barrow. 



Avonian; Bajoeian; 
Barton Bedsj -' s ' 

Bathonian Series; 
I Bed: Geology. 

' Baldwin I. and II.: ' ■"* 
of Romania; 
Basil I. and II.: EmperSsy 1 
I Belisarius. 



James David Bourchier, M.A^F.R.G.S. 
- King's College, Cambridge. Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. . 
Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of 
Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria. 

James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S. 

" Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. 

' Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fallow of the British Academy. 

Member of the Council of the Hispanic Society of America. Knight Commander of 

the Order of Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature. 



Balkan Peninsula. 



Ayala y Herrera; 
Bello. 



Bible: Old Testament: Texts 
and Versions. 



John Frederick Stenning, M.A. 

Dean and Fellow of Wadham College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Aramaic. 
Lecturer in Divinity and Hebrew at Wadham College. v. . . 

r Baron; Baronet; 
John Horace Round, M.A., LL.D. (Edin.). J Battle Abbey Roll; 

Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage and") Bayeux Tapestry; " 

Pedigree; &c. [ Beauchamp. 

John Holland Rose, M.A., Litt.D. r 

Christ's College, Cambridge. Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge J Barras; 

University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I.; Napoleonic') Beauharnais, Eugene de.< ■ 

Studies; The Development of the European Nations; The Life of Pitt; &c. [_ 

John Malcolm Mitchell. f Bacon Francis (in Part)- 

Sometime Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London-^ „ , .' _ , ■ 

College (University of London). Joint editor of Grote's History of Greece. { Berkeley, George (in part). 

James George Joseph Penderel-Brodhurst. 
Editor of the Guardian (London). 

Sir James George Scott, K.C.I.E. 

Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan States. 
Handbook; The Upper Burma Gazetteer, &c. 

Jean Paul Hippolyte Emmanuel Adhemak Esmein. r 

Professor of Law in the University of Paris. Officer of the Legion of Honour. J Bailiff: Bailli; 
Member of the Institute of France. Author of Cours elimintaire d'histoire du droit") Basoche. 
f'anqais; &c. [ 



J Bed: Furniture; 
\Berain. 



Author of Burma, a J Bhamo 



X 

J. P. Pe. 

J. B. P. 

J. Sm.* 
J. S. F. 

J. T. Be. 
J.Vn. 
J. V. B. 
J. W. He. 

K.L. 

K.S. 

L.A. 
L.D.* 
L. J. S. 

L.V.* 
L. W. K. 

M. A. C. 

M. Br. 
M. D. Ch. 

H. 6. 
H. H. Ci 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

Rev. John Punnett Peters, Ph.D., D.D. , 

Canon Residentiary, Cathedral of New York. Formerly Professor of Hebrew, Bagdad: Vilayet; 
University of Pennsylvania. In charge of Expedition of University of Pennsylvania J Bagdad: City • 
conducting excavations at Nippur, 1888-1895. Author of Scriptures, Hebrew and Basra ' ' 

Christian; Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates; &c I 



Sir John Rahere Paget, Bart., K.C. 

Bencher of the Inner Temple. Formerly Gilbart Lecturer on Banking. Author of 
The Law of Banking; &c. 

John Smith, C.B. 

Formerly. Inspector-General in Companies' Liquidation, 
General in Bankruptcy. 



Banks and Banking: 

English Law. 



1890-1904, and Inspector- -j Bankruptcy, 



Author of The Apostolic ' 



John Smith Flett, D.Sc, F.G.S. 

Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edin- 
burgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby 
Medallist of the Geological Society of London. I 

John T. Bealby. [ 

Joint author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical "1 
Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet, &c. I 

Julien Vinson. , f 

Formerly Professor of Hindustani and Tamil at the Ecole des Langues Orientales, \ Basques {in part). 
Paris. Author of Le Basque et les langues mexicaines; &c. I 

James Vernon Bartlet, M.A., D.D. (St Andrews). 

Professor of Church History, Mansfield College, Oxford. 
Age; &c. 

James Wycliffe Headlam, M.A. 

Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education. Formerly 
Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Professor of Greek and Ancient History at " 
Queen's College, London. Author of Bismarck and the Foundation of the German 
Empire; &c. 

Rev. Kirsopp Lake, M.A. 

Lincoln College, Oxford. Professor of Early Christian Literature and New Testa- . 
ment Exegesis in the University of Leiden. Author of The Text oftlie New Testament; 
The Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus Christ ; &c. 

Kathleen Schlesinger. 

Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra. 

Lyman Abbott, D.D. 

See the biographical article: Abbott, L. 

Louis Marie Olivier Duchesne. 

See the biographical article: Duchesne, L. M. O. 

Leonard James Spencer, M.A., F.G.S. f Autunite; Axinite; 

Assistant, Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. I Azurite; Barytes; 
Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar, "j Barvtocalcite* Bauxite 



Basalt; 
Batholite. 

Baikal; 

Bessarabia (in part). 



Barnabas. 



Austria-Hungary: History ; 
Bamberger; Bebel; 
Benedetti; Beust. 

Bible: New Testament: Texts 
and Versions and Textual 
Criticism. 

Bagpipe; Banjo; 
Barbiton; Barrel-organ; 
Bass Clarinet; Basset Horn; 
Bassoon; Batyphone. 

Beecher, Henry Ward. 



Benedict (I.-X.) 



Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine. 
Luigi Villari. 



ItaHan Foreign Office (Emigration Dept.). Formerly Newspaper Correspondent J gassi Ueo* 



I Biotite. 



Azeglio; Bandiera, A. and E.; 



in East of Europe. Author of Italian Life in Town and Country; &c. 



I Bentivoglio, Giovanni. 



Leonard William King, M.A., F.S.A. 

Assistant to the Keeper of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities, British Museum. 
Lecturer in Assyrian at King's College, London. Conducted Excavations at 
Kuyunjik (Nineveh) for British Museum. Author of Assyrian Chrestomathy; ' 
Annals of the Kings of Assyria; Studies in Eastern History; Babylonian Magic and 
Sorcery; &c. 

Maurice A. Canney, M.A. r 

Assistant Lecturer in Semitic Languages in the University of Manchester. Formerly J 
Exhibitioner of St John's College, Oxford. Pusey and Ellerton Hebrew Scholar] Baur. 
(Oxford), 1892; Kennicott Hebrew Scholar, 1895; Houghton Syriac Prize, 1896. [ 



Babylonia and Assyria: 

Chronology. 



Marg*aret Bryant. 



Beaumont and Fletcher: 

Appendix. 



Sir Mackenzie Dalzell Chalmers, K.C.B., C.S.I. , M.A. 

Trinity College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Permanent Under-Secretary J BJU of Exchangee 
of State for Home Department. Author of Digest of the Law of Bills of Exchange ; &c. \ 

Moses G aster, Ph.D. (Leipzig). 

Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic Communities of England. Vice-President, Zionist 
Congress, 1898, 1899, 1900. Ilchester Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and By- *j Bassarab. 
zantine Literature, 1886 and 1891. Author of A New Hebrew Fragment of Ben- Sira; 
The Hebrew Version of the Secretum Secretorum of Aristotle. 

Montague Hughes Crackanthorpe, K.C, D.C.L. f 

Honorary Fellow, St John's College, Oxford. Bencher of Lincoln's Inn. President J tj q1 ,.-__ 5.. a „!,.•*„„«„„ 
of the Eugenics Education Society. Formerly Member of the General Council 1 Berm S »ea Aroiirauon. 
of the Bar and of the Council of Legal Education, and Standing Counsel to the I 
University of Oxford. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES xi 



M. Ja. Morris Jastrow, Ph.D. . <■ D ,• ■ 

Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania. Author ot Religion 
of the Babylonians and Assyrians; &c. 

M. P.* Leon Jacques Maxime Prinet. 

Auxiliary of the Institute of France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences). 
Author of L' Industrie du set en Franche-Comte. 



O.Br. 



R. 


A.* 




R. 


Ad. 




R. 


A. S. 


M 


R. 


C.J. 




R. 


Gn. 




R. 


H. Co 





Babylonia and Assyria: 
Proper Names; 

Babylonian and Assyrian 
Religion; Bel; Belit. 

Avaray; Bar-le-Due; 

Batarnay; Bauffremont; 

Beauharnais; Beaujeu; 
. Beauvillier; 

Bellegarde: Family. 

N. B. W. N. B. Wagle. . „ , ' f 

Formerly Lecturer on Sanskrit at the Robert Money Institution, Bombay. Vice- J 
President of the London Indian Society. Author of Industrial Development of j Bnau ua]l. 
India; &c. *- 

N. H. M. Rev. Newton Herbert Marshall., M.A., Ph.D. (Halle). J 

Minister of Heath Street Baptist Church, Hampstead, London. Author of Gegen- 1 Baptists. 
wartige Richlungen der Religionsphilosophie in England; Theology and Truth. I 

N. M. Norman McLean, M.A. f Bardaisan; 

Fellow, Lecturer and Librarian of Christ's College, Cambridge. University Lecturer J Bar-Hebraeus; 
in Aramaic. Examiner for the Oriental Languages Tripos and the Theological Bar-SallbT. 
Tripos at Cambridge. *- 

N. V. Joseph Marie Noel Valois. f 

Member of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. Honorary Archivist at J Basel, council oi; 

the Archives Nationales.. Formerly President of the Societe de l'Histoire de France Benedict XIII. {anti-pope). 

and of the Societe de l'Ecole de Chartes. >- 

N. W. T. Northcote Whitbridge Thomas, M.A. 

Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the < Automatism. 

Societe d' Anthropologic de Paris. Author of Thought Transference; Kinship and I 

Marriage in Australia; &c. 
O.Ba. Oswald Barron, F.S.A. S Beard; Berkeley {Family); 

Editor of The Ancestor, 1902-1905. L Bill {Weapon). 



Oscar Briliant. { Austria-Hungary: Statistics. 



0. Hr. Otto Henker, Ph.D. f Bln _, i n <;triimpnt 

On the Staff of the Carl Zeiss Factory, Jena, Germany. \ Binocular instrument. 

P. A. Paul Daniel Alphandery. f 

Professor of the History of Dogma, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Sorbonne, Paris, -s AutO-da-Fe. 
Author of Les Idees morales chez les heterodoxes lalines au debut du XIII s siecle. I 

P. A. A. Philip A. Ashworth, M.A., Doc. Juris. f Bavaria: Statistics; 

New College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Translator of H. R. von Gneist s History i Berlin. 
of the English Constitution. I 

P. A. K. Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin. J* Baikal; Baku; 

See the biographical article: Kropotkin, P. A. ]. Bessarabia {in part). 

P. C. M. Peter Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., D.Sc, LL.D. f 

Secretary to the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in Com- Biogenesis; 
parative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888-1891. -j Bloloev 
Examiner in Zoology to the University of London, 1903. Author of Outlines of I 5 '* 

Biology; &c. ' ^ 

P.C.Y. Philip Chesney Yorke M.A. { Balfour, Sir James. 

Magdalen College, Oxford. I ' 

P. Gi. Peter Giles, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D. f 

Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. University J B. 
Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philological | 
Society. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology; &c. I 

P. S. Philip Schidrowitz, Ph.D., F.C.S. [ 

Member of Council, Institute of Brewing; Member of Committee of Society of J Beer. 
Chemical Industry. Author of numerous articles on the Chemistry and Technology ] 
of Brewing, Distilling, &c. <- 

Robert Anchel. J Billaud-Varenne. 

Archivist of the Departement de l'Eure. t 

Robert Adamson, M.A., LL.D. J Bacon, Francis; 

See the biographical article: Adamson, Robert. 1 Bacon, KOger, Benese, 

I Berkeley, Bishop. 

Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A. f" Bashan - 

St John's College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Explora- < _ .!. .' 
tion Fund. Joint author of Excavations in Palestine, 1898-1900. • [ Betnienem. 

Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb, LL.D., D.C.L., Litt.D. J Bacchvlides 

See the biographical article : Jebb, Sir Richard C. \ y 

Sir Robert Giffen, F.R.S. fBagehot; 

See the biographical article: Giffen, Sir R. \ Balance of Trade. 

Rev. Robert Henry Charles, M.A., D.D., Litt.D. (Oxon.). r 

Grinfield Lecturer and Lecturer in Biblical Studies, Oxford. Fellow of the British _ . 

Academy. Formerly Senior Moderator of Trinity College, Dublin. Author and -j Barucn. 

Editor of Book of Enoch; Book of Jubilees; Apocalypse of Baruch; Assumption of I 

Moses ; A scension of Isaiah ; Testaments of XII. Patriarchs ; &c. 



Xll 




R. 


H.I. 


P 


R. 


J. M. 




R. 


L* 




R. 


L. S. 




R. 


M.* 





R. N. B. 



S. A. C. 

S.C. 
S. R. D. 
T. A. J. 

T. As. 

T. A. I. 
T. Ba. 

T. E. H. 



T. G. C. 


T. 


H. 


D. 


T. 


H. 


H. 


T. 


H. 


H.* 



T.L.P. 



T.O. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

Sir Robert Harry Inglis Palgrave, F.R.S. f 

Director of Barclay & Co., Ltd., Bankers. Editor of the Economist, 1871-1883. J Banks and Banking: 
Author of Notes on Banking in Great Britain and Ireland, Sweden, Denmark and 1 General. 
Hamburg; &c. Editor of Dictionary of Political Economy. I 

Ronald John McNeill, M.A. f 

Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of the St James's \ Beresford, John. 
Gazette (London). L 

Richard Lydekker/F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. f Avahi; Aye-Aye; 

Trinity College, Cambridge. Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, J Babirusa* 
1874-1882. Author of Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British 1 j» a ij nnn . 'opjivpr 
Museum ; The Deer of all Lands ; &c. I aa,oaoa > weaver. 

Robert Louis Stevenson. 
See the. biographical article: 



Stevenson, R. L. B. 

Robert Muir, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P. (Edin.). 

Professor of Pathology, University of Glasgow. 
Andrews, 1898-1899. Author of Manual of Bacteriology; &c. 



Beranger. 



Professor of Pathology at St { B * J*^ ***<**** 



Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1000). 

Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1 883-1909. Author of Scandinavia: the 
Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, is 13-1900 ; The First Romanovs, 
1613-1725; Slavonic Europe: the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1460 
to 1706; Charles XII. and the Collapse of the Swedish Empire; Gustavus III. and 
his Contemporaries ; The Pupils of Peter the Great ; &c. 

Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A. . r 

Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Lecturer and formerly Fellow, Gonville J 
and Caius College. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions; The Laws of Moses 1 
and Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; &c. I 

Sidney Colvin, M.A., Litt.D. j' 

See the biographical article: Colvin, Sidney. \ 



Bakdcz; Balassa; Banffy; 
Bar, Confederation of; 
Baross; Basil; 
Batnory; Batthyany; 
Bela III. and IV.; Bern; 
Bed thy; Bernstorff; 
Bestuzhev-Ryumin; 
Bethlen; Bezborodko; Biren, 

Baal; 
Benjamin. 



Samuel Rolles Driver, D.D., Litt.D. 

See the biographical article : Driver, S. R. 

Thomas Athol Joyce, M.A. 

Assistant in Department of Ethnography, 
Anthropological Institute. 



Baldovinetti; 
Bellini. 

Bible: Old Testament: 
and Chronology. 



Canon 



British Museum. Hon. 



Sec, Royall Beehuana. 



Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt. (Oxon.), F.S.A. 

Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ 
Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow (Oxford). Corresponding Member of the Imperial 
German Archaeological Institute. Author of the Classical Topography of the Roman 
Campagna; &c. 

Thomas Allan Ingram, M.A., LL.D. 
Trinity College, Dublin. 

Sir Thomas Barclay, M.P. 

' Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council of ., 
the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of 
International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910. 

Thomas Erskine Holland, K.C., D.C.L., LL.D. 

Fellow of the British Academy. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford. Formerly 
Professor of International Law in the University of Oxford. Bencher of Lincoln's . 
Inn. Author of Studies in International Law; The Elements of Jurisprudence; 
Alberici Gentilis de jure belli; The Laws of War on Land; Neutral Duties in a Mari- 
time War; &c. 

Thomas G. Carver, M.A., K.C. (d. 1906). 

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Cambridge. 8th Wrangler, 1871. Author of - 
Ore the Law Relating to the Carriage of Goods by Sea. 

Rev. Thomas Herbert Darlow, M.A. 

Literary Superintendent of the British and Foreign Bible Society. Sometime 
Scholar of Clare College, Cambridge. Author of Historical Catalogue of Printed 
• Editions of Holy Scriptures (vol. i. with H. G. Moule) ; &c. 

Thomas Henry Huxley, F.R.S. 

See the biographical article: Huxley, Thomas H. 

Sia Thomas Hungerford Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.Sc, F.R.G.S. 

Colonel in the Royal Engineers. Superintendent, Frontier Surveys, India, 1892- 
1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S. (London), 1887. H. M. Commissioner for the Persa- 
Beluch Boundary, 1896. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Gates of India; &c. 

Rev. Thomas Leslie Papillon, M.A. 

Hon. Canon of St Albans. Formerly Fellow, Dean and Tutor of New College, 
Oxford. Fellow of Merton College. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology ; &c. 

Thomas Okey. 

Examiner in Basket Work for the City of London Guilds and Institute. 



Auximum; Avella; 

Avellino; Avernus; Baiae; 

Bari; Barletta; Bassano; 

Belluno; Benevento; 

Bergamo; Bertinoro. 
("Bailiff; Bffl(tow); 
I Bill of Sale. 

Belligerency. 



Bentham, Jeremy. 



Average. 



Bible Societies. 



-J Biology (in part). 

' Badakshan; 
Bahrein Islands; 
Bajour; Balkh; 
Baluchistan; Bamian; 
Bela; Bhutan. 



Bell. 



Basket. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS TO ARTICLES 



-T1H 



ir. w. R. d. 

V. H. B. 
W. A. B. C 

W. A. G. 



W.A*P. 

W. Bo, 

W. B. Ca. 
W. C. P. 

W. E. D. 



w. 


E. 


G. 


w. 


H. 


Be. 


w. 


H 


Ha. 


w. 


J. 


H.* 


w. 


L. 


D. 


w. 


M 


S. 


w. 


P. 


C. 


w. 


P.J. 



W. P. R. 

W. R. L 

W.Sa. 



T. W. Rhys Davids, M.A., LL.D., Ph.D. 

Professor of Comparative Religion in the University of Manchester. Formerly 
Professor of Pali and Buddhist Literature, University College, London. Fellow of -j Bharahat. 
the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1885- 
1902. Author of Early Buddhism; Buddhist India; &c. 

Vernon Herbert Blackman, M.A., D.Sc. . 

Professor of Botany in the University of Leeds. Formerly Fellow of St John's -j Bacteriology: Botany. 
College, Cambridge. 

Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S., Ph.D. 

Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's 
College, Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature 
and in History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880-1889. 

Walter Armstrong Graham. 

His Siamese Majesty's Resident Commissioner for the Siamese Malay State of 
Kelantan. Commander, Order of the White Elephant. Member of the Burma - 
Civil Service, 1889-1903. Author of The French Roman Catholic Mission in Siam; 
Kelantan, a Handbook ; &c. 



Baden: Switzerland; 
Barcelonnette; Basel; 
Basses-AIpes; Beaulieu; 
Bellinzona; Bern; BiennS, 



Bangkok. 



Walter Alison Phillips, M.A. 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, 
Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; The War of Greek Independence; &c. 



Austria-Hungary: History 

(in part) ; 
Babeuf ; Balance of Pdwer; 
Baron; Bates; 

Bavaria: History; Beguines; 
Berlin: Congress and Treaty of; 
Bernard, St; Biretta. 



Author of i Basilides. 



Bee: Bee-keeping. 



Wilhelm Bousset, D.Th. 

Professor of New Testament Exegesis in the University of Gottingen. 
Das Wesen der Religion; The Antichrist Legend; &c. 

W. Broughton Cars. 

Formerly Editor of the British Bee Journal and the Bee-Keepers' Record. 

William Charles Por^LEWELL, M.Sc, A.M. I.C.E. (" 

Lecturer in Engineering in Manchester School of Technology (University of Man- s Bellows and Blowing Machines*. 

Chester). Author of Compressed Air; Heat Engines; &c. [_ 

William Ernest Dalby, M.A., M.Inst.CE., M.I.M.E. r ' 

Professor of Civil and Mechanical Engineering at the City and Guilds of London ■•>. 

Institute Central Technical College, South Kensington. Associate Member of the -j Bearings. ;» 

Institute of Naval Architects. Author of The Balancing of Engines; Valves and . ' 

Valve Gear Mechanisms ; &c. I 

Sir William Edmund Garstin, G.C.M.G. f 

Governing Director, Suez Canal Co. Formerly Inspector-General of Irrigation,-! Bahr-el-Ghazal (in part). 
Egypt. Adviser tc the Ministry of Public Works in Egypt, 1904-1908. (_ 

William Henry Bennett, M.A., D.D., D.Litt. (Cantab.). r 

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis in New and Hackney Colleges, London. J Balaam; 
Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. Lecturer in Hebrew at Firth | Rnefrehiil 



College, Sheffield. Author of Religion of the Post-Exilic Prophets; &c. 

William Henry Hadow, M.A., Mus.Doc. 

Principal, Armstrong College, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of . 
Worcester College, Oxford. Member of Council, Royal College of Music. Editor 
Oxford History of Music. Author of Studies in Modern Music ; &c. 

William James Hughan. 

Past Senior Grand Deacon of Freemasons of England, 1874. 
of Grand Lodges of Egypt, Quebec and Iona, &c. 



Beelzebub. 



Bach, K. P. E. 



Hon. Senior Warden 4 Banker-Marks. 



William Leslie Davidson, LL.D. 

Professor of Logic and Metaphysics, Aberdeen University. Author of The Logic of - 
Definition; Christian Ethics; &c. Editor of Alexander Bain's Autobiography. 

William Milligan Sloane, Ph.D., LL.D. 



Bain, Alexander. 



Professor of History, Columbia University, New York. Secretary to George) n ,, „ 

Bancroft while American Ambassador in Berlin, 1872-1875. Author of Life of] Bancr0It > beorge 



f Bath, Williarfl PuMeney, 
I Marquess of. ' 



High Bailiff of County Courts, -l Barrie, J. M, 



Napoleon Bonaparte. 

William Prideaux Courtney. 

See the article: Courtney, L. H., Baron. 

William Price James. 

University College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. 
Cardiff. Author of Romantic Professions ; &c. 

Hon. William Pember Reeves. ' r 

Director of London School of Economics. Agent-General and High Commissioner J u-na-.. i„v,» 
for New Zealand, 1896-1909. Minister of Education, Labour and Justice, New 1 Ballanee » JOnnj 
Zealand, 1891-1896. Author of The Long White Cloud, a History of New Zealand ; &c. I 

W. R. Lethaby, F.S.A. 

Principal of the Central School of Arts and Crafts under the London County Council. 
Author of Architecture, Mysticism and Myth; &c. 

William Sanday, D.D., LL.D., Litt.D. 



Baptistery. 



Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity, and Canon of Christ Church, Oxford. Chap- 
lain in Ordinary to His Majesty the King. Hon. Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford. \ Bible: New Testament: Canon 
tellow ot the British Academy. Author of Inspiration (Bampton Lecture, 1893); 
Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans; &c. I. 



XIV 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS TO ARTICLES 



W.T.Ca, 
W.T.T.- 

W.W. 

W.We. 

W.Wr. 

W.R.S. 
W.W.R. 



William Thomas Calman, D.Sc, F.Z.S. 

Assistant in charge of Crustacea, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. 
Author of " Crustacea " in Lankester's Treatise on Zoology. 

D. Sir William Turner Thiselton-Dyer, F.R.S., K.C.M.G., C.I.E., D.Sc. LL.D., 
Ph.D., F.L.S. 
Hon. Student of Christ Church, Oxford. Director, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, . 
1885-1905. Botanical Adviser to Secretary of State for Colonies, 1902-1906. 
Joint-author of Flora of Middlesex. Editor of Flora Capenses and Flora of Tropical 
Africa. 

William Wallace, M.A. 

See the biographical article: Wallace, William (1844-1897). 

Rev. Wentworth Webster (d. 1906). 
Author of Basque Legends; &c. 



Barnacle. 



Bentham, George. 



J" Averroes; 
1 Avicenna. 

f Basque Provinces; 
\ Basques. 

Bacon, Leonard. 



Williston Walker, Ph.D., D.D. 

Professor of Church History, Yale University. Author of History of the Congre- 
gational Churches in the United States ; The Reformation ; John Calvin ; &c. 

W. Robertson Smith, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: Smith, William Robertson. 

William Walker Rockwell, Lic.Theol. f vrt VTIT vt .. 

Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York, -j Benedict Al., All., Xlll., Al V 
Author of Die Doppelehe des Landgrafen Philipp von Hessen. L 



{ 



Baal. 



PRINCIPAL UNSIGNED ARTICLES 



Azo Compounds. 

Azoimide. 

Azores. 

Baader, F. X. 

Baber. 

Baby-Farming. 

Bachelor. 

Backgammon. 

Baden: Grand Duchy. 

Badger. 

Badminton. 

Bagatelle. 

Bahamas. 

Balaklava. 

Bale, John. 

Baliol. 

Ballet. 

Ballot. 

Balneotherapeutics. 

Bamboo. 

Ban. 

Banana. 

Bank-notes. 

Barbados. 

Barbarossa. 

Barbed Wire. 

Barcelona. 

Barclay, Alexander. 

Barere de Vieuzac. 

Barium. 

Barlaam and Josaphat. 

Barley. 



Barnes, William. 
Barometer. 
Barrister. 
Barrow, Isaac. 
Bastiat, F. 
Bastille. 
Baths. 
Battery. 
Baudelaire. 
Bautzen. 
Baxter, Richard. 
Bayard, P. T. 
Bazaine. 
Bean. 
Bear. 

Bear - Baiting and Bull- 
Baiting. 
Beaton. 

Beaufort: Family. 
Beaufort, Henry. 
Beaumarchais. 
Beaumont: Family. 
Becher. 

Beddoes, Thomas Loveil. 
Bedford, Earls and Dukes of. 
Bedfordshire. 
Bedouins. 
Beecher, Lyman. 
Behar. 
Beheading. 
Bejart. 
Belfast: Ireland. 



Belfort: Town. 
Bell, Sir Charles. 
Belladonna. 
Bellarmine. 
Bellary. 

Belle-Isle, C. L. A. F., Due de. 
Benares. 
Benedek. 
Benediction. 
Benefice. 
Benevolence. 
Bengal. 
Bengel. 
Benin. 

Benjamin (Judah Philip). 
Benson (Archbishop of Canter- 
bury). 
Bentley, Richard. 
Benton. 
Benzaldehyde. 
Benzene. 
Benzoic Acid. 
Berar. 
Berbers. 
Berengarius. 
Beresford, Lord Charles. 
Beresford, Viscount. 
Bergen. 
Beri-Beri. 
Berkshire. 
Berlioz. 
Bermondsey. 



Bermudas. 

Bernhardt, Sarah. 

Bernoulli. 

Berthelot. 

Berwick (Duke of). 

Berwickshire. 

Berwick-upon-Tweed. 

Beryllium. 

Besancon. 

Bessemer, Sir Henry. 

Bet and Betting. 

Betrothal. 

Beyle. 

Bezique. 

Bhagalpur. 

Bible Christians. 

Bichromates and Chromates. 

Bidder. 

Bigamy. 

Bijapur. 

Bikanir. 

Bilaspur. 

Bilbao. 

Billiards. 

Binomial. 

Birch. 

Birkenhead. 

Birmingham. 

Birney, James G. 

Biron, Armand de Gontaut. 

Birth. 

Biscay (Vizcaya). 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



VOLUME III 



AUSTRIA, LOWER (Ger. Niederosterreich or Osterreich unter 
der Enns, " Austria below the river Enns "), an archduchy and 
crownland of Austria, bounded E. by Hungary, N. by Bohemia 
and Moravia, W. by Bohemia and Upper Austria, and S. by 
Styria. It has an area of 7654 sq. m. and is divided into two 
parts by the Danube, which enters at its most westerly point, 
and leaves it at its eastern extremity, near Pressburg. North 
of this line is the low hilly country, known as the Waldviertel, 
which lies at the foot and forms the continuation of the Bohemian 
and Moravian plateau. Towards the W. it attains in the Weins- 
berger Wald, of which the highest point is the Peilstein, an altitude 
of 3478 ft., and descends towards the valley of the Danube 
through the Gfohler Wald (2368 ft.) and the Manhartsgebirge 
(1758 ft.). Its most south-easterly offshoots are formed by the 
Bisamberg (1180 ft.), near Vienna, just opposite the Kahlenberg. 
The southern division of the province is, in the main, mountainous 
and hilly, and is occupied by the Lower Austrian Alps and their 
offshoots. The principal groups are: the Voralpe (5802 ft.), the 
Durrenstein (6156 ft.), the Otscher (6205 ft.), the Raxalpe 
(6589 ft:) and the Schneeberg (6806 ft.), which is the highest 
summit in the whole province. To the E. of the famous ridge 
of Semmering are the groups of the Wechsel (5700 ft.) and the 
Leithagebirge (1674 ft.). The offshoots of the Alpine group 
are formed by the Wiener Wald, which attains an altitude of 
2929 ft. in the Schopfl and ends N.W. of Vienna in the Kahlen- 
berg (1404 ft.) and Leopoldsberg (1380 ft.). 

Lower Austria belongs to the watershed of the Danube, which 
with the exception of the Lainsitz, which is a tributary of the 
Moldau, receives all the other rivers of the province. Its principal 
affluents on the right are: the Enns, Ybbs, Erlauf, Pielach, 
Traisen, Wien, Schwechat, Fischa and Leitha; on the left the 
Isper, Krems, Kamp, Gollersau and the March. Besides the 
in. 1 



Danube, only the Enns and the March are navigable rivers. 
Amongst the small Alpine lakes, the Erlaufsee and the Lunzer 
See are worth mentioning. Of its mineral springs, the best 
known are the sulphur springs of Baden, the iodine springs of 
Deutsch-Altenburg, the iron springs of Pyrawarth, and the 
thermal springs of Voslau.. In general the climate, which varies 
with the configuration of the surface, is moderate and healthy, 
although subject to rapid changes of temperature. Although 
43 '4 % of the total area is arable land, the soil is only of moderate 
fertility and does not satisfy the wants of this thickly-populated 
province. Woods occupy 34-2%, gardens and meadows 13-1% 
and pastures 3-2%. Vineyards occupy 2% of the total area 
and produce a good wine, specially those on the sunny slopes 
of the Wiener Wald. Cattle-rearing is not well developed, but 
game and fish are plentiful. Mining is only of slight importance, 
small quantities of coal and iron-ore being extracted in the 
Alpine foothill region; graphite is found near Miihldorf. From 
an industrial point of view, Lower Austria stands, together with 
Bohemia and Moravia, in the front rank amongst the Austrian 
provinces. The centre of its great industrial activity is the 
capital, Vienna (q.v.) ; but in the region of the Wiener Wald 
up to the Semmering, owing to its many waters, which can be 
transformed into motive power, many factories are spread. The 
principal industries are, the metallurgic and textile industries in 
all their branches, milling, brewing and chemicals; paper, 
leather and silk; cloth, objets de luxe and millinery; physical 
and musical instruments; sugar, tobacco factories and food- 
stuffs. The very extensive commerce of the province has also 
its centre in Vienna. The population of Lower Austrio in 1900 
was 3,100,493, which corresponds to 405 inhabitants per sq. m. 
It is, therefore, the most densely populated province of Austria. 
According to the language in common use, 95% of the population 



AUSTRIA, UPPER— AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



was German, 4-66 % was Czech, and the remainder was composed 
of Poles,^>lovaks, Ruthenians, Croatians and Italians. According 
to religion 92-47 % of the inhabitants were Roman Catholics; 
S"°7% were Jews; 2-11% were Protestants and the remainder 
belonged to the Greek church. In the matter of education, 
Lower Austria is one of the most advanced provinces of Austria, 
and 99-8% of the children of school-going age attended school 
regularly in 1900. The local diet is composed of 78 members, 
of which the archbishop of Vienna, the bishop of St Polten and 
the rector of the Vienna University are members ex officio. 
Lower Austria sends 64 member., to the Imperial Reichsrat at 
Vienna. For administrative purposes, the province is divided 
into 22 districts and three towns with autonomous munici- 
palities: Vienna (1,662,269), the capital (since 1905 including 
Floridsdorf, 36,599), Wiener-Neustadt (28,438) and Waidhofen 
on the Ybbs (4447). Other principal towns are: Baden(i2,447), 
Bruck on the Leitha (5134), Schwechat (8241), Korneuburg 
(8298), Stokerau (10,213), Krems (12,657), Modling (15,304), 
Reichenau (7457), Neunkirchen (10,831), St Polten (14,510) 
and Klosterneuburg (11,595), 

The original archduchy, which included Upper Austria, is the 
nucleus of the Austrian empire, and the oldest possession of 
the house of Habsburg in its present dominions. 

See F. Umlauft, Das Erzherzogtum Osterreich unter der Enns, 
vol. i. of the collection Die Lander Osterreich- Ungarns in Wort und 
Bild (Vienna, 1 881-1889, 15 vols.); Die osterreichisch-ungarische 
Monarchie in Wert und Bild, vol. 4, (Vienna, 1886-1902, 24 vols.);. 
M. Vansca, Cesch. Nieder- u. g/ber-Qsterreibhs (in Beeren's Staaten- 
gesch., Gotha, 1965); 

AUSTRIA, UPPER (Ger. Ober osterreich or Osterreich ob der 
Enns, " Austria above the river Enns "), an archduchy and 
crown-land of Austria, bounded N. by Bohemia, W. by Bavaria, 
S. by Salzburg and Styria, and E. by Lower Austria. It has an 
area of 4631 sq. m. Upper Austria is divided by the Danube 
into two unequal parts. Its smaller northern part is a prolonga- 
tion of the southern angle of the Bohemian forest and contains 
as culminating points the Plbcklstein (4510 ft.) and the Sternstein 
(3690 ft.). The southern part belongs to the region of the 
Eastern Alps, containing the Salzkammergut and Upper Austrian 
Alps, which are found principally in the district of Salzkammergut 
(q.v.). To the north of these mountains, stretching towards the 
Danube, is the Alpine foothill region, composed partly of terraces 
and partly of swelling undulations, of which the most important 
is the Hausruckwald. This is a wooded chain of mountains, 
with many branches, rich in brown coal and culminating in the 
Goblberg (2950 ft.). Upper Austria belongs to the watershed 
of the Danube, which flows through it from west to east, and 
receives here on the right the Inn with the Salzach, the Traun, 
the Enns with the Steyr and on its left the Great and Little Mtihl 
rivers. The Schwarzenberg canal between the Great Muhl and 
the Moldau establishes a direct navigable route between the 
Danube and the Elbe. The climate of Upper Austria, which 
varies according to the altitude, is on the whole moderate; it is 
somewhat severe in the north, but is mild in Salzkammergut. 
The population of the duchy in 1900 was 809,918, which is 
equivalent to 174-8 inhabitants per sq. m. It has the greatest 
density of population of any of the Alpine provinces. The 
inhabitants are almost exclusively of German stock and Roman 
Catholics. For administrative purposes, Upper Austria is 
divided into two autonomous municipalities, Linz (58,778) the 
capital, and Steyr (17,592) and 12 districts. Other principal 
towns areWels (12,187), Ischl (9646) and Gmunden (7126). The 
local diet, of which the bishop of Linz is a member ex officio, is 
composed of 50 members and the duchy sends 22 members to 
the Reichsrat at Vienna. The soil in the valleys and on the 
lowe* slopes of the hills is fertile, indeed 35-08% of the whole 
area is arable. Agriculture is well developed and relatively 
large quantities of the principal cereals are produced. Upper 
Austria has the largest proportion of meadows in all Austria, 
1 8"S4%, while 2-49% is lowland and Alpine pasturage. Of the 
remainder, woods occupy 34-02 %, gardens 1 -99 % and 4-93 % is 
unproductive. Cattle-breeding is also in a very advanced stage 
and together with the timber-trade forms a considerable resource 



of the province. The principal mineral wealth of Upper Austria 
is salt, of which it extracts nearly 50 % of the total Austrian 
production. Other important products are lignite, gypsum and 
a variety of valuable stones and clays. There are about thirty 
mineral springs, the best known being the salt baths of Ischl 
and the iodine waters at Hall. The principal industries are the 
iron and metal manufactures, chiefly centred at Steyr. Next in 
importance are the machine, linen, cotton and paper manu- 
factures, the milling, brewing and distilling industries and 
shipbuilding. The principal articles of export are salt, stone, 
timber, live-stock, woollen and iron wares and paper. 

See Edlbacher, Landeskunde von Ober osterreich (Linz, 2nd ed., 
1883) ; Vansca, op. cit. in the preceding article. 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, or the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy 
(Ger. Osterreichisch-ungarische Monarchie or Osterreichisck- 
ungarisches Reich), the official name of a country situated in 
central Europe, bounded E. by Russia and Rumania, S. by 
Rumania, Servia, Turkey and Montenegro, W. by the Adriatic 
Sea, Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, and the German Empire, 
and N. by the German Empire and Russia. It occupies about 
the sixteenth part of the total area of Europe, with an area (1905) 
of 239,977 sq. m. The monarchy consists of two independent 
states: the kingdoms and lands represented in the council of 
the empire {Reichsrat), unofficially called Austria (q.v.) or 
Cisleithania; and the " lands of St Stephen's Crown," un- 
officially called Hungary (q.v.) or Transleithania. It received 
its actual name by the diploma of the emperor Francis Joseph I. 
of the 14th of November 1868, replacing the name of the Austrian 
Empire under which the dominions under his sceptre were 
formerly known. The Austro-Hungarian monarchy is very 
often called unofficially the Dual Monarchy. It had in 1901 a 
population of 45,405,267 inhabitants, comprising therefore 
within its borders, about one-eighth of the total population of 
Europe. By the Berlin Treaty of 1878 the principalities of 
Bosnia and Herzegovina with an area of 19,702 sq. m., and a 
population (1895) of 1,591,036 inhabitants, owning Turkey as 
suzerain, were placed under the administration of Austria- 
Hungary, and their annexation in 1908 was recognized by the 
Powers in 1909, so that they became part of the dominions 
of the monarchy. 

Government.— Thepresent constitution of the Austro-Hungarian 
monarchy (see Austria) is based on the Pragmatic Sanction of 
the emperor Charles VI., first promulgated on the 19th of April 
1 7 13, whereby the succession to the throne is settled in the 
dynasty of Habsburg-Lorraine, descending by right of primo- 
geniture and lineal succession to male heirs, and, in case of their 
extinction, to the female line, and whereby the indissolubility 
and indivisibility of the monarchy are determined; is based) 
further, on the diploma of the emperor Francis Joseph L of the 
20th of October i860, whereby the constitutional form of 
government is introduced; and, lastly, on the so-called Ausgleich 
or "Compromise," concluded on the 8th of February 1867, 
whereby the relations between Austria and Hungary were 
regulated. 

The two separate states — Austria and Hungary — are com- 
pletely independent of each other, and each has its own parlia- 
ment and its own government. The unity of the monarchy is 
expressed in the common head of the state, who bears the title 
Emperor of Austria and Apostolic King of Hungary,, and. in the 
common administration of a series of affairs, which affect both 
halves of the Dual Monarchy. These are: (1) foreign affairs, 
including diplomatic and consular representation abroad; 
(2) the army, including the navy, but excluding the annual 
voting of recruits, and the special army of each state; (3) finance 
in so far as it concerns joint expenditure. 

For the administration of these common affairs there are 
three joint ministries: the ministry of foreign affairs and of the 
imperial and royal house, the ministry of war, and the ministry 
of finance. It must be noted that the authority of the joint 
ministers is restricted to common affairs, and that they are 
not allowed to direct or exercise any influence on affairs of govern- 
ment affecting separately one of the halves of the monarchyi 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



3 



The minister of foreign affairs conducts the international rela- 
tions of the Dual Monarchy, and can conclude international 
treaties. But commercial treaties, and such state treaties as 
impose burdens on the state, or parts of the state, or involve 
a change of territory, require the parliamentary assent of both 
states. The minister of war is the head for the administration of 
all military affairs, except those of the Austrian Landwehr and of 
the Hungarian Honveds, which are committed to the ministries 
for national defence of the two respective states. But the 
supreme command of the army is vested in the monarch, who 
has the power to take all measures regarding the whole army. 
It follows, therefore, that the total armed power of the Dual 
Monarchy forms a whole under the supreme command of the 
sovereign. The minister of finance has charge of the finances of 
common affairs, prepares the joint budget, and administers the 
joint state debt. (Till 1900 the provinces of Bosnia and Herze- 
govina were also administered by the joint minister of finance, 
excepting matters exclusively dependent on the minister of war.) 
For the control of the common finances, there is appointed a 
joint supreme court of accounts, which audits the accounts of 
the joint ministries. 

Budget. — Side by side with the budget of each state of the Dual 
Monarchy, there is a common budget, which comprises the expendi- 
ture necessary for the common affairs, namely for the conduct of 
foreign affairs, for the army, and for the ministry of finance. The 
revenues Of the joint budget consist of the revenues of the joint 
ministries, the net proceeds of the customs, and the qUota, or the 
proportional contributions of the two states. This quota is fixed 
for a period of years, and generally coincides with the duration of 
the customs and commercial treaty. Until 1897 Austria contri- 
buted 70 %, and Hungary 30 % of the joint expenditure, remaining 
after -deduction of the common revenue. It was then decided that 
from 1897 to July 1907 the quota should be 66J| for Austria, and 
33A for Hungary. In 1907 Hungary's contribution was raised to 
36-4 %. Of the total charges 2 % is first of all debited to Hungary 
on account of the incorporation with this state of the former military 
frontier. 

The Budget estimates for the common administration were as 
follows in 1905:— 



Revenue — 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs 
Ministry of War 
Ministry of Finance 
Board of Control 
The Customs 



£21,167 

305,907 

4,870 

18 

4,780,000 



Proportional contributions 15,650,448 

Total . . £20,762,410 
Expenditure — • 

Ministry of Foreign Affairs .... £485,480 
Ministry of War : — 

Army 12,679,160 

Navy 2,306,100 

Ministry of Finance 177,000 

Board of Control 13,250 

Extraordinary Military Expenditure 4,785,500 

Extraordinary Military Expenditure in Bosnia 315,920 



Total 



• £20,762,410 



The following table gives in thousands sterling the joint budget 
for the years 1875-1905: — 

Expenditure. 



DeR— Besides the debts of each state of the Dual Monarchy, 
there is a general debt, which is borne jointly by Austria and Hun- 
gary. The following table gives in millions sterling the amount of 
the general debt for the years 1875^,1905:— 



1875- 


1885. 


1895. 


1900. 


1905- 


232-41 


231-02 


229-67 


226-81 


224-31 





1875- 


1885. 


1895- 


1900. 


1905. 


Ministry of Foreign Affairs 
Ministry of War (Army and 

Navy) 

Ministry of Finance 
Supreme Court of Accounts . 

Total 


396 

9005-4 

154-2 
10-5 


3-68-7 

10,085 • 

167-2 

io-6 


333 

12,539 
170-4 
10-7 


433-4 

13,887-5 
175 
12-5 


493-8 

18,087-7 

177-1 

13-3 


9566-1 


10,631-5 


13,053-1 


14-508-4 


20,430-3 



Revenue. 



For the above Departments 

Customs 

Proportional Contributions 

Total 


432 
997-4 
8136-7 


258-2 

402-2 

9971-1 


260-7 
4476 
83164 


260-3 
5202-3 
9045-8 


331-9 

4799-7 

15,650-4 


9566-1 


10,631-5 


13,053-1 


14,508-4 


20,430-3 



Delegations.— The constitutional right of voting money 
applicable to the common affairs and of its political control 
is exercised by the Delegations, which consist each of sixty 
members, chosen for one year, one-third of them by the Austrian 
Herrenhaus (Upper House) and the Hungarian Table of Magnates 
(Upper House), and two- thirds of them by the Austrian and the 
Hungarian Houses of Representatives. The delegations are 
annually summoned by the monarch alternately to Vienna and 
to Budapest. Each delegation has its separate sittings, both 
alike public. Their decisions are reciprocally communicated 
in writing, and, in case of non-agreement, their deliberations 
are renewed. Should three such interchanges be made without 
agreement, a common plenary sitting is held of an equal number 
of both delegations; and these collectively, without discussion, 
decide the question by common vote. The common decisions 
of both houses require for their validity the sanction of the 
monarch. Each delegation has the right to formulate resolutions 
independently, and to call to account and arraign the common 
ministers. In the exercise of their office the members of both 
delegations are irresponsible, enjoying constitutional immunity. 

Army. — The military system of the Austro-Hungarian 
monarchy is similar in both states, and rests since 1868 upon the 
principle of the universal and personal obligation of the citizen 
to bear arms. Its military force is composed of the common 
army (K. und K.); the special armies, namely the Austrian 
(K.K.) Landwehr, and the Hungarian Honveds, which are 
separate national institutions, and the Landsturm or levy-in- 
mass. As stated above, the common army stands under the 
administration of the joint minister of war, while the special 
armies are under the administration of the respective ministries 
of national defence. The yearly contingent of recruits for the 
army is fixed by the military bills voted by the Austrian and 
Hungarian parliaments, and is generally determined on the 
basis of the population, according to the last census returns. 
It amounted in 1905 to 103,100 men, of which Austria furnished 
59,211 men, and Hungary 43,889. Besides 10,000 men are 
annually allotted to the Austrian Landwehr, and 12,500 to the 
Hungarian Honveds. The term of service is 2 years (3 -years in 
the cavalry) with the colours, 7 or 8 in the reserve and 2 in the 
Landwehr; in the case of men not drafted to the active army 
the same total period of service is spent in various special 
reserves. 

For the military and administrative service of the army the Dual 
Monarchy is divided into 16 military territorial districts (15 of which 
correspond to the 15 army corps) and 108 supplementary districts 
(105 for the army, and 3 for the navy). In 1902, since which year no 
material change was made in the formal organization of the army, 
there were 5 cavalry divisions and 31 in- 
fantry divisions, formed in 15 army corps, 
which are located as follows: — I. Cracow, II. 
Vienna, III. Graz, IV. Budapest, V. Press- 
burg, VI. Kaschau, VII. Temesvar, VIII. 
Prague, IX. Josefstadt, X. Przemysl, XI. 
Lemberg, XII. Herrmannstadt, XIII. Agram, 
XIV. Innsbruck, XV. Serajewo. In addition 
there is the military district of Zara. The 
usual strength of the corps is, 2 infantry divi- 
sions (4 brigades, 8 or 9 regiments, 32 or 36 
battalions), 1 cavalry brigade (18 squadrons), 
and 1 artillery brigade (16- 18 batteries or 
128-144 field-guns), besides technical and 
departmental units and in some cases fortress 
artillery regiments. The infantry is organized 
into line regiments, Jager and Tirolese regi- 
ments, the cavalry into dragoons, lancers, 
Uhlans and hussars, the artillery into regi- 
ments. The Austrian Landwehr (which re- 
tains the old designation K.K,., formerly 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



applied to the Austrian regular army) is organized in 8 divisions of 
varying strength, the " Royal Hungarian " Landwehr or Honveds 
in 7 divisions, both Austrian and Hungarian Landwehr having in 
addition cavalry (Uhlans and hussars) and artillery. It is probable 
that a Landwehr or Honveds division will, in war, form part of 
each army corps except in the case of the Vienna corps, which has 
3 divisions in peace. The remaining men of military age (up to 42) 
as usual form the Landsturm. It is to be noted that this Land- 
sturm comprises many men who would elsewhere be classed as 
Landwehr. 

The strength of the Austro-Hunganan army on a peace tooting 
was as follows in 1905: — 



Infantry — 

Common Army . 

Austrian Landwehr . 

Hungarian Honveds 
Cavalry — 

Common Army . 

Austrian Landwehr . 

Hungarian Honveds 
Field Artillery . . . 
Fortress Artillery . 
Technical troops 
(Pioneers, and Railway and 
Telegraph Regiment) 

Transport Service 

Sanitary Service . 

Total . . . 

Belonging to the 
Common Army . 
Austrian Landwehr . 
Hungarian Honveds 



Officers. 



10,801 
1,883 
2,258 

1,890 
170 

390 

1,630 

408 

588 



461 

85 



20,564 



15,863 
2,053 
2,648 



Men. Horses. 



187,604 

23.905 
21,149 

45,486 
1,861 
4,170 

27,612 
7,722 
9.935 



4.312 
3,062 



336,818 



285,733 
25,766 

25.319 



1,152 
174 
262 

40,740 
1,282 

3.5io 

14.520 

131 

19 



3.097 



64,887 



59.659 
i,456 
3,772 



Guns. 



1048 



1048 



1048 



The troops stationed in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1905 (376 
officers and 6372 men) are included in the total for the common 

The peace strength of the active army in combatants is thus about 
-550 000 officers and men, inclusive of the two Landwehrs and of the 
Austrian " K.K." guards, the Hungarian crown guards, the gen- 
darmerie, &c. The numbers of the Landsturm and the war strength 
of the whole armed forces are not published. It is estimated that 
the first line army in war would consist of 460,000 infantry, 49,000 
cavalry 78,000 artillery, 21,000 engineers, &c, beside train and non- 
combatant soldiers. The Landwehr and Honved would yield 2 1 9.000 
infantry and 18,000 cavalry, and other reserves 223,000 men. These 
figures give an approximate total strength of 1,147,000, not inclusive 

of Landsturm. .,„.,.■. . , , . u 

Fortifications. — The principal fortifications in Austria-Hungary 
are- Cracow and Przemysl in Galicia; Komarom, the centre of the 
inland fortifications, Petervarad, O-Arad and Temesvar in Hungary ; 
Seraiewo, Mostar and Bilek in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The Alpine 
frontiers, especially those in Tirol, have numerous fortifications, 
whose centre is formed by Trent and Franzensfeste ; while all the 
military roads leading into Carinthia have been provided with strong 
defensive works, as at Malborgeth, Predil Pass, &c. The two capitals, 
Vienna and Budapest, are not fortified. On the Adriatic coast, the 
naval harbour of Pola is strongly fortified with sea and land defences ; 
then come Trieste, and several places in Dalmatia, notably Zara and 
Cattaro. . . . . ^ , . 

Navy.— The Austro-Hunganan navy is mainly a coast defence 
force and includes also a flotilla of monitors for the Danube. It is 
administered by the naval department of the ministry of war. It 
consisted in 1905 of 9 modern battleships, 3 armoured cruisers, 5 
cruisers, 4 torpedo gunboats, 20 destroyers and 26 torpedo boats. 
There was in hand at the same time a naval programme to build 12 
armourclads, 5 second-class cruisers, 6 third-class cruisers, and a 
number of torpedo boats. The headquarters of the fleet are at Pola, 
which is the principal naval arsenal and harbour of Austria ; while 
another great naval station is Trieste. 

Trade. — On the basis of the customs and commercial agreement 
between Austria and Hungary, concluded in 1867 and renewable 
every ten years, the following affairs, in addition to the common 
affairs of the monarchy, are in both states treated according to the 
same principles :— Commercial affairs, including customs legislation ; 
legislation on the duties closely connected with industrial production 
— on beer, brandy, sugar and mineral oils; determination of legal 
tender and coinage, as also of the principles regulating the Austro- 
Hungarian Bank; ordinances in respect of such railways as affect 
the interests of both states. In conformity with the customs and 
commercial compact between the two states, renewed in 1899, 
the monarchy constitutes one identical customs and commercial 
territory, inclusive of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the principality 
of Liechtenstein. ' , . 

The foreign trade of the Austro-Hunganan monarchy is shown in 
the following table : — 



Year. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


1900 


£70,666,000 


£80,916,000 


1901 


68,833,000 


78,541,000 


1902 


71,666,000 


79,708,000 


1903 


78,200,000 


88,600,000 


1904 


85,200,000 


86,200,000 


1905 


89,430,000 


93,500,000 



The following tables give the foreign trade of the Austro-Hungarion 
monarchy as regards raw material and manufactured goods : — 

Imports. 



Articles. 


Value in Millions Sterling. 


1900. 


1901. 


1902. 


1903. 


1904. 


Raw material (including "1 












articles of food; raw 












material for agriculture >• 


41-5 


40-5 


41-8 


45-9 


51-9 


and industry ; and mining 












and smelting products) J 












Semi-manufactured goods . 


9-6 


9-b 


10-3 


io-6 


io-8 


Manufactured goods. 


19-5 


18-7 


19-5 


21-6 


22-5 



Exports. 










Articles. 


Value in Millions Sterling. 


1900.. 


1901. 


1902. 


1903. 


1904. 


Raw material (as above) 
Semi-manufactured goods . 
Manufactured goods. 


34-1 

12-6 

34-2 


34-i 
n-i 

33-3 


35-8 
ii'i 

32-8 


39 
12-4 

37-2 


35-3 

12-6 

38-3 



The most important place of derivation and of destination for the 
Austro-Hungarian trade is the German empire with about 40 % 
of the imports, and about 60 % of the exports. Next in importance 
comes Great Britain, afterwards India, Italy, the United States of 
America, Russia, France, Switzerland, Rumania, the Balkan states 
and South America in about the order named. The principal articles 
of import are cotton and cotton goods, wool and woollen goods, silk 
and silk goods, coffee, tobacco and metals. The principal articles of 
export are wood, sugar, cattle, glass and glassware, iron and iron- 
ware, eggs, cereals, millinery, fancy goods, earthenware and pottery, 
and leather goods. 

The Austro-Himiarian Bank. — Common to the two states of the 
monarchy is the " Austro-Hungarian Bank," which possesses a legal 
exclusive right to the issue of bank-notes. It was founded in 1816, 
and had the title of the Austrian National Bank until 1878, when it 
received its actual name. In virtue of the new bank statute of the 
year 1899 the bank is a joint-stock company, with, a stock of 
£8,780,000. The bank's notes of issue must be covered to the extent 
of two-fifths by legal specie (gold and current silver) in reserve; 
the rest of the paper circulation, according to bank usage. The 
state, under certain conditions, takes a portion of the clear profits of 
the bank. The management of the bank and the supervision exercised 
over it by the state are established on a footing of equality, both 
states having each the same influence. The accounts of the bank at 
the end of 1900 were as follows: capital, £8,750,000; reserve fund, 
£428,250; note circulation, £62,251,000; cash, £50,754,000. In 
1907 the reserve fund was £548,041; note circulation, £84,501,000; 
cash, 1^60,036,625. The charter of the bank, which expired in 1897, 
was renewed until the end of 1910. In the Hungarian ministerial 
crisis of 1909 the question of the renewal of the charter played a 
conspicuous part, the more extreme members of the Independence 
party demanding the establishment of separate banks for Austria 
and Hungary with, at most, common superintendence (see History, 
below). (O- BR.) 

History 

I. The 'Whole Monarchy. 
The empire of Austria, as the official designation of the 
territories ruled by the Habsburg monarchy, dates back only to 
1804, when Francis II., the last of the Holy Roman ThetltIe 
emperors, proclaimed himself emperor of Austria as "Emperor 
Francis I. His motive in doing so was to guard °^ astrlg „ 
against the great house of Habsburg being relegated 
to a position inferior to the parvenus Bonapartes, in the event 
of the final collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, or of the possible 
election of Napoleon as his own successor on the throne of 
Charlemagne. The title emperor of Austria, then, replaced that 
of " Imperator Romanorum semper Augustus " when the Holy 
Empire came to an end in 1806. From the first, however, it 
was no more than a title, which represented but ill the actual 
relation of the Habsburg sovereigns to their several states. 



6 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



[HISTORY 



king of Bohemia. The interests of the Austrian margraves and 
dukes were riot confined to the acquisition of wealth either in 
land or chattels. Vienna became a centre of culture and learning, 
and many religious houses were founded and endowed. The 

acme of the early prosperity of Austria was reached 
Leopold II. un de r Duke Leopold II., surnamed the Glorious, who 

reigned from 1 194 to 1230, He gave a code of municipal 
law to Vienna, and rights to other towns, welcomed the Minne- 
singers to his brilliant court, and left to his subjects an enduring 
memory of valour and wisdom. Leopold and his predecessors 
were enabled, owing to the special position of Austria, to act 
practically as independent rulers. Cherishing the privilege of 
1156, they made treaties with foreign kings, and arranged 
marriages with the great families of Europe. With full 1 control of 
jurisdiction and of commerce, no great bishopric nor imperial 
city impeded the course of their authority, and the emperor 
interfered only to settle boundary disputes. 

The main lines of Austrian policy undA the Babenbergs were 
warfare with the Hungarians and other eastern neighbours, and 
a general attitude of loyalty towards the emperors. The story 
of the Hungarian wars is a monotonous record of forays, of 
assistance given at times to the Babenbergs by the forces of 
the Empire, and ending in the gradual eastward advance of 
Austria. The traditional loyalty to the emperors, which was 
cemented by several marriages between the imperial house and 
the Babenbergs, was, however, departed from by the margrave 
Leopold II., and by Duke Frederick II. During the investiture 
struggle Leopold deserted the emperor Henry IV., who deprived 
him of Austria and conferred it upon Vratislav II., duke of the 
Bohemians. Unable to maintain his position, Vratislav was soon 
driven out, and in 1083 Leopold again obtained possession of 
the mark, and was soon reconciled with Henry. Very similar 
_ . was the result of the conflict between the emperor 

Frederick Frederick II. and Duke Frederick II. Ignoring the 
a., the privilege of 1156, the emperor claimed certain rights 
Qimml' j n Austria, and summoned the duke to his Italian diets. 

Frederick, who was called the Quarrelsome, had irri- 
tated both his neighbours and his subjects, and complaints of his 
exactions and confiscations reached the ears of the emperor. 
After the duke had three times refused to appear before the 
princes, Frederick placed him under the ban, declared the duchies 
of Austria and Styria to be vacant, and, aided by the king of 
Bohemia, the duke of Bavaria and other princes, invaded the 
country in 1236. He met with very slight opposition, declared 
the duchies to be immediately dependent upon the Empire, 
made Vienna an imperial city, and imposed other changes upon 

e s~t4$— the constitution of Austria. After his departure, 
End of toe . r 

house of however, the duke returned, and m 1239 was in 
Baben- possession of his former power, while the changes made 
ber *' by the emperor were ignored. Continuing his career of 

violence and oppression, Duke Frederick was killed in battle by 
the Hungarians in June 1246, when the family of Babenberg 
became extinct. 

The duchies of Austria and Styria were now claimed by the 
emperor Frederick II. as vacant fiefs of the Empire, and their 

government was entrusted to Otto II., duke of Bavaria. 
to the Frederick, however, who was in Italy, harassed and 

Austrian afflicted, could do little to assert the imperial authority, 
succes- an( j n } s enemy, Pope Innocent IV., bestowed the two 

duchies upon Hermann VI., margrave of Baden, 
whose wife, Gertrude, was a niece of the last of the Babenbergs. 
Hermann was invested by the German king, William, count of 
Holland, but he was unable to establish his position, and law 
and order were quickly disappearing from the duchies. The 
deaths of Hermann and of the emperor in 1250, however, paved 
the way for a settlement. Weary of struggle and disorder, and 
despairing of any help from the central authority, the estates 
of Austria met at TrUbensee in 1251, and chose Ottakar, son of 
Wenceslaus I., king of Bohemia, as their duke. This step was 
favoured by the pope, and Ottakar, eagerly accepting the offer, 
strengthened his position by marrying Margaret, a sister of 
Duke Frederick II., and in return for his investiture promised 



his assistance to William of Holland. Styria appears at this 
time to have shared the fortunes of Austria, but it was claimed 
by Bela IV., king of Hungary, who conquered the 
land, and made a treaty with Ottakar in 1254 which Ottakar of 
confirmed him in its possession. The Hungarian duk& ' 
rule was soon resented by the Styrians, and Ottakar, 
who had become king of Bohemia in 1253, took advantage of 
this resentment, and interfered in the affairs of the duchy. A 
war with Hungary was the result, but on this occasion victory 
rested with Ottakar, and by a treaty made with Bela, in March 
1 261, he was recognized as duke of Styria. In 1269 Ottakar 
inherited the duchy of Carinthia on the death of Duke Ulrich III., 
and, his power having now become very great, he began to 
aspire to the German throne. He did something to improve 
the condition of the duchies by restoring order, introducing 
German colonists into the eastern districts, and seeking to 
benefit the inhabitants of the towns. 

In 1273 Rudolph, count of Habsburg, became German king, 
and his attention soon turned to Ottakar, whose power menaced 
the occupant of the German throne. Finding some 
support in Austria, Rudolph questioned the title of ^fj?*'?* 
the Bohemian king to the three duchies, and sought iu „ 
to recover the imperial lands which had been in the 
possession of the emperor Frederick II. Ottakar was summoned 
twice before the diet, the imperial court declared against him, 
and in July 1275 he was placed under the ban. War was the 
result, and in November 1276 Ottakar submitted to Rudolph, 
and renounced the duchies of Austria, Styria and Carinthia. 
For some time the three duchies were administered by Rudolph 
in his capacity as head of the Empire, of which they formed part. 
Not content with this tie, however, which was personal to 
himself alone, the king planned to make them hereditary posses- 
sions of his family, and to transfer the headquarters of the 
Habsburgs from the Rhine to the Danube. Some opposition 
Was offered to this scheme; but the perseverance of the king 
overcame all difficulties, and one of the most important events in 
European history took place on the 27th of December ^ 

1282, when Rudolph invested his sons, Rudolph and buegs 
Albert, with the duchies of Austria and Styria. He estab- 
retained Carinthia in his own hands until 1286, when, Ushedin 
in return for valuable services, he bestowed it upon j^f 2 ^ a ' 
Meinhard IV., count of Tirol. The younger Rudolph 
took no part in the government of Austria and Styria, which was 
undertaken by Albert, until his election as German king in 1 298. 
Albert appears to have been rather an arbitrary ruler. In 1288 
he suppressed a rising of the people of Vienna, and he made the 
fullest use of the ducal power in asserting his real or supposed 
rights. At this time the principle of primogeniture was unknown 
in the house of Habsburg, and for many years the duchies were 
ruled in common by two, or even three, members of the family. 
After Albert became German king, his two elder sons, Rudolph 
and Frederick, were successively associated with him in the 
government, and after his death in 1308, his four younger sons 
shared at one time or another in the administration of Austria 
and Styria. In 13 14 Albert's son, Frederick, was chosen German 
king in opposition to Louis IV., duke of Upper Bavaria, after- 
wards the emperor Louis IV., and Austria was weakened by the 
efforts of the Habsburgs to sustain Frederick in his contest with 
Louis, and also by the struggle carried on between another 
brother, Leopold, and the Swiss. ' A series of deaths among the 
Habsburgs during the first half of the 14th century left Duke 
Albert II. and his four sons as the only representatives of the 
family. Albert ruled the duchies alone from 1344 to 1356, and 
after this date his sons began to take part in the government. 
The most noteworthy of these was Duke Rudolph IV., 
a son-in-law of the emperor Charles IV., who showed S"^ h 
his interest in learning by founding the university of lV- 
Vienna in 1365. Rudolph's chief aim was to make 
Austria into an independent state, and he forged a series of 
privileges the purport of which was to free the duchy from all 
its duties towards the Empire. A sharp contest with the emperor 
followed this proceeding, and the Austrian duke, annoyed that 



HISTORY] 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



Magyars and Slavs never willingly recognized a style which 
ignored their national rights and implied the superiority of the 
German elements of the monarchy; to the Germans it was a 
poor substitute for a title which had represented the political 
unity of the German race under the Holy Empire. For long 
after the Vienna Congress of 1814-1815 the " Kaiser " as such 
exercised a powerful influence over the imaginations of the 
German people outside the Habsburg dominions; but this was 
because the title was still surrounded with its ancient halo and 
the essential change was not at once recognized. The outcome of 
the long struggle with Prussia, which in 1866 finally broke the 
spell, and the proclamation of the German empire in 1871 left 
the title of emperor of Austria stripped of everything but a 
purely territorial significance. It had, moreover, by the compact 
with Hungary of 1867, ceased even fully to represent the relation 
of the emperor to all his dominions; and the title which had 
been devised to cover the whole of the Habsburg monarchy 
sank into the official style of the sovereign of but a half; while 
even within the Austrian empire proper it is resented by those 
peoples which, like the Bohemians, wish to obtain the same 
recognition of their national independence as was conceded to 
Hungary. In placing the account of the origin and development 
of the Habsburg monarchy under this heading, it is merely for 
the sake of convenience. 

The first nucleus round which the present dominions of the 
house of Austria gradually accumulated was the mark which lay 

along the south bank of the Danube, east of the river 
Origin of E nnSj founded about a.d. 800 as a defence for the 
Austria. Frankish kingdom against the Slavs. Although its 

total length from east to west was only about 60 m., 
it was associated in the popular mind with a large and almost 
unbroken tract of land in the east of Europe. This fact, together 
with the position of the mark with regard to Germany in general 
and to Bavaria in particular, accounts for the name Osterreich 
(Austria), i.e. east empire or realm, a word first used in a charter 
of 996, where the phrase in regione vulgari nomine Ostarrichi 
occurs. The development of this small mark into the Austro- 
Hungarian* monarchy was a slow and gradual process, and falls 
into two main divisions, which almost coincide with the periods 
during which the dynasties of Babenberg and Habsburg have 
respectively ruled the land. The energies of the house of Baben- 
berg were chiefly spent in enlarging the area and strengthening 
the position of the mark itself, and when this was done the house 
of Habsburg set itself with remarkable perseverance and mar- 
vellous success to extend its rule over neighbouring territories. 
The many vicissitudes which have attended this development 
have not, however, altered the European position of Austria, 
which has remained the same for over a thousand years. Stand- 
ing sentinel over the valley of the middle Danube, and barring 
the advance of the Slavs on Germany, Austria, whether mark, 
duchy or empire, has always been the meeting-place of the 
Teuton and the Slav. It is this fact which gives it a unique 
interest and importance in the history of Europe, and which 
unites the ideas of the Germans to-day with those of Charlemagne 
and Otto the Great. 

The southern part of the country now called Austria was 
inhabited before the opening of the Christian era by the Taurisci, 

a Celtic tribe, who were subsequently called the Norici, 
habitants. an< ^ wn0 were conquered by the Romans about 14 B.C. 

Their land was afterwards included in the provinces of 
Pannonia and Noricum, and under Roman rule, Vindobona, 
the modern Vienna, became a place of some importance. The 
part of the country north of the Danube was peopled by the 
Marcomanni and the Quadi, and both of these tribes were fre- 
quently at war with the Romans, especially during the reign of 
the emperor Marcus Aurelius, who died at Vindobona in a.d. 180 
when campaigning against them. Christianity and civilization 
obtained entrance into the land, but the increasing weakness of 
the Roman empire opened the country to the inroads of the 
barbarians, and during the period of the great migrations it was 
ravaged in quick succession by a number of these tribes, prominent 
among whom were the Huns. The lands on both banks of the 



river shared the same fate, due probably to the fact to which 
Gibbon has drawn attention, that at this period the Danube 
was frequently frozen over. About 590 the district was settled 
by the Slovenes, or Conitanes, a Slavonic people, who formed 
part of the kingdom of Samo, and were afterwards included in 
the extensive kingdom of the Avars. The Franks claimed some 
authority over this people, and probably some of the princes 
of the Slovenes had recognized this claim, but it could not be 
regarded as serious while the Avars were in possession of the 
land. In 791 Charlemagne, after he had established his authority 
over the Bajuvarii or Bavarians, crossed the river Enns, and 
moved against the Avars. This attack was followed by 
campaigns on the part of his lieutenants, and in 805 the Avars 
were finally subdued, and their land incorporated with the 
Frankish empire. This step brought the later Austria definitely 
under the rule of the Franks, and during the struggle c s < a ft/; s ft. 
Charlemagne erected a mark, called the East Mark, meat of 
to defend the eastern berder of his empire. A series of the East 
margraves ruled this small district from 799 to 907, Mark - 
but as the Frankish empire grew weaker, the mark suffered 
more and more from the ravages of its eastern neighbours. 
During the 9th century the Frankish supremacy vanished, and 
the mark was overrun by the Moravians, and then by the 
Magyars, or Hungarians, who destroyed the few remaining traces 
of Frankish influence. 

A new era dawned after Otto the Great was elected German 
king in 936, and it is Otto rather than Charlemagne who must 
be regarded as the real founder of Austria. In August 
955 he gained a great victory over the Magyars on the T f%''^ s ^ 
Lechfeld, freed Bavaria from their presence, and re- berg. 
founded the East Mark for the defence of his kingdom. 
In 976 his son, the emperor Otto II., entrusted the government 
of this mark, soon to be known as Austria, to Leopold, a member 
of the family of Babenberg (q.v.), and its administration was 
conducted with vigour and success. Leopold and his descendants 
ruled Austria until the extinction of the family in 1246, and by 
their skill and foresight raised the mark to an important place 
among the German states. Their first care was to push its 
eastern frontier down the Danube valley, by colonizing the lands 
on either side of the river, and the success of this work may be 
seen in the removal of their capital from Pochlarn to Melk, then 
to Tulln, and finally about 1 140 to Vienna. The country as far 
as the Leitha was subsequently incorporated with Austria, and 
in the other direction the district between the Enns and the Inn 
was added, to the mark in 1156, an important date in Duchvof 
Austrian history. Anxious to restore peace to Germany Austria 
in this year, the new king, Frederick I., raised Austria created, 
to the rank of a duchy, and conferred upon it ex- nS6 ' 
ceptional privileges. The investiture was bestowed not only 
upon Duke Henry but upon his second wife, Theodora; in case 
of a failure of male heirs the duchy was to descend to females; 
and if the duke had no children he could nominate his successor. 
Controlling all the jurisdiction of the land, the duke's only 
duties towards the Empire were to appear at any diet held in 
Bavaria, and to send a contingent to the imperial army for any 
campaigns in the countries bordering upon Austria. In 1186 
Duke Leopold I. made a treaty with Ottakar IV., duke of Styria, 
an arrangement which brought Styria and upper Austria to the 
Babenbergs in 1192, and in 1229 Duke Leopold II. purchased 
some lands from the bishop of Freising, and took the title of 
lord of Carniola. When the house of Babenberg became extinct 
in 1246, Austria, stretching from Passau almost to Pressburg, 
had the frontiers which it retains to-day, and this increase of 
territory had been accompanied by a corresponding increase in 
wealth and general prosperity. The chief reason for this pros- 
perity was the growth of trade along the Danube, which stimu- 
lated the foundation, or the growth, of towns, and brought 
considerable riches to the ruler. Under the later Babenbergs 
Vienna was regarded as one of the most important of German 
cities, and it was computed that the duke was as rich as the 
archbishop of Cologne, or the margrave of Brandenburg, and 
was surpassed in this respect by only one German prince, the 



HISTORY] 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



ofLadls 
laiis. 



Austria was not raised to the dignity of an electorate by the 
Golden Bull of 1356, did not shrink from a contest with Charles. 
In 1361, however, he abandoned his pretensions, but claimed 
the title of archduke (q.v.) and in 1364 declared that the posses- 
sions of the Habsburgs were indivisible. Meanwhile the acquisi- 
tion of neighbouring territories had been steadily pressed on. 
In 1335 the duchy of Carinthia, and a part of Carniola, were 
inherited by Dukes Albert II. and Otto, and in 1363 Rudolph IV. 
obtained the county of Tirol. In 1364 Carniola was made into 
an hereditary duchy; in 1374 part of Istria came under the 
rule of the Habsburgs; in 1382 Trieste submitted voluntarily 
to Austria, and at various times during the century, other 
smaller districts were added to the lands of the Habsburgs. 

Rudolph IV. died childless in 1365, and in 1379 his two 
remaining brothers, Leopold III. and Albert III., made a 
division of their lands, by which Albert retained Austria proper 
and Carniola, and Leopold got Styria, Carinthia and Tirol. 
Leopold was killed in 1386 at the battle of Sempach, and Albert 
became guardian for his four nephews, who subsequently ruled 
their lands in common. The senior line which ruled in Austria 
was represented after the death of Duke Albert III. in 1395 by 
his son, Duke Albert IV., and then by his grandson, Duke 
Albert V., who became German king as Albert II. in 1438. 
Albert married Elizabeth, daughter of Sigismund, king of 
Hungary and Bohemia, and on the death of his father-in-law 
assumed these two crowns. He died in 1439, and just after his 

death a son was born to him, who was called Ladislaus 
Minority Posthumus, and succeeded to the duchy of Austria and 

to the kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia. William 

and Leopold, the two eldest sons of Duke Leopold III., 
and, with their younger brothers Ernest and Frederick, the 
joint rulers of Styria, Carinthia and Tirol, died early in the 
15th century, and in 1406 Ernest and Frederick made a division 
of their lands. Ernest became duke of Styria and Carinthia, 
and Frederick, count of Tirol. Ernest was succeeded in 1424 
by his sons, Frederick and Albert, and Frederick in 1439 by his 
son, Sigismund, and these three princes were reigning when 
King Albert II. died in 1439. Frederick, who succeeded Albert 
as German king, and was soon crowned emperor as Frederick III., 
acted as guardian for Sigismund of Tirol, who was a minor, and 
„ also became regent of Austria in consequence of the 

of the infancy of Ladislaus. His rule was a period of struggle 

emperor and disorder, owing partly, to the feebleness of his own 
Frederick cnarac t e r, partly to the wish of his brother, Albert, to 

share his dignities. The Tirolese soon grew weary of 
his government, and, in 1446, Sigismund was declared of age. 
The estates of Austria were equally discontented and headed an 
open revolt, the object of which was to remove Ladislaus from 
Frederick's charge and deprive the latter of the regency. The 
Popular leading spirit in this movement was Ulrich Eiczing 
revolt (Eitzing or von Eiczinger, d. before 1463), a low-born 

under adventurer, ennobled by Albert II., in whose service 
i^f 1 he had accumulated vast wealth and power. In 1451 

and Count he organized an armed league, and in December, with 
Ulrich of the aid of the populace, made himself master of Vienna, 
Cim. whither he had summoned the estates. In March 1452 

he was joined by Count Ulrich of Cilli, while the Hungarians and 
the powerful party of the great house of Rosenberg in Bohemia 
attached themselves to the league. Frederick, who had hurried 
back from Italy, was besieged in August in the Vienna Neustadt, 
and was forced to deliver Ladislaus to Count Ulrich, whose 
influence had meanwhile eclipsed that of Eiczing. Ladislaus 
now ruled nominally himself, under the tutelage of Count Ulrich. 
The country was, however, distracted by quarrels between the 
party of the high aristocracy, which recognized the count of 
Cilli as its chief, and that of the lesser nobles, citizens and 
populace, who followed Eiczing. In September 1453 the latter, 
by a successful imeute, succeeded in ousting Count Ulrich, and 
remained in power till February 1455, when the count once 
more entered Vienna in triumph. Ulrich of Cilli was killed 
before Belgrade in November 1456; a year later Ladislaus 
himself died (November 1457). Meanwhile Styria and Carinthia 



were equally unfortunate under the rule of Frederick and 
Albert; and the death of Ladislaus led to still further complica- 
tions. Austria, which had been solemnly created an Austria 
archduchy by the emperor Frederick in 1453, was created 
claimed by the three remaining Habsburg princes, and an arch- 
lower Austria was secured by Frederick, while Albert duc °y- , 
obtained upper Austria; Both princes were unpopular, and in 
1462 Frederick was attacked by the inhabitants of Vienna; and- 
was forced to surrender lower Austria to Albert, whose spendt 
thrift habits soon made his rule disliked. A further struggle 
between the brothers was prevented by Albert's death in 1463, 
when the estates did homage to Frederick. The emperor was 
soon again at issue with the Austrian nobles, and was 
attacked by Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, fungariaa 
who drove him from Vienna in 1485. Although ham- „° Austria. 
pered by the inroads of the Turks, Matthias pressed 
on, and by 1487 was firmly in possession of Austria, Styria and 
Carinthia, which seemed quite lost to the Habsburgs. 

The decline in the fortunes of the family, however, was 
to be arrested by Frederick's son, Maximilian, afterwards the 
emperor Maximilian I., who was the second founder Tne 
of the greatness of the house of Habsburg. Like his emperor 
ancestor, Rudolph, he had to conquer the lands over Maxi- ., 
which his descendants were destined to rule, and by ">Uia"I. 
arranging a treaty of succession to the kingdoms of Hungary 
and Bohemia, he pointed the way to power and empire in 
eastern Europe. Soon after his election as king of the Romans 
in i486, Maximilian attacked the Hungarians, and in 1490 he 
had driven them from Austria, and recovered his hereditary lands. 
In the same year he made an arrangement with his kinsman; 
Sigismund of Tirol, by which he brought this county under his 
rule, and when the emperor Frederick died in 1493, Maximilian 
united the whole of the Austrian lands under his sway. Continu- 
ing his acquisitions of territory, he inherited the possessions of 
the counts of Gorz in 1500, added some districts to Tirol by 
intervening in a succession war in Bavaria, and acquired Gradisca 
in 1 51 2 as the result of a struggle with Venice. He did much for 
the better government of the Austrian duchies. Bodies were 
established for executive, financial and judicial purposes, the 
Austrian lands constituted one of the imperial circles which 
were established in 1512, and in 15 18 representatives of the 
various diets (Landtage) met at Innsbruck, a proceeding which 
marks the beginning of an organic unity in the Austrian lands. 
In these ways Maximilian proved himself a capable and energetic 
ruler, although his plans for making Austria into a kingdom, or 
an electorate, were abortive. 

At the close of the middle ages the area of Austria had in- 
creased to nearly 50,000 sq. m., but its internal condition does 
not appear to have improved in proportion to this . . . 
increase in size. The rulers of Austria lacked the the close 
prestige which attached to the electoral office, and, of the 
although five of them had held the position of German mldd,e 
king, the four who preceded Maximilian had added 
little or nothing to the power and dignity of this position. The 
ecclesiastical organization of Austria was imperfect, so long as 
there was no archbishopric within its borders, and its clergy 
owed allegiance to foreign prelates. The work of unification 
which was so successfully accomplished by Maximilian was 
aided by two events, the progress of the Turks in south-eastern 
Europe, and the loss of most of the Habsburg possessions on the 
Rhine. The first tended to draw the separate states together 
for purposes of defence, and the second turned the attention of 
the Habsburgs to the possibilities of expansion in eastern 
Europe. (A. W. H.*) 

At the time of the. death of the emperor Maximilian in 1519 
the Habsburg dominions in eastern Germany included the 
duchies of Upper and Lower Austria, Styria, Carinthia, . 
Carniola and the county of Tirol. Maximilian was under 
succeeded as archduke of Austria as well as emperor by Charles V. 
his grandson Charles of Spain, known in history as the ™> d F erdim 
emperor Charles V. To his brother Ferdinand Charles 
resigned all his Austrian lands, including his claims on Bohemia 



8 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



[HISTORY 



and Hungary. Austria and Spain were thus divided, and, in 
spite of the efforts of the archduke Charles in the Spanish 
Succession War, were never again united, for at the battle of 

Mohacs, on the 28th of August 1526, Suleiman the 
and Us Magnificent defeated and killed Louis, king of Bohemia 
results. and of Hungary, whose sister Anne had married 

Ferdinand. By this victory the Turks conquered and 
retained, till the peace of Karlowitz in 1609, the greater part of 
Hungary. During most of his life Ferdinand was engaged in 
combating the Turks and in attempting to secure Hungary. In 
John Zapolya, who was supported by Suleiman, Ferdinand 
found an active rival. The Turks besieged Vienna in 1 530 and 
made several invasions of Hungary and Austria. At length 
Ferdinand agreed to pay Suleiman an annual tribute for the 
small portion — about 12,228 sq. m. — -of Hungary which he held. 
During Charles V.'s struggles with the German Protestants, 
Ferdinand preserved a neutral attitude, which contributed to 
gain Germany a short period of internal peace. Though Ferdi- 
nand himself did not take a leading part in German religious or 
foreign politics, the period was one of intense interest to Austria. 
Throughout the years from 1519 to 1648 there are, said Stubbs, 
two distinct ideas in progress which " may be regarded as giving 
a unity to the whole period. . . . The Reformation is one, the 
claims of the House of Austria is the other." Austria did not 
benefit from the reign of Charles V. The emperor was too much 

absorbed in the affairs of the rest of his vast dominions, 
and ' nota bly those of the Empire, rent in two by religious 
Austria. differences and the secular ambitions for which those 

were the excuse, to give any effective attention to its 
needs. The peace of Augsburg, 1555, which recognized a dualism 
within the Empire in religion as in politics, marked the failure of 
his plan of union (see Charles V.; Germany; Maurice of 
Saxony) ; and meanwhile he had been able to accomplish nothing 
to rescue Hungary from the Turkish yoke. It was left for his 
brother Ferdinand, a ruler of consummate wisdom (1 556-1 564) 
"to establish the modern Habsburg-Austrian empire with its 
exclusive territorial interests, its administrative experiments, 
its intricacies of religion and of race." 

Before his death Ferdinand divided the inheritance of the 
German Habsburgs between his three sons. Austria proper was 
The policy ^t to ms e West son Maximilian, Tirol to the archduke 
ofFerdi- Ferdinand; and Styria with Carinthia and Carniola 
aand and to the archduke Charles. Under the emperor Maxi- 
mWanll. mman H- ^ l S^ -1 57^) > who was also king of Bohemia 

and Hungary, a liberal policy preserved peace, but 
he was unable to free his government from its humiliating 
position of a tributary to the Turk, and he could do nothing 
to found religious liberty within his dominions on a permanent 
basis. The whole of Austria and nearly the whole of Styria 
were mainly Lutheran; in Bohemia, Silesia and Moravia, 
various forms of Christian belief struggled for mastery; and 
Catholicism was almost confined to the mountains of Tirol. 
The The accession of Rudolph II. 1 (1576-1612)^ fanatical 

reign of Spanish Catholic, changed the situation entirely. 
Rudolph Under him the Jesuits were encouraged to press on 
,L the counter-Reformation. In the early part of his 

reign there was hardly any government at all. In Bohemia a 
state of semi-independence existed, while Hungary preferred 
the Turk to the emperor. In both kingdoms Rudolph had 
failed to assert his sovereign power except in fitful attempts to 
extirpate heresy. With anarchy prevalent within the Austrian 
dominions some action became necessary. Accordingly in 1606 
The the archdukes made a compact agreeing to acknowledge 

family the archduke Matthias as head of the family. This 
compact, arrangement proved far from successful. Matthias, 

who was emperor from 1612 to 161 9, proved unable 
to restore order, and when he died Bohemia was practically 
independent. His successor Ferdinand II. (1619-1637) was 
strong of will; and resolved to win back Germany to the Catholic 
faith. As archduke of Styria he had crushed out Protestantism 
in that duchy, and having been elected king of Bohemia in 161 8 
1 Rudolph V. as archduke of Austria, II. as emperor. 



was resolved to establish there the rule of the Jesuits. His 

attempt to do so led to the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War 

(see Bohemia; Thirty Years' War). Till 1630 the 

fortunes of Austria brightened under the active rule years' 

of Ferdinand, who was assisted by Maximilian of War. 

Bavaria and the Catholic League, and by Wallenstein. 

The Palatinate was conquered, the Danish king was overthrown, 

and it seemed that Austria would establish its predominance 

over the whole of Germany, and that the Baltic would become 

an Austrian lake. The f ortun es of Austria never seemed brighter 

than in 1628 when Wallenstein began the siege of Stralsund. 

His failure, followed by the arrival of Gustavus Adolphus in 

Germany in 1630, proved the death blow of Austrian hopes. 

In 1632 Gustavus Adolphus was killed, in 1634 Wallenstein was 

assassinated, and in 1635 France entered into the war. The 

Thirty Years' War now ceased to be a religious struggle The 

between Catholicism and Protestantism; it resolved Swedish 

itself into a return to the old political strife between and French 

France and the Habsburgs. Till 1648 the Bourbon >ater ' 

1 TT 1 1 . 1 , 1 , vention. 

and Habsburg powers continued the war, and at the 

peace of Westphalia Austria suffered severe losses. Ferdinand 
III. (1637-1657) was forced to yield Alsace to France, to grant 
territorial supremacy, including the right of making The peace 
alliances, to the states of the Empire, and to acknow- of West- 
ledge the concurrent jurisdiction of the imperial ??£?* 
chamber and the Aulic council. The disintegration 
of the Holy Roman Empire was now practically accomplished, 
and though the possession of the imperial dignity continued to 
give the rulers of Austria prestige, the Habsburgs henceforward 
devoted themselves to their Austrian interests rather than to 
those of the Empire. 

In 1657 Leopold I., who had already ruled the Austrian 
dominions for two years, succeeded his father Ferdinand and 
was crowned emperor in the following year. His long Leopold 1. 
reign of 48 years was of great importance for Austria, 
as determining both the internal character and the external policy 
of the monarchy. The long struggle with France to which the 
ambitions of Louis XIV. gave rise, and which culminated in the 
War of Spanish Succession, belongs less to the history of Austria 
proper than to that of Germany and of Europe. Of more 
importance to Austria itself was the war with Sweden (1657-60) 
which resulted in the peace of Oliva, by which the independence 
of Poland was secured and the frontier of Hungary safeguarded, 
and the campaigns against the Turks (1662-64 and 1683-99), 
by which the Ottoman power was driven from Hungary, and 
the Austrian attitude towards Turkey and the Slav peoples of 
the Balkans determined for a century to come. The first war, 
due to Ottoman aggression in Transylvania, ended 
with Montecuculi's victory over the grand vizier at Turkey. 
St Gothard on the Raab on the 1st of August 1664. 
The general political situation prevented Leopold from taking 
full advantage of this, and the peace of Vasvar (August 10) 
left the Turks in jpossession of Nagyvarad (Grosswardein) and 
the fortress of Ersekujvar (Neuhausel), Transylvania being 
recognized as an independent principality. The next Turkish 
war was the direct outcome of Leopold's policy in Hungary, 
where the persecution of the Protestants and the suppression 
of the constitution in 1658, led to a widespread conspiracy. 
This was mercilessly suppressed; and though after a period 
of arbitrary government (1672-1679), the palatinate and the 
constitution, with certain concessions to the Protestants, were 
restored, the discontent continued. In 1683, invited by Hun- 
garian malcontents and spurred on by Louis XIV., the Turks 
burst into Hungary, overran the country and appeared before 
the walls of Vienna. The victory of the 12 th of September, 
gained over the Turks by John Sobieski (see John III. Sobieski, 
King of Poland) not only saved the Austrian capital, but was 
the first of a series of successes which drove the Turks perman- 
ently beyond the Danube, and established the power of Austria 
in the East. The victories of Charles of Lorraine at Parkany 
(1683) and Esztergom (Gran) (1685) were followed by the 
capture of Budapest (1686) and the defeat of the Ottomans at 



HISTORY] 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



Moha.cs (1688). In 1688 the elector took Belgrade; in 1691 
Louis William I. of Baden. won the battle of Slankamen, and 
on the 1 ith of September 1697 Prince Eugene gained the crowning 
victory of Zenta. This was followed, on the 26th of January 
1699, by the peace of Karlowitz, by which Slavonia, Transylvania 
and all Hungary, except the banat of Temesvar, were ceded to 
the Austrian crown. Leopold had wisely decided to initiate a 
conciliatory policy in Hungary. At the diet of Pressburg 
(1687-1688) the Hungarian crown had been made hereditary 
in the house of Habsburg, and the crown prince Joseph had 
been crowned hereditary king of Hungary (q.v.). In 1697 
Transylvania was united to the Hungarian monarchy. A 
further fact of great prospective importance was the im- 
migration, after an abortive rising against the Turks, of some 
30,000 Slav and Albanian families into Slavonia and southern 
Hungary, where they were granted by the emperor Leopold 
a certain autonomy and the recognition of the Orthodox 
religion. 

By the conquest of Hungary and Transylvania Leopold 
completed the edifice of the Austrian monarchy, of which the 
foundations had been laid by Ferdinand I. in 1526. He had 
also done much for its internal consolidation. By the death of 
the archduke Sigismund in 1665 he not only gained Tirol, but 
a considerable sum of money, which he used to buy back the 
Silesian principalities of Oppeln and Ratibor, pledged by 
Ferdinand III. to the Poles. In the administration of his 
dominions, too, Leopold succeeded in strengthening the authority 
of the central government. The old estates, indeed, survived; 
but the emperor kept the effective power in his own hands, and 
to his reign are traceable the first beginnings of that system of 
centralized bureaucracy which was established under Maria 
Theresa and survived, for better or for worse, till the revolution 
of 1848. It was under Leopold, also, that the Austrian standing 
army was established in spite of much opposition; the regiments 
raised in 1672 were never disbanded. For the intellectual life 
of the country Leopold did much. In spite of his intolerant 
attitude towards religious dissent, he proved himself an en- 
lightened patron of learning. He helped in the establishment 
of the universities of Innsbruck and Olmutz; and under his 
auspices, after the defeat of the Turks in 1683, Vienna began to 
develop from a mere frontier fortress into one of the most 
brilliant capitals of Europe. (See. Leopold I.) 

Leopold died in 1705 during the war of Spanish Succession 
(1702-13), which he left as an evil inheritance to his sons Joseph I. 
Warof (d- 1711) and Charles VI. The result of the war was 
Spanish a further aggrandizement of the house of Austria; 
but not to the extent that had been hoped. Apart 
from the fact that British and Austrian troops had been 
unable to deprive Philip V. of his throne, it was from the point 
of view of Europe at large by no means desirable that Charles VI. 
should succeed in reviving the empire of .Charles V. By the 
treaty of Utrecht, accordingly, Spain was left to the House of 
Bourbon, while that of Austria received the Spanish Netherlands, 
Sardinia and Naples. 

The treaty of Karlowitz, and the settlement of 1713-1714, 
marked a new starting-point in the history of Austria. The 
efforts of Turkey to regain her ascendancy in eastern 
from 1715 Europe at the expense of the Habsburgs had ended 
to 1740. in failure, and henceforward Turkish efforts were 
confined to resisting the steady development of Austria 
in the direction of Constantinople. The treaties of Utrecht, 
Rastadt and Baden had also re-established and strengthened 
the position of the Austrian monarchy in western Europe. 
The days of French invasions of Germany had for the time ceased, 
and revenge for the attacks made by Louis XIV. was found in 
the establishment of Austrian supremacy in Italy and in the 
substitution of Austrian for Spanish domination in the Nether- 
lands. 

The situation, though apparently favourable, was full of 
difficulty, and only a statesman of uncommon dexterity could 
have guided Austria with success through the ensuing years. 
Composed of a congeries of nationalities which included Czechs, 



Succes 
slon. 



Magyars, Ruthenes, Rumanians, Germans, Italians, Flemings 
and other races, and with territories separated by many miles, 
the Habsburg dominions required from their ruler patience, 
tolerance, administrative skill and a full knowledge of the 
currents of European diplomacy. Charles VI. possessed none 
of these qualities; and when he died in 1740, the weakness 
of the scattered Habsburg empire rendered it an object of the 
cupidity of the continental powers. Yet, though the War of 
Spanish Succession had proved a heavy drain on the resources 
of the hereditary dominions of the Austrian crown, Charles VI. 
had done much to compensate for this by the successes of his 
arms in eastern Europe. In 1716, in alliance with Venice, he 
declared war on the Turks; Eugene's victory at Peterwardein 
involved the conquest of the banat of Temesvar, and was followed 
in 1 71 7 by the capture of Belgrade. By the treaty signed at 
Passarowitz on the 21st of July 1718, the banat, which rounded 
off Hungary and Belgrade, with the northern districts of Servia, 
were annexed to the Habsburg monarchy. 

Important as these gains were, the treaty none the less once 
more illustrated the perpetual sacrifice of the true interests of 
the hereditary dominions of the house of Habsburg to its 
European entanglements. Had the war continued, Austria 
would undoubtedly have extended her conquests down the 
Danube. But Charles was anxious about Italy, then in danger 
from Spain, which under Alberoni's guidance had occupied 
Sardinia and Sicily. On the 2nd of August 1718, accordingly, 
Charles joined the Triple Alliance, henceforth the Quadruple 
Alliance. The coercion of Spain resulted in a peace by which 
Charles obtained Sicily in exchange for Sardinia. The shifting 
of the balance of power that followed belongs to the history of 
Europe (q.v.) ; for Austria the only important outcome was that 
in 1 73 1 Charles found himself isolated. Being without a son, he 
was now anxious to secure the throne for his daughter 
Maria Theresa, in accordance with the Pragmatic haematic 
Sanction of the 19th of April 17 13, in which he had Sanction. 
pronounced the indivisibility of the monarchy, and 
had settled the succession on his daughter, in default of a male 
heir. It now became his object to secure the adhesion of the 
powers to this instrument. In 1731 Great Britain and Holland 
agreed to respect it, in return for the cession of Parma, Piacenza 
and Guastalla to Don Carlos; but the hostility of the Bourbon 
powers continued, resulting in 1733 in the War of Polish Succes- 
sion, the outcome of which was the acquisition of Lorraine by 
France, and of Naples, Sicily and the Tuscan ports by Don 
Carlos, while the power of the Habsburg monarchy in northern 
Italy was strengthened by the acquisition of Parma, Piacenza 
and Guastalla. At the same time Spain and Sardinia adhered 
to the Pragmatic Sanction. Francis, the dispossessed duke of 
Lorraine, was to be compensated with Tuscany. On the 12th 
of February 1736 he was married to the archduchess Maria 
Theresa, and on the nth of May following he signed the formal 
act ceding Lorraine to France. 

The last years of Charles VI. were embittered by the disastrous 
outcome of the war with Turkey (1738-1739), on which he had 
felt compelled to embark in accordance with the terms 
of a treaty of alliance with Russia signed in 1726. ^u,raie, 
After a campaign of varying fortunes the Turks beat 1739. 
the imperial troops at Krotzka on the 23rd of July 
1739 and laid siege to Belgrade, where on the 1st of September 
a treaty was signed, which, with the exception of the banat, 
surrendered everything that Austria had gained by the treaty 
of Passarowitz. On the 20th of October 1740, Charles died, 
leaving his dominions in no condition to resist the attacks of 
the powers, which, in spite of having adhered to the Pragmatic 
Sanction, now sought to profit from their weakness. Yet for 
their internal development Charles had done much. His religious 
attitude was moderate and tolerant, and he did his best to pro- 
mote the enlightenment of his subjects. He was zealous, too, 
for the promotion of trade and industry, and, besides the East 
India Company which he established at Ostend, he encouraged 
the development of Trieste and Fiume as sea-ports and centres 
of trade with the Levant. 



IO 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



[HISTORY 



The accession of Maria Theresa to the throne of the Habsburgs 
marks an important epoch in the history of Austria. For a 
while, indeed, it seemed that the monarchy was on 
Theresa. tne P°int of dissolution. To the diplomacy of the 
1 8th century the breach of a solemn compact was but 
lightly regarded; and Charles VI. had neglected the advice of 
Prince Eugene to leave an effective army of 200,000 men as a 
more solid guarantee of the Pragmatic Sanction than the signa- 
tures of the powers. As it was, the Austrian forces, disorganized 
in the long confusion of the Turkish wars, were in no condition 
to withstand Frederick the Great, when in 1740, at the head of 
the splendid army bequeathed to him by his father, he invaded 
Silesia (see Austrian Succession, War or). The Prussian 
victory at Mollwitz (April 10, 1741) brought into the field against 
Austria all the powers which were ambitious of expansion at 
her expense: France, Bavaria, Spain, Saxony and Sardinia. 
Nor was the peril wholly external. Apart from the perennial 
discontents of Magyars and Slavs, the confusion and corruption 
of the administration, and the misery caused by the ruin of the 
finances, had made the Habsburg dynasty unpopular even in its 
German states, and in Vienna itself a large section of public 
opinion was loudly in favour of the claims of Charles of Bavarian 
Yet the war, if it revealed the weakness of the Austrian monarchy, 
revealed also' unexpected sources of strength. Not the least of 
these was the character of Maria Theresa herself, who to the 
fascination of a young and beautiful woman added a very 
masculine resolution and judgment. In response to her personal 
appeal, and also to her wise and timely concessions, the Hun- 
garians had rallied to her support, and for the first time in history 
awoke not only to a feeling of enthusiastic loyalty to a Habsburg 
monarch, but also to the realization that their true interests 
were bound up with those of Austria (see Hungary: History). 
Although, then, as the result of the war, Silesia was by the 
treaty of Dresden transferred from Austria to Prussia, while in 
Italy by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 cessions were 
made at the expense of the house of Habsburg to the Spanish 
Don Philip and to Sardinia, the Austrian monarchy as a whole 
had displayed a vitality that had astonished the world, and was 
in some respects stronger than at the beginning of the struggle, 
notably in the great improvement in the army and in the posses- 
sion of generals schooled by the experience of active service. 

The period from 1747 to 1756, the year of the outbreak of the 
Seven Years' War, was occupied in preparations for carrying 
into effect the determination of Maria Theresa to recover the 
lost provinces. To give any chance of success, it was recognized 
that a twofold change of system was necessary: in internal and 
in external affairs. To strengthen the state internally a complete 
revolution of its administration was begun under the auspices 
of Count F. W. Haugwitz (1700-1765); the motley system which 
had survived from the middle ages was gradually replaced by 
an administrative machinery uniformly organized and central- 
ized; and the army especially, hitherto patched together from 
the quotas raised and maintained by the various diets and 
provincial estates, was withdrawn from their interference. 
These reforms were practically confined to the central provinces 
of the, monarchy; for in Hungary, as well as in the outlying 
territories of Lombardy and the Netherlands, it was recognized 
that the conservative temper of the peoples made any revolu- 
tionary change in the traditional system inadvisable. 

Meanwhile, in foreign affairs, it had become clear that for 
Austria the enemy to be dreaded was no longer France, but 
Prussia, and Kaunitz prepared the way for a diplomatic 
Avn6A°" revolution, which took effect when, on the 1st of May 
affiance, 1756, Austria and France concluded the first treaty 
and Seven of Versailles. The long rivalry between Bourbons and 
JJ}"™' Habsburgs was thus ended, and France and Austria 
remained in alliance or at peace until the outbreak of 
the French Revolution. So far as Austria was concerned, the 
Seven Years' War (q.v.) in which France and Austria were ranged 
against Prussia and Great Britain, was an attempt on the part 
of Maria Theresa to recover Silesia. It failed; and the peace of 
Hubertsburg, signed on the 15th of February 1763, left Germany 



divided between Austria and Prussia, whose rivalry for the 
hegemony was to last until the victory of Koniggratz (1866) de^ 
finitely decided the issue in favour of the Hohenzollern monarchy. 
The loss of Silesia led Austria to look for " compensation " 
elsewhere. The most obvious direction in which this could be 
sought was in Bavaria, ruled by the decadent house 
of Wittelsbach, the secular rival of the house of Austria 
Habsburg in southern Germany. The question of the Bavaria. 
annexation of Bavaria by conquest or exchange had 
occupied the niinds of Austrian statesmen throughout the 
century: it would not only have removed a perpetual menace 
to the peace of Austria, but would have given to the Habsburg 
monarchy an overwhelming strength in South Germany. The 
matter came to an issue in 1777, on the death of the elector 
Maximilian III. The heir was the elector palatine Charles 
Theodore, but Joseph II., who had been elected emperor in 1765, 
in succession to his father, and appointed co-regent with his 
mother — claimed the inheritance, and prepared to assert his 
claims by force. The result was the so-called War of Bavarian 
Succession. As a matter of fact, however, though the armies 
under Frederick and Joseph were face to face in the field, the 
affair was settled without actual fighting; Maria Theresa, fearing 
the chances of another struggle with Prussia, overruled her son 
at the last moment, and by the treaty of Teschen agreed to be 
content with the cession of the Quarter of the Inn (Innviertel) 
and some other districts. 

Meanwhile the ambition of Catherine of Russia, and the war 
with Turkey by which the empire of the tsars was advanced to 
the Black Sea and threatened to establish itself south „ 
of the Danube, were productive of consequences of Austria 
enormous importance to Austria in the East. Russian and the 
control of the Danube was a far more serious menace ottoman 
to Austria than the neighbourhood of the decadent m P re - 
Ottoman power; and for a while the policy of Austria towards 
the Porte underwent a change that foreshadowed her attitude 
towards the Eastern Question in the 19th century. In spite of 
the reluctance of Maria Theresa, Kaunitz, in July 1 7 7 1 , concluded 
a defensive alliance with the Porte. He would have exchanged 
this for an active co-operation with Turkey, could Frederick 
the Great have been persuaded to promise at least neutrality 
in the event of a Russo-Austrian War. But Frederick was un- 
willing to break with Russia, with whom he was negotiating the 
partition of Poland; Austria in these circumstances dared not 
take the offensive; and Maria Theresa was compelled to pur- 
chase the modification of the extreme claims of Russia in Turkey 
by agreeing to, and sharing in, the spoliation of Poland. Her 
own share of the spoils was the acquisition, by the 
first treaty of partition (August 5, 1772), of Galicia P tfp^" d 
and Lodomeria. Turkey was left in the lurch; and 
Austrian troops even occupied portions of Moldavia, in order 
to secure the communication between the new Polish provinces 
and Transylvania. At Constantinople, too, Austria once more 
supported Russian policy, and was rewarded, in 1777, by the 
acquisition of Bukovina from Turkey. In Italy the influence of 
the House of Austria had been strengthened by the marriage 
of the archduke Ferdinand with the heiress of the d'Estes of 
Modena, and the establishment of the archduke Leopold in the 
grand-duchy of Tuscany. 

In internal affairs Maria Theresa may be regarded as the 
practical founder of the unified Austrian state. The new system 
of centralization has already been referred to. It only . t . 
remains to add that, in carrying out this system, Maria reforms 
Theresa was too wise to fall into the errors afterwards under 
made by her son and successor. She was no doctrin- ^ r,a 
aire, and consistently acted on the principle once laid 
down by Machiavelli, that while changing the substance, the 
prince should be careful to preserve the form of old institutions. 
Alongside the new bureaucracy, the old estates survived in 
somnolent inactivity, and even in Hungary, though the ancient 
constitution was left untouched, the diet was only summoned 
four times during the reign, and reforms were carried out, without 
protest, by royal ordinance. It was under Maria Theresa, too, 



HISTORY] 



AUSTRIA^HUNGARY 



ii 



that the attempt was first made to make German the official 
language of the whole monarchy; an attempt which was partly 
successful even in Hungary, especially so far as the army was 
concerned, though Latin remained the official tongue of the diet, 
the county-assemblies and the courts. 

The social, religious and educational reforms of Maria Theresa 
also mark her reign as the true epoch of transition from medieval 
to modern conditions in Austria. In religious matters the 
empress, though a devout Catholic and herself devoted to the 
Holy See, was carried away by the prevailing reaction, in which 
her ministers shared, against the pretensions of the papacy. 
The anti-papal tendency, known as Febronianism (q.v.) , had made 
immense headway, not only among the laity but among the 
clergy in the Austrian dominions. By a new law, papal bulls 
could not be published without the consent of the crown, and 
the direct intercourse of the bishops with Rome was forbidden; 
the privileges of the religious orders were curtailed; and the 
education of the clergy was brought under state control. It was, 
however, only with reluctance that Maria Theresa agreed to 
carry out the papal bull suppressing the Society of Jesus; and, 
while declaring herself against persecution, she could never be 
persuaded to accept the views of Kaunitz and Joseph in favour 
of toleration. Parallel with the assertion of the rights of the 
state as against the church, was the revolution effected in the 
educational system of the monarchy. This, too, was taken from 
the control of the church; the universities were remodelled and 
modernized by the introduction of new faculties, the study of 
ecclesiastical law being transferred from that of theology to that 
of jurisprudence, and the elaborate system of elementary and 
secondary education was established, which survived with slight 
modification till 1869. 

The death of Maria Theresa in 1780 left Joseph II. free to 
attempt the drastic revolution from above, which had been 
Joseph ll. restrained by the wise statesmanship of his mother. 
and He was himself a strange incarnation at once of 

" Joseph- doctrinaire liberalism and the old Habsburg autocracy. 

sm ' Of the essential conditions of his empire he was con- 
stitutionally unable to form a conception. He was a disciple, 
not of Machiavelli, but of Rousseau; and his scattered 
dominions, divided by innumerable divergences of racial and 
class prejudice, and encumbered with traditional institutions 
to which the people clung with passionate conservatism, he 
regarded as so much vacant territory on which to build up his 
ideal state. He was, in fact, a Revolutionist who happened also 
to be an emperor. " Reason " and " enlightenment " were his 
watchwords; opposition to his wise measures he regarded as 
obscurantist and unreasonable, and unreason, if it proved 
stubborn, as a vice to be corrected with whips. In this spirit 
he at once set to work to reconstruct the state, on lines that 
strangely anticipated the principles of the Constituent Assembly 
of 1789. He refused to be crowned or to take the oath of the 
local constitutions, and divided the whole 'monarchy into thirteen 
departments, to be governed under a uniform system. In 
ecclesiastical matters his policy was also that of " reform from 
above," the complete subordination of the clergy to the state, 
and the severance of all effective ties with Rome. This treatment 
of the " Fakirs and Ulemas " (as he called them in his letters) , 
who formed the most powerful element in the monarchy, would 
alone have ensured the failure of his plans, but failure was made 
certain by the introduction of the conscription, which turned 
even the peasants, whom he had done much to emancipate, 
against him. The threatened revolt of Hungary, and the actual 
revolt of Tirol and of the Netherlands (see Belgium: History) 
together with the disasters of the war with Turkey, forced him, 
before he died, to the formal reversal of the whole policy of 
reform. 

In his foreign policy Joseph II. had been scarcely less unhappy. 
In 1784 he had resumed his plan of acquiring Bavaria for Austria 
by negotiating with the elector Charles Theodore its exchange 
for the Netherlands, which were to be erected for his benefit 
into a " Kingdom of Burgundy." The elector was not unwilling, 
but the scheme was wrecked by the opposition of the heir to 



the Bavarian throne, the duke of Zweibrucken, in response to 
whose appeal Frederick the Great formed, on the 23rd of July 
1785, a confederation of German princes (Fiirstenbund) for the 
purpose of opposing the threatened preponderance of Austria. 
Prussia was thus for the first time formally recognized as the 
protector of the German states against Austrian ambition, and 
had at the same time become the centre of an anti-Austrian 
alliance, which embraced Sweden, Poland and the maritime 
powers. In these circumstances the war with Turkey, on which 
Joseph embarked, in alliance with Russia, in 1788, would hardly 
have been justified by the most brilliant success. The first 
campaign, however, which he conducted in person was a dismal 
failure; the Turks followed the Austrian army, disorganized 
by disease, across the Danube, and though the transference of 
the command to the veteran marshal Loudon somewhat retrieved 
the initial disasters, his successes were more than counterbalanced 
by the alliance, concluded on the 31st of January 1790, between 
Prussia and Turkey. Three weeks later, on the 20th of February 
1790, Joseph died broken-hearted. 

The situation needed all the statesmanship of the new ruler, 
Leopold II. This was less obvious in his domestic than in his 
foreign policy, though perhaps equally present. As 
grand-duke of Tuscany Leopold had won the reputation n,° P ° 
of an enlightened and liberal ruler; but meanwhile 
" Josephinism " had not been justified by its results, and the 
progress of the Revolution in France was beginning to scare even 
enlightened princes into reaction. Leopold, then, reverted to 
the traditional Habsburg methods; the old supremacy of the 
Church, regarded as the one effective bond of empire, was 
restored; and the Einheitsstaal was once more resolved into its 
elements, with the old machinery of diets and estates, and the 
old abuses. It was the beginning of that policy of " stability " 
associated later with Metternich, which was to last till the 
cataclysm of 1848. For the time, the policy was justified by 
its results. The spirit of revolutionary France had not yet 
touched the heart of the Habsburg empire, and national rivalries 
were expressed, not so much in expansive ambitions, as in a 
somnolent clinging to traditional privileges. Leopold, therefore, 
who made his d6but on the European stage as the executor of 
the ban of the Empire against the insurgent Liegeois, was free to 
pose as the champion of order against the Revolution, without 
needing to fear the resentment of his subjects. He played this 
role with consummate skill in the negotiations that led up to the 
treaty of Reichenbach (August 15, 1790), which ended the 
quarrel with Prussia and paved the way to the armistice of 
Giurgevo with Turkey (September 10). Leopold was now free 
to deal with the Low Countries, which were reduced to order 
before the end of the year. On the 4th of August 1791, was 
signed at Sistova the definitive peace with Turkey, which 
practically established the status quo. 

On the 6th of October 1700, Leopold had been crowned Roman 
emperor at Frankfort, and it was as emperor, not as Habsburg, 
that he first found himself in direct antagonism to the . , rf 
France of the Revolution. The fact that Leopold's and the 
sister, Marie Antoinette, was the wife of Louis XVI. preach 
had done little to cement the Franco-Austrian alliance, Revolu- 
which since 1763 had been practically non-existent; 
nor was it now the mainspring of his attitude towards revolu- 
tionary France. But by the decree of the 4th of August, which 
in the general abolition of feudal rights involved the possessions 
of many German princes enclaves- in Alsace and Lorraine, the 
Constituent Assembly had made the first move in the war 
against the established European system. Leopold protested 
as sovereign of Germany; and the protest was soon enlarged 
into one made in the name of Europe. The circular letter of 
Count Kaunitz, dated the 6th of July 1791, calling on the 
sovereigns to unite against the Revolution, was at once the 
beginning of the Concert of Europe, and in a sense the last 
manifesto of the Holy Roman Empire as " the centre of political 
unity." But the common policy proclaimed in the famous 
declaration of Pillnitz (August 27), was soon wrecked upon the 
particular interests of the powers. Both Austria and Prussia 



12 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



[HISTORY 



were much occupied with the Polish question, and to have 
plunged into a crusade against France would have been to have 
left Poland, where the new constitution had been proclaimed 
on the 3rd of May, to the mercy of Russia. Towards the further 
development of events in France, therefore, Leopold assumed 
at first a studiously moderate attitude; but his refusal to 
respond to the demand of the French government for the dis- 
persal of the corps of emigres assembled under the protection 
of the German princes on the frontier of France, and the insistence 
on the rights of princes dispossessed in Alsace and Lorraine, 
precipitated the crisis. On the 25th of January 1792 the French 
Assembly adopted the decree declaring that, in the event of no 
satisfactory reply having been received from the emperor by the 
1st of March, war should be declared. On the 7th of February 
Austria and Prussia signed at Berlin an offensive and defensive 
treaty of alliance. Thus was ushered in the series of stupendous 
events which were to change the face of Europe and profoundly 
to affect the destinies of Austria. Leopold himself did not live 
to see the beginning of the struggle; he died on the 1st of March 
1792, the day fixed by the Legislative Assembly as that on which 
the question of peace or war was to be decided. 

The events of the period that followed, in which Austria 
necessarily played a conspicuous part, are dealt with elsewhere 
Effects of ( see Europe, French Revolutionary Wars, 

theRevol- NAPOLEON, NAPOLEONIC CAMPAIGNS). Here it will 

utlonary only be necessary to mention those which form per- 
Wars. manent landmarks in the progressive conformation of 
the Austrian monarchy. Such was the second partition 
of Poland (January 23, 1793), which eliminated the " buffer 
state " on which Austrian statesmanship had hitherto laid such 
importance, and brought the Austrian and Russian frontiers into 
contact. Such, too, was the treaty of Campo Formio (October 1 7 , 
1797) which ended the first revolutionary war. By this treaty 
the loss of the Belgian provinces was confirmed, and though 
Austria gained Venice, the establishment of French preponder- 
ance in the rest of Italy made a breach in the tradition of Habs- 
burg supremacy in the peninsula, which was to have its full 
effect only in the struggles of the next century. The rise of 
Napoleon, and his masterful interference in Germany, produced 
a complete and permanent revolution in the relations of Austria 
to the German states. The campaigns which issued in the treaty 
of LuneVille (February 9, 1801) practically sealed the fate of the 
old Empire. Even were the venerable name to survive, it was 
felt that it would pass, by the election of the princes now tributary 
to France, from the house of Habsburg to that of Bonaparte. 
Francis II. determined to forestall the possible indignity of the 
The subordination of his family to an upstart dynasty. 

"Empire On the 14th of May 1804, Napoleon was proclaimed 
"t ff emperor of the French; on the nth of August 
End of the F ranc is H. assumed the style of Francis I., hereditary 
Holy emperor of Austria. Two years later, when the defeat 

Roman f Austerlitz had led to the treaty of Pressburg 
Empire. (j anuar y Xj xg 6), by which Austria lost Venice and 
Tirol, and Napoleon's Confederation of the Rhine had broken 
the unity of Germany, Francis formally abdicated the title and 
functions of Holy Roman emperor (August 6, 1806). 

Austria had to undergo further losses and humiliations, 
notably by the treaty of Vienna (1809), before the outcome of 
Napoleon's Russian campaign in 181 2 gave her the opportunity 
for recuperation and revenge. The skilful diplomacy of Metter- 
nich, who was now at the head of the Austrian government, 
enabled Austria to take full advantage of the situation created 
by the disaster to Napoleon's arms. His object was to recover 
Austria's lost possessions and if possible to add to them, a policy 
which did not necessarily involve the complete overthrow of the 
French emperor. Austria, therefore, refused to join the alliance 
between Russia and Prussia signed on the 17th of March 1813, 
but pressed on her armaments so as to be ready in any event. 
Her opportunity came after the defeats of the Allies at Liitzen 
and Bautzen and the conclusion of an armistice at Pleswitz. 
Between 200,000 and 300,000 Austrian troops were massed in 
Bohemia; and Austria took up the r61e of mediator, prepared 



to throw the weight of her support into the scale of whichever 
side should prove most amenable to her claims. The news of 
the battle of Vittoria, following on the reluctance of Napoleon 
to listen to demands involving the overthrow of the whole 
of his political system in Central Europe, decided Austria in 
favour of the Allies. By this fateful decision Napoleon's fall 
was assured. By the treaty of Trachenberg (July 12, 1813) 
the Grand Alliance was completed; on the 16th, 17th and 
18th of October the battle of Leipzig was fought; and the 
victorious advance into France was begun, which issued, 
on the nth of April 1814, in Napoleon's abdication. (See 
Napoleon, Napoleonic Campaigns, Europe,) 

It was a recognition of the decisive part played by Austria 
in these great events that Vienna was chosen as the scene of the 
great international congress summoned (September 
1 8 14) for the purpose of re-establishing the balance „° vy^a 
of power in Europe, which Napoleon's conquests had 
upset. An account of the congress is given elsewhere (see 
Vienna, Congress of). The result for Austria was a triumphant 
vindication of Metternich's diplomacy. He had, it is true, been 
unable to prevent the retention of the grand-duchy of Warsaw 
by Alexander of Russia; but with the aid of Great Britain and 
France (secret treaty of January 3, 1815) he had frustrated 
the efforts of Prussia to absorb the whole of Saxony, Bavaria 
was forced to disgorge the territories gained for her by Napoleon 
at Austria's expense, Illyria and Dalmatia were regained, and 
Lombardy was added to Venetia to constitute a kingdom under 
the Habsburg crown; while in the whole Italian peninsula 
French was replaced by Austrian influence. In Germany the 
settlement was even more fateful for Austria's future. The 
Holy Empire, in spite of the protests of the Holy See, was not 
restored, Austria preferring the loose confederation of sovereign 
states (Staotenbund) actually constituted under her presidency. 
Such a body, Metternich held, " powerful for defence, powerless 
for offence," would form a guarantee of the peace of central 
Europe — and of the preponderance of Austria; and in its councils 
Austrian diplomacy, backed by the weight of the Habsburg 
power beyond the borders of Germany, would exercise a greater 
influence than any possible prestige derived from a venerable 
title that had become a by-word for the union of unlimited 
pretensions with practical impotence. Moreover, to the refusal 
to revive the Empire — which shattered so many patriotic hopes 
in Germany — Austria added another decision yet more fateful. 
By relinquishing her claim to the Belgian provinces and other 
outlying territories in western Germany, and by acquiescing in 
the establishment of Prussia in the Rhine provinces, she abdicated 
to Prussia her position as the bulwark of Germany against France, 
and hastened the process of her own gravitation towards the 
Slavonic East to which the final impetus was given in 1866. 

In order to understand the foreign policy of Austria, insepar- 
ably associated with the name of Metternich, during the period 
from the close of the congress of Vienna to the out- internal 
break of the revolutions of 1848, it is necessary to know affairs of 
something of the internal conditions of the monarchy Austria 
before and during this time. In 1792 Leopold II. had p ranC j s //. 
been succeeded by his son Francis II. His popular and 
designation of " our good Kaiser Franz " this monarch Metier- 
owed to a certain simplicity of address and bonhomie aich ' 
which pleased the Viennese, certainly not to his serious qualities 
as a ruler. He shared to the full the autocratic temper of the 
Habsburgs, their narrow-mindedness and their religious and 
intellectual obscurantism; and the qualities which would have 
made him a kindly, if somewhat tyrannical, father of a family, 
and an excellent head clerk, were hardly those required by the 
conditions of the Austrian monarchy during a singularly critical 
period of its history. 

, The personal character of the emperor, moreover, gained a 
special importance owing to the modifications that were made 
in the administrative system of the empire. This had been origin- 
ally organized in a series of departments: Aulic chanceries for 
Austria, for Hungary and Transylvania, a general Aulic chamber 
for finance, domains, mines, trade, post, &c, an Aulic council 



HISTORY] 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



13 



of war, a general directory of accounts, and a chancery of the 
household, court and state. The heads of all these departments 
had the rank of secretaries of state and met in council under 
the royal presidency. In course of time, however, this body 
became too unwieldy for an effective cabinet, and Maria Theresa 
established the council of state. During the early years of the 
reign of Francis, the emperor kept himself in touch with the 
various departments by means of a cabinet minister; but he 
had a passion for detail, and after 1805 he himself undertook 
the function of keeping the administration together. At the 
same time he had no personal contact with ministers, who might 
communicate with him only in writing, and for months together 
never met for the discussion of business. The council of state 
was, moreover, itself soon enlarged and subdivided; and in 
course of time the emperor alone represented any synthesis of 
the various departments of the administration. The jurisdiction 
of the heads of departments, moreover, was strictly defined, 
and all that lay outside this was reserved for the imperial decision. 
Whatever was covered by established precedent could be settled 
by the department at once; but matters falling outside such 
precedent, however insignificant, had to be referred to the 
throne. 1 A system so inelastic, and so deadening to all initiative, 
could have but one result. Gradually the officials, high and low, 
subjected to an elaborate system of checks, refused to take 
any responsibility whatever; and the minutest administrative 
questions were handed up, through all the stages of the bureau- 
cratic hierarchy, to be shelved and forgotten in the imperial 
cabinet. For Francis could not possibly himself deal with all 
the questions of detail arising in his vast empire, even had he 
desired to do so. In fact, his attitude towards all troublesome 
problems was summed up in his favourite phrase, " Let us sleep 
upon it ": questions unanswered would answer themselves. 

The result was the gradual atrophy of the whole administrative 
machine. The Austrian government was not consciously 
tyrannical, even in Italy; and Francis himself, though deter- 
mined to be absolute, intended also to be paternal. Nor would 
the cruelties inflicted on the bolder spirits who dared to preach 
reform, which made the Austrian government a by- word among 
the nations, alone have excited the passionate spirit of revolt 
which carried all before it in 1848. The cause of this is to be 
sought rather in the daily friction of a system which had ceased 
to be efficient and only succeeded in irritating the public opinion 
it was powerless to curb. 

Metternich himself was fully conscious of the evil. He 
recognized that the fault of the government lay in the fact that 
it did not govern, and he deplored that his own function, in a 
decadent age, was but " to prop up mouldering institutions." 
He was not constitutionally averse from change; and he was 
too clear-sighted not to see that, sooner or later, change was 
inevitable. But his interest was in the fascinating game of diplo- 
macy; he was ambitious of playing the leading part on the great 
stage of international politics; and he was too consummate 
a courtier to risk the loss of the imperial favour by any insistence 
on unpalatable reforms, which, after all, would ■ perhaps only 
reveal the necessity for the complete revolution which he feared. 

The alternative was to use the whole force of the government 
to keep things as they were. The disintegrating force of the 
ever-simmering racial rivalries could be kept in check by the 
army ; Hungarian regiments garrisoned Italy, Italian regiments 
guarded Galicia, Poles occupied Austria, and Austrians Hungary. 
The peril from the infiltration of " revolutionary " ideas from 
without was met by the erection round the Austrian dominions 
of a Chinese wall of tariffs and censors, which had, however, no 
more success than is usual with such expedients. 2 The peril 
from the independent growth of Liberalism within was guarded 
against by a rigid supervision of the press and the re-establish- 
ment of clerical control over education. Music alone flourished, 

1 Thus, while the number of recruits, though varying from year 
to year, could be settled by the war department, the question of 
the claim of a single conscript for exemption, on grounds not recog- 
nized by precedent, could only be settled by imperial decree. 

1 Forbidden books were the only ones read, and forbidden news- 
papers the only ones believed. 



free from government interference; but, curiously enough, 
the movements, in Bohemia, Croatia and elsewhere, for the 
revival of the national literatures and languages — which were 
to issue in the most difficult problem facing the Austrian govern- 
ment at the opening of the 20th century — were encouraged in 
exalted circles, as tending to divert attention from political 
to purely scientific interests. Meanwhile the old system of 
provincial diets and estates was continued or revived (in 1816 in 
Tirol and Vorarlberg, 181 7 in Galicia, 1818 in Carniola, 1828 in 
the circle of Salzburg), but they were in no sense representative, 
clergy and nobles alone being eligible, with a few delegates from 
the towns, and they had practically no functions beyond register- 
ing the imperial decrees, relative to recruiting or taxation, and 
dealing with matters of local police. 3 Even the ancient right of 
petition was seldom exercised, and then only to meet with the 
imperial disfavour. And this stagnation of the administration 
was accompanied, as might have been expected, by economic 
stagnation. Agriculture languished, hampered, as in France 
before the Revolution, by the feudal privileges of a noble caste 
which no longer gave any equivalent service to the state; trade 
was strangled by the system of high tariffs at the frontier and 
internal octrois; and finally public credit was shaken to its 
foundations by lavish issues of paper money and the neglect to 
publish the budget. 

The maintenance within the empire of a system so artificial 
and so unsound, involved in foreign affairs the policy of pre- 
venting the success of any movements by which it Metier- 
might be threatened. The triumph of Liberal principles nich's 
or of national aspirations in Germany, or elsewhere policy ot 
in Europe, might easily, as the events of 1848 proved, sa ' y ' 
shatter the whole rotten structure of the Habsburg monarchy, 
which survived only owing to the apathy of the popula- 
tions it oppressed. This, then, is the explanation of the 
system of " stability " which Metternich succeeded in imposing 
for thirty years upon Europe, If he persuaded Frederick 
William III. that the grant of a popular constitution would be 
fatal to the Prussian monarchy, this was through no love of 
Prussia; the Carlsbad Decrees and the Vienna Final Act were 
designed to keep Germany quiet, lest the sleep of Austria should 
be disturbed; the lofty claims of the Troppau Protocol were but 
to cover an Austrian aggression directed to purely Austrian ends: 
and in the Eastern Question, the moral support given to the 
" legitimate " authority of the sultan over the " rebel " Greeks 
was dictated solely by the interest of Austria in maintaining 
the integrity of Turkey. (See Europe: History; Germany: 
History; Alexander I. of Russia; Metternich, &c.) 

Judged by the standard of its own aims Metternich's diplomacy 
was, on the whole, completely successful. For fifteen years 
after the congress of Vienna, in spite of frequent alarms, the 
peace of Europe was not seriously disturbed; and even in 1830, 
the revolution at Paris found no echo in the great body of the 
Austrian dominions. The isolated revolts in Italy were easily 
suppressed; and the insurrection of Poland, though it provoked 
the lively sympathy of the Magyars and Czechs, led to no actual 
movement in the Habsburg states. For a moment, indeed, 
Metternich had meditated taking advantage of the popular 
feeling to throw the weight of Austria into the scale in favour 
of the Poles, and thus, by re-establishing a Polish kingdom under 
Austrian influence, to restore the barrier between the two 
empires which the partition of Poland had destroyed. But 
cautious counsels prevailed, and by the victory of the Russian 
arms the status quo was restored (see Poland) . 

The years that followed were not wanting in signs of the coming 
storm. On the 2nd of March 1835 Francis I. died, and was 
succeeded by his son Ferdinand I. The new emperor Fenti- 
was personally amiable, but so enfeebled by epilepsy nandi. 
as to be incapable of ruling; a veiled regency had to ,83S ' 
be constituted to carry on the government, and the 1S48 ' 
vices of the administration were further accentuated by weakness 
and divided counsels at the centre. Under these circumstances 

8 In Hungary the diet was not summoned at all between 181 1 
and 1825, nor in Transylvania between 181 1 and 1834. 



H 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



[HISTORY 



popular discontent made rapid headway. The earliest symptoms 
of political agitation were in Hungary, where the diet began to 
show signs of vigorous life, and the growing Slav separatist 
movements, especially in the south of the kingdom, were rousing 
the old spirit of Magyar ascendancy (see Hungary: History). 
For everywhere the Slav populations were growing restive under 
the German-Magyar domination. In Bohemia the Czech literary 
movement had developed into an organized resistance to the 
established order, which was attacked under the disguise of a 
criticism of the English administration in Ireland. " Repeal " 
became the watchword of Bohemian, as of Irish, nationalists 
(see Bohemia). Among the southern Slays the "Illyrian" 
movement, voiced from 1836 onward in the Illyrian National 
Gazette of Ljudevit Gaj, was directed in the first instance to a 
somewhat shadowy Pan-Slav union, which, on the interference 
of the Austrian government in 1844, was exchanged for the more 
definite object of a revival of " the Triune Kingdom " (Croatia, 
Slavonia,' Dalmatia) independent of the Hungarian crown (see 
Croatia, &c). In the German provinces also, in spite of 
Metternich's censors and police; the national movements in 
Germany had gained an entrance, and, as the revolution of 1848 
in Vienna was to show, the most advanced revolutionary views 
were making headway. 

The most important of all the symptoms of the approaching 
cataclysm was, however, the growing unrest among the peasants. 
As had been proved in France in 1789, and was again 
^siar" t0 k e s h° wn i n R uss i a m i9°6, the success of any 
1846. ' political revolution depended ultimately upon the 
attitude of the peasant class. In this lies the main 
significance of the rising in Galicia in 1 846. This was in its origin 
a Polish nationalist movement, hatched in the little independent 
republic of Cracow. As such it had little importance; though, 
owing to the incompetence of the Austrian commander, the 
Poles gained some initial successes. More fateful was the 
attitude of the Orthodox Ruthenian peasantry, who were divided 
from their Catholic Polish over-lords by centuries of religious 
and feudal oppression. The Poles had sought, by lavish promises, 
to draw them into their ranks ; their reply was to rise in support of 
the Austrian government. In the fight at Gdow (February 26th) , 
where Benedek laid the foundations of the military reputation 
that Was to end so tragically at Kbniggratz, flail and scythe 
wrought more havoc in the rebel ranks than the Austrian mus- 
ketry. Since, in spite of this object-lesson, the Polish nobles 
still continued their offers, the peasants consulted the local 
Austrian authorities as to what course they should take; and 
the local authorities, unaccustomed to arriving at any decision 
without consulting Vienna, practically gave them carte blanche 
to do as they liked. A hideous jacquerie followed for three or 
four days; during which cartloads of dead were carried into 
Tarnow, where the peasants received a reward for every " rebel " 
brought in. 

This affair was not only a scandal for which the Austrian 
government, through its agents, was responsible; but it placed 
the authorities at Vienna in a serious dilemma. For the 
Ruthenians, elated by their victory, refused to return to work, 
and demanded the abolition of all feudal obligations as the reward 
of their loyalty. To refuse this claim would have meant the 
indefinite prolongation of the crisis; to concede it would have 
been to invite the peasantry of the whole empire to put forth 
similar demands on pain of a general rising. On the 13 th of 
April 1846 an imperial decree abolished some of the more 
burdensome feudal obligations; but this concession was greeted 
with so fierce an outcry, as an authoritative endorsement of the 
atrocities, that it was again revoked, and Count Franz von Stadion 
was sent to restore order in Galicia. The result was, that the 
peasants saw that though their wrongs were admitted, their sole 
hope of redress lay in a change of government, and added the 
dead weight of their resentment to the forces making for revolt 
tion. It was the union of the agrarian with the nationalist 
movements that made the downfall of the Austrian system 
inevitable. 

The material for the conflagration in Austria was thus all 



prepared when in February 1848 the fall of Louis Philippe 
fanned into a blaze the smouldering fires of revolution throughout 
Europe. On the 3rd of March, Kossuth, in the diet 
at Pressburg, delivered the famous speech which was tkms "of 
the declaration of war of Hungarian Liberalism against is48, 
the Austrian system. " From the charnel-house of 
the Vienna cabinet," he exclaimed, " a pestilential air breathes 
on us, which dulls our nerves and paralyses the flight of our 
spirit." Hungary liberated was to become the centre of freedom 
for all the races under the Austrian crown, and the outcome was 
to be a new " fraternization of the Austrian peoples." In the 
enthusiasm of the moment the crucial question of the position 
to be occupied by the conflicting nationalities in this" fraternal 
union " was overlooked. Germanism had so far served as the 
basis of the Austrian system, not as a national ideal, but because 
" it formed a sort of unnational mediating, and common element 
among the contradictory and clamorous racial tendencies." 
But with the growth of the idea of German unity, Germanism 
had established a new ideal, of which the centre lay beyond the 
boundaries of the Austrian monarchy, and which was bound to 
be antagonistic to the aspirations of other races. The new 
doctrine of the fraternization of the Austrian races would 
inevitably soon come into conflict with the traditional German 
ascendancy strengthened by the new sentiment of a united 
Germany. It was on this rock that, both in Austria and in 
Germany, the revolution suffered shipwreck. 

Meanwhile events progressed rapidly. On the nth of March 
a meeting of " young Czechs " at Prague drew up a petition 
embodying nationalist and liberal demands; and on the same 
day the diet of Lower Austria petitioned the crown to summon 
a meeting of the delegates of the diets to set the Austrian finances 
in order. To this last proposal the government, next day, gave 
its consent. But in the actual temper of the Viennese the 
slightest concession was dangerous. The hall of the diet was 
invaded by a mob of students and workmen, Kossuth's speech 
was read and its proposals adopted as the popular programme, 
and the members of the diet were forced to lead a tumultuous 
procession to the Hofburg, to force the assent of the government 
to a petition based on the catch- words of the Revolution. The 
authorities, taken by surprise, were forced to temporize and agreed 
to lay the petition before the emperor. Meanwhile Fallot 
round the hall of the diet a riot had broken out; the Metter- 
soldiers intervened and blood was shed. The middle ??*'. ., 
classes now joined the rebels ; and the riots had become 1S48i ' 
a revolution. Threatened by the violence of the mob, 
Metternich, on the evening of the 13th of March, escaped from 
the Hofburg and passed into exile in England. 

The fall of Metternich was the signal for the outburst of the 
storm, not in Austria only, but throughout central Europe. 
In Hungary, on the 31st of March, the government was forced 
to consent to a new constitution which virtually erected Hungary 
into an independent state. On the 8th of April a separate 
constitution was promised to Bohemia; and if the petition of 
the Croats for a similar concession was rejected, this was due 
to the armed mob of Vienna, which was in close alliance with 
Kossuth and the Magyars. The impotence of the Austrian 
government in this crisis was due to the necessity of keeping 
the bulk of the Austrian forces in Italy, where the news of 
Metternich's fall had also led to a concerted rising against the 
Habsburg rule (see Italy). Upon the fortunes of war in the 
peninsula depended the ultimate issue of the revolutions so far 
as Austria was concerned. 

The army and the prestige of the imperial tradition were, in 
fact, the two sheet-anchors that enabled the Habsburg monarchy 
to weather the storm. For the time the latter was the only one 
available; but it proved invaluable, especially in Germany, 
in preventing any settlement, until Radetzky's victory of 
Novara had set free the army, and thus once more enabled Austria 
to back her policy by force. The Austrian government, in no 
position to refuse, had consented to send delegates from its 
German provinces to the parliament of united Germany, which 
met at Frankfort on the 18th of May 1848. The question at 



HISTORY] 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



*5 



once arose of the place of the Austrian monarchy in united 
Germany. Were only its German provinces to be included ? 
Or was it to be incorporated whole ? As to the first, the Austrian 
government would not listen to the suggestion of a settlement 
which would have split the monarchy in half and subjected it 
to a double allegiance. As to the second, German patriots could 
not stomach the inclusion in Germany of a vast non-German 
population. The dilemma was from the first so obvious that 
the parliament would bave done well to have recognized at once 
that the only possible solution was that arrived at, after the 
withdrawal of the Austrian delegates, by the exclusion of Austria 
altogether and the offer of the crown of Germany to Frederick 
William of Prussia. But the shadow of the Holy Empire, 
immemorially associated with the house of Habsburg, still 
darkened the counsels of German statesmen. The Austrian 
archduke John had been appointed regent, pending the election 
of an emperor; and the political leaders could neither break 
loose from the tradition of Austrian hegemony, nor reconcile 
themselves with the idea of a mutilated Germany, till it was too 
late, and Austria was once more in a position to re-establish the 
system devised by her diplomacy at the congress of Vienna. 
(See Germany: History.) 

This fatal procrastination was perhaps not without excuse, 
in view of the critical situation of the Austrian monarchy during 
1848. For months after the fall of Metternich Austria was 
practically without a central government. Vienna itself, where 
on the 14th of March the establishment of a National Guard 
was authorized by the emperor, was ruled by a committee of 
students and citizens, who arrogated to themselves a voice in 
imperial affairs, and imposed their will on the distracted ministry. 
On the 15th of March the government proposed to summon a 
central committee of local diets; but this was far from satisfying 
public opinion, and on the 25th of April a constitution was 
proclaimed, including the whole monarchy with the exception 
of Hungary and Lombardo-Venetia. This was, however, met 
by vigorous protests from Czechs and Poles, while its provisions 
for a partly nominated senate, and the indirect election of 
deputies, excited the wrath of radical Vienna. Committees of 
students and national guards were formed; on the 13th of May 
a Central Committee was established; and on the 15th a fresh 
insurrection broke out, as a result of which the government 
once more yielded, recognizing the Central Committee, admitting 
the right of the National Guard to take an active part in politics, 
and promising the convocation of a National Convention on the 
basis of a single chamber elected by universal suffrage. On the 
17th the emperor left Vienna for Innsbruck " for the benefit of 
his health," and thence, on the 20th, issued a proclamation in 
which he cast himself on the loyalty of his faithful provinces, 
and, while confirming the concessions of March, ignored those 
of the 15 th of May. The flight of the emperor had led to a 
revulsion of feeling in Vienna ; but the issue of the proclamation 
and the attempt of the government to disperse the students by 
closing the university, led to a fresh outbreak on the 26th. Once 
more the ministry conceded all the demands of the insurgents, 
and even went so far as to hand over the public treasury and 
the responsibility of keeping order to a newly constituted 
Committee of Public Safety. 

The tide was now, however, on the turn. The Jacobinism 
of the Vienna democracy was not really representative of any 
widespread opinion even in the German parts of 
move- Austria, while its loud-voiced Germanism excited 
meats. the lively opposition of the other races. Each of 
these had taken advantage of the March troubles to 
press its claims, and everywhere the government had shown 
the same yielding spirit. In Bohemia, where the attempt to 
hold elections for the Frankfort parliament had broken down 
on the opposition of the Czechs and the conservative German 
aristocracy, a separate constitution had been proclaimed on the 
8th of April; on March the 23rd the election by the diet of Agram 
of Baron Joseph Jellachich as ban of Croatia was confirmed, 
as a concession to the agitation among the southern Slavs; on 
the 1 8th of March Count Stadion had proclaimed a new con- 



stitution for Galicia. Even where, as in the case of the Serbs 
and Rumans, the government had given no formal sanction 
to the national claims, the emperor was regarded as the ultimate 
guarantee of their success; and deputations from the various 
provinces poured into Innsbruck protesting their loyalty. 

To say that the government deliberately adopted the Machia- 
vellian policy of mastering the revolution by setting race against 
race would be to pay too high a compliment to its capacity* 
The policy was forced upon it; and was only pursued consciously 
when it became obvious. Count Stadion began it in Galicia, 
where, before bombarding insurgent Cracow into submission 
(April 26), he had won over the Ruthenian peasants by the 
abolition of feudal dues and by forwarding a petition to the 
emperor for the official recognition of their language alongside 
Polish. But the great object lesson was furnished by the events 
in Prague, where the quarrel between Czechs and Germans; 
radicals and conservatives, issued on the 12 th of June in a rising 
of the Czech students and populace. The suppression of this 
rising, and with it of the revolution in Bohemia, on the 16th of 
June, by Prince Windischgratz, was not only the first victory of 
the army, but was the signal for the outbreak of a universal race 
war, in which the idea of constitutional liberty was sacrificed 
to the bitter spirit of national rivalry. The parliament at 
Frankfort hailed Windischgratz as a national hero, and offered 
to send troops to his aid; the German revolutionists in Vienna 
welcomed every success of Radetzky's arms in Italy as a victory 
for Germanism. The natural result was to drive the Slav 
nationalities to the side of the imperial government, since, 
whether at Vienna or at Budapest, the radicals were their worst 
enemies. 

The 1 6th of June had been fatal to the idea of an independent 
Bohemia, fatal also to Pan-Slav dreams. To the Czechs the most 
immediate peril now seemed that from the German parliament, 
and in the interests of their nationality they were willing to 
join the Austrian government in the struggle against German 
liberalism. The Bohemian diet, summoned for the 19th, never 
met. Writs were issued in Bohemia for the election to the 
Austrian Reichsrath; and when, on the 10th of July, this 
assembled, the Slav deputies were found to be in a majority. 
This factj which was to lead to violent trouble later, was at first 
subordinate to other issues, of which the most important was 
the question of the emancipation of the peasants. After long 
debates the law abolishing feudal services — the sole permanent 
outcome of the revolution — was carried on the 31st of August, 
and on the 7th of September received the imperial consent. 
The peasants thus received all that they desired, and their vast 
weight was henceforth thrown into the scale of the government 
against the revolution. 

Meanwhile the alliance between the Slav nationalities and the 
conservative elements within the empire had found a powerful 
representative in Jellachich, the ban of Croatia. At jettuchlch 
first, indeed, his activity had been looked at askance and 
at Innsbruck, as but another force making for dis- ". 1Uy , r ~ 
integration. He had apparently identified himself sm ' 
with the " Illyrian " party, had broken off all communications 
with the Hungarian government, and, in spite of an imperial 
edict issued in response to the urgency of Batthyani, had 
summoned a diet to Agram, which on the 9th of June decreed 
the separation of the "Triune Kingdom" from Hungary. :?Fhe 
imperial government, which still hoped for Magyar aid against 
the Viennese revolutionists, repudiated the action of the ban, 
accused him of disobedience and treason, and deprived him of 
his military rank. But his true motives were soon apparent; 
his object was to play off the nationalism of the " Illyrians " 
against the radicalism of Magyars and Germans, and thus to 
preserve his province for the monarchy; and the Hungarian 
radicals played into his hands. The fate of the Habsburg empire 
depended upon the issue of the campaign in Italy, which would 
have been lost by the withdrawal of the Magyar and Croatian 
regiments; and the Hungarian government chose this critical 
moment to tamper with the relations of the army to the 
monarchy. In May a National Guard had been established; 



i6 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



[HISTORY 



Hungary. 



and -the soldiers of the line were invited to join this, with the 
promise of higher pay; on the ist of June the garrison of Pest 
took the oath to the Constitution. On the ioth Jellachich issued 
a proclamation to the Croatian regiments in Italy, bidding them 
remain and fight for the emperor and the common Fatherland. 
His loyalty to the tradition of the imperial army was thus 
announced, and the alliance was cemented between the army 
and the southern Slavs. 

Jellachich, who had gone to Innsbruck to lay the Slav view 
before the emperor, was allowed to return to Agram, though not 
as yet formally reinstated. Here the diet passed a resolution 
denouncing the dual system and demanding the restoration of 
the union of the empire. Thus was proclaimed the identity of 
the Slav and the conservative points of view; the radical 
"Illyrian " assembly had done its work, and on the 9th of July 
Jellachich, while declaring it " permanent," prorogued it 
indefinitely "with a paternal greeting," on the ground that the 
safety of the Fatherland depended now " more upon physical 
than upon moral force." The diet thus prorogued never met 
again. Absolute master of the forces of the banat, Jellachich 
now waited until the intractable politicians of Pest should give 
him the occasion and the excuse for setting the imperial army 
in motion against them. 

The occasion was not to be long postponed. Every day the 
rift between the dominant radical element in the Hungarian 
parliament and imperial court was widened. Kossuth 
and his followers were evidently aiming at the complete 
separation of Hungary from Austria; they were in sympathy, 
if not in alliance, with the German radicals in Vienna and 
Frankfort; they were less than half-hearted in their support 
of the imperial arms in Italy. The imperial government, pressed 
by the Magyar nationalists to renounce Jellachich and all his 
works, equivocated and procrastinated, while within its councils 
the idea of a centralized state, to replace the loose federalism 
of the old empire, slowly took shape under the pressure- of the 
military party. It was encouraged by the news from Italy, 
where, on the 25th of July, Radetzky had won the battle of 
Custozza, and on the 6th of August the Austrian standard once 
more floated over the towers of Milan. At Custozza Magyar 
hussars, Croats from the Military Frontier, and Tirolese sharp- 
shooters had fought side by side. The possibility was obvious of 
combating the radical and nationalist revolution by means of 
the army, with its spirit of comradeship in arms and its imperialist 
tradition. 

So early as the beginning of July, Austrian officers, with the 
permission of the minister of war, had joined the Serb insurgents 
who, under Stratemirovic, were defying the Magyar power in the 
banat. By the end of August the breach between the Austrian 
and Hungarian governments was open and complete; on the 
4th of September Jellachich was reinstated in all his honours, and 
on the nth he crossed the Drave to the invasion of Hungary. 
The die was thus cast; and, though efforts continued to be 
made to arrange matters, the time for moderate counsels was 
passed. The conservative leaders of the Hungarian nationalists, 
Eotvos and Deak, retired from public life; and, though Batthyani 
consented to remain in office, the slender hope that this gave 
of peace was ruined by the flight of the palatine (September 24) 
and the murder of Count Lamberg, the newly appointed com- 
missioner and commander-in-chief in Hungary, by the mob at 
Pest (September 27). The appeal was now to arms; and the 
fortunes of the Habsburg monarchy were bound up with the fate 
of the war in Hungary (see Hungary: History). 

Meanwhile, renewed trouble had broken out in Vienna, where 
the radical populace was in conflict alike with the government 
and with the Slav majority of the Reichsrath. The German 
democrats appealed for aid to the Hungarian government; but 
the Magyar passion for constitutional legality led to delay, and 
before the Hungarian advance could be made effective, it was too 
late. On the 7 th of October the emperor Ferdinand had fled 
from Schonbrunn to Olmiitz, a Slav district, whence he issued 
a proclamation inviting whoever loved "Austria and freedom" 
to rally round the throne. On the 1 1 th Windischgratz proclaimed 



his intention of marching against rebellious Vienna, and on the 
1 6th an imperial rescript appointed him a field-marshal and 
commander-in-chief of all the Austrian armies except that of 
Italy. Meanwhile, of the Reichsrath, the members of the Right 
and the Slav majority had left Vienna and announced a meeting 
of the diet at Briinn for the 20th of October; all that remained 
in the capital was a rump of German radicals, impotent in the 
hands of the proletariat and the students. The defence of the 
city was hastily organized under Bern, an ex-officer of Napoleon; 
but in the absence of help from Hungary it was futile. On the 
28th of October Windischgratz began his attack; on the ist 
of November he was master of the city. 

The fall of revolutionary Vienna practically involved that of 
the revolution in Frankfort and in Pest. From Italy the con- 
gratulations of Radetzky's victorious army came to Windisch- 
gratz, from Russia the even more significant commendations 
of the emperor Nicholas. The moral of the victory was painted 
for all the world by the military execution of Robert Blum, 
whose person, as a deputy of the German parliament, should 
have been sacrosanct. The time had, indeed, not yet come to 
attempt any conspicuous breach with the constitutional principle; 
but the new ministry was such as the imperial sentiment would 
approve, inimical to the German ideals of Frankfort, devoted 
to the traditions of the Habsburg monarchy. At its head was 
Prince Felix Schwarzenberg (q.v.), the " army-diplomat," a 
statesman at once strong and unscrupulous. On the 27th of 
November a proclamation announced that the continuation of 
Austria as a united state was necessary both for Germany and 
for Europe. On the 2nd of December the emperor Ferdinand, 
bound by too many personal obligations to the revolutionary 
parties to serve as a useful instrument for the new Accession 
policy, abdicated, and his nephew Francis Joseph ofFrancis 
ascended the throne. The proclamation of the new J .°Jf^ h ' 
emperor was a gage of defiance thrown down to Magyars 
and German unionists alike: " Firmly determined to preserve 
undimmed the lustre of our crown," it ran, " but prepared to 
share our rights with the representatives of our peoples, we trust 
that with God's aid and in common with our peoples we shall 
succeed in uniting all the countries and races of the monarchy 
in one great body politic." 

While the Reichsrath, transferred to Kremsier, was discussing 
" fundamental rights " and the difficult question of how to 
reconcile the theoretical unity with the actual dualism of the 
empire, the knot was being cut by the sword on the plains of 
Hungary. The Hungarian retreat after the bloody battle of 
Kapolna (February 26-27, 1849) was followed by the dissolution 
of the Kremsier assembly, and a proclamation in which the 
emperor announced his intention of granting & constitution to 
the whole monarchy " one and indivisible." On the 4th of 
March the constitution was published; but it proved all but as 
distasteful to Czechs and Croats as to the Magyars, and the 
speedy successes of the Hungarian arms made it, for the while, 
a dead letter. It needed the intervention of the emperor 
Nicholas, in the loftiest spirit of the Holy Alliance, before even 
an experimental unity of the Habsburg dominions could be 
established (see Hungary: History). 

The capitulation of Vilagos, which ended the Hungarian 
insurrection, gave Schwarzenberg a free hand for completing 
the work of restoring the status quo ante and the influence of 
Austria in Germany. The account of the process by which this 
was accomplished belongs to the history of Germany {q.v.). 
Here it will suffice to say that the terms of the Convention of 
Olmiitz (November 29, 1850) seemed at the time a complete 
triumph for Austria over Prussia. As a matter of fact, however, 
the convention was, in the words of Count Beust, " not a Prussian 
humiliation, but an Austrian weakness." It was in the power 
of Austria to crush Prussia and to put an end to the dual influence 
in the Confederation which experience had proved to be unwork- 
able; she preferred to re-establish a discredited system, and to 
leave to Prussia time and opportunity to gather strength for the 
inevitable conflict. 

In 185 1 Austria had apparently triumphed over all its 



HISTORY] 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



1 7 



difficulties. The revolutionary movements had been sup- 
pressed, the attempt of Prussia to assume the leadership 
in Germany defeated, the old Federal Diet of 1815 
o/AusMa. na d been restored. Vienna again became the centre 
of a despotic government the objects of which were to 
Germanize the Magyars and Slavs, to check all agitation for a 
constitution, and to suppress all attempts to secure a free press. 
For some ten years the Austrian dominion groaned under one of 
the worst possible forms of autocratic government. The failure 
of the Habsburg emperor to perpetuate this despotic rdgime was 
due (1) to the Crimean War, (2) to the establishment of Italian 
unity, and (3) to the successful assertion by Prussia of its claim 
to the leadership in Germany. The disputes which resulted in 
the Crimean War revealed the fact that " gratitude " plays but 
a small part in international affairs. In the minds of Austrian 
statesmen the question of the free navigation of the Danube, 
which would have been imperilled by a Russian occupation of 
the Principalities, outweighed their sense of obligation to Russia, 
on which the emperor Nicholas had rashly relied. That Austria 
at first took no active part in the war was due, not to any senti- 
mental weakness, but to the refusal of Prussia to go along with 
her and to the fear of a Sardinian attack on her Italian provinces. 
But, on the withdrawal of the Russian forces from the Princi- 
palities, these were occupied by Austrian troops, and on the 
2nd of December 1854, a treaty of alliance was signed at Vienna, 
between Great Britain, Austria and France, by which Austria 
undertook to occupy Moldavia and Walachia during the con- 
tinuance of the war and " to defend the frontier of the said 
principalities against any return of the Russian forces." By 
Article III., in the event of war between R.ussia and Austria the 
alliance both offensive and defensive was to be made effective 
(Hertslet, No. 252). With the progressive disasters of the 
Russian arms, however, Austria grew bolder, and it was the 
ultimatum delivered by her to the emperor Alexander II. in 
December 1855, that forced Russia to come to terms (Treaty 
of Paris, March 30, 1856). 

Though, however, Austria by her diplomatic attitude had 
secured, without striking a blow, the settlement in her sense 
of the Eastern Question, she emerged from the contest without 
allies and without friends. The " Holy Alliance " of the three 
autocratic northern powers, recemented at Mtinchengratz in 
r833, which had gained for Austria the decisive intervention 
of the tsar in 1849, had been hopelessly shattered by her attitude 
during the Crimean War. Russia, justly offended, drew closer 
her ties with Prussia, where Bismarck was already hatching 
the plans which were to mature in 1866; and, if the attitude 
of Napoleon in the Polish question prevented any revival of 
the alliance of Tilsit, the goodwill of Russia was assured for 
France in the coming struggle with Austria in Italy. Already 
the isolation of Austria had been conspicuous in the congress 
of Paris, where Cavour, the Sardinian plenipotentiary, laid bare 
before assembled Europe the scandal of her rule in Italy. It 
was emphasized during the campaign of 1859, when Sardinia, 
in alliance with France, laid the foundations of united Italy. 
The threat of Prussian intervention, which determined the pro- 
visions of the armistice of Villafranca, was due, not to love of 
Austria, but to fear of the undue aggrandizement of France. 
The campaign of 1859, and the diplomatic events that led up 
to it, are dealt with elsewhere (see Italy, Italian Wars, 
Napoleon III., Cavour). The results to Austria were two-fold. 
Externally, she lost all her Italian possessions except Venice; 
internally, her failure led to the necessity of conciliating public 
opinion by constitutional concessions. 

The proclamation on the 26th of February 1861 of the new 
constitution for the whole monarchy, elaborated by Anton von 
Schmerling, though far from satisfying the national aspirations 
of the races within the empire, at least gave Austria a temporary 
popularity in Germany; the liberalism of the Habsburg monarchy 
was favourably contrasted with the " reactionary " policy of 
Prussia, where Bismarck was defying the majority of the diet 
in his determination to build up the military power of Prussia. 
The meeting of the princes summoned to Frankfort by the 



emperor Francis Joseph, in 1863, revealed the ascendancy 
of Austria among the smaller states of the Confederation; but 
it revealed also the impossibility of any consolidation of the 
Confederation without the co-operation of Prussia, which stood 
outside. Bismarck had long since decided that the matter could 
only be settled by the exclusion of Austria altogether, and 
that the means to this end were not discussion, but " Blood and 
Iron." The issue was forced by the developments of the tangled 
Schleswig-Holstein Question ($.».), which led to the definitive 
breach between the two great German powers, to the campaign 
of 1866, and the collapse of Austria on the field of Koniggratz 
(July 3. See Seven Weeks' War). (W. A. P.; A. Hl.) 

The war of 1866 began a new era in the history of the Austrian 
empire. By the treaty of Prague (August 23, 1866) the emperor 
surrendered the position in Germany which his ancestors had held 
for so many centuries; Austria and Tirol, Bohemia and Salzburg, 
ceased to be German, and eight million Germans were cut off 
from all political union with their fellow-countrymen. At the 
same time the surrender of Venetia completed the work of 1859, 
and the last remnant of the old-established Habsburg domination 
in Italy ceased. The war was immediately followed by a re- 
organization of the government. The Magyar nation, Establish- 
as well as the Czechs, had refused to recognize the otentof 
validity of the constitution of 1861 which had estab- -foe dual 
lished a common parliament for the whole empire; monarcby - 
they demanded that the independence of the kingdom of 
Hungary should be restored. Even before the war the necessity 
of coming to terms with the Hungarians had been recognized. 
In June 1865 the emperor Francis Joseph visited Pest and 
replaced the chancellors of Transylvania and Hungary, Counts 
Francis Zichy and Nadasdy, supporters of the February con- 
stitution, by Count Majlath, a leader of the old conservative 
magnates. This was at once followed by the resignation of 
Schmerling, who was succeeded by Count Richard Belcredi. 
On the 20th of September the Reichsrath was prorogued, which 
was equivalent to the suspension of the constitution; and in 
December the emperor opened the Hungarian diet in person, 
with a speech from the throne that recognized the validity of the 
laws of 1848. Before any definite arrangement as to their 
re-introduction could be made, however, the war broke out; 
and after the defeats on the field of battle the Hungarian diet 
was able to make its own terms. They recognized no union 
between their country and the other parts of the monarchy 
except that which was based on the Pragmatic Sanction. 1 All 
recent innovations, all attempts made during the last hundred 
years to absorb Hungary in a greater Austria, were revoked. 
An agreement was made by which the emperor was to be crowned 
at Pest and take the ancient oath to the Golden Bull ; Hungary 
(including Transylvania and Croatia) was to have its own 
parliament and its own ministry; Magyar was to be the official 
language; the emperor was to rule as king; there was to be com- 
plete separation of the finances; not even a common nationality 
was recognized between the Hungarians and the other subjects 
of the emperor; a Hungarian was to be a foreigner in Vienna, 
an Austrian a foreigner in Budapest. A large party wished 
indeed that nothing should be left but a purely personal union 
similar to that between England and Hanover. Deak and the 
majority agreed, however, that there should be certain institu- 
tions common to Hungary and the rest of the monarchy; these 
were— (1) foreign affairs, including the diplomatic and consular 
service; (2) the army and navy; (3) the control of the expenses 
required for these branches of the public service. 

Recognizing in a declaratory act the legal existence of these 
common institutions, they also determined the method by which 
they should be administered. In doing so they carried out with 
great exactitude the principle of dualism, establishing in form 
a complete parity between Hungary on one side and the other 
territories of the king on the other. They made it a condition 

1 For the separate political histories of Austria and Hungary 
see the section on II. Austria Proper, below, and Hungary; 
the present section deals with the history of the whole monarchy 
as such. 



i.8 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



(HISTORY 



that there should be constitutional government in the rest of the 
monarchy as well as in Hungary, and a parliament in which 
all the other territories should be represented. From both the 
Hungarian and the Austrian parliament there was to be elected 
a Delegation, consisting of sixty members; to these 
Defcya- Delegations the common ministers were to be re- 
sponsible, and to them the estimates for the joint 
services were to be submitted. The annual meetings were to 
be held alternately in Vienna and in Best. They were very care- 
ful that these Delegations should not overshadow the parliaments 
by which they were appointed. The Delegations were not to 
sit together; each was to meet separately; they were to com- 
municate by writing, every document being accompanied 
by a translation in Magyar or German, as the case might be; 
only if after three times exchanging notes they failed to agree 
was there to be a common session; in that case there would be 
no discussion, and they were to vote in silence; a simple majority 
was sufficient. There were to be three ministers for common 
purposes— (i) for foreign affairs; (2) for war; (3) for finance; 
these ministers were responsible to the Delegations, but the 
Delegations were really given no legislative power. The minister 
of war controlled the common army, but even the laws determin- 
ing the method by which the army was to be recruited had to 
be voted separately in each of the parliaments. The minister 
of finance had to lay before them the common budget, but they 
could not raise money or vote taxes; after they had passed the 
budget the money required had to be provided by the separate 
parliaments. Even the determination of the proportion which 
each half of the monarchy was to contribute was not left to the 
Delegations. It was to be fixed once every ten years by separate 
committees chosen for that purpose from the Austrian Reichsrath 
and the Hungarian parliament, the so-called Quota-Deputations. 
In addition to these " common affairs "the Hungarians, indeed, 
recognized that there were certain other matters which it was 
desirable should be managed on identical principles in the two 
halves of the monarchy — namely, customs and excise currency; 
the army and common railways. For these, however, no common 
institutions were created; they must be arranged by agreement; 
the ministers must confer and then introduce identical acts in the 
Hungarian and the Austrian parliaments. 

The main principles of this agreement were decided during 
the spring of 1867; but during this period the Austrians were 
not really consulted at all. The negotiations on behalf 
^f"^. <=ta ' of the court of Vienna were entrusted to Beust, whom 
the emperor appointed chancellor of the empire and 
also minister-president of Austria. He had no previous 
experience of Austrian affairs, and was only anxious at once to 
bring about a settlement which would enable the empire to take 
a strong position in international politics. In the summer of 
1867, however (the Austrian Reichsrath having met), the two 
parliaments each elected a deputation of fifteen members to 
arrange the financial settlement. The first matter was the debt, 
amounting to over 3000 million gulden, in addition to the floating 
debt, which had been contracted during recent years. The 
Hungarians laid down the principle that they were in no way 
responsible for debts contracted during a time when they had 
been deprived of their constitutional liberties; they consented, 
however, to pay each year 29^ million gulden towards the interest 
The whole responsibility for the payment of the remainder of 
the interest, amounting annually to over a hundred million gulden, 
and the management of the debt, was left to the Austrians. 
The Hungarians wished that a considerable part of it should be 
repudiated. It was then agreed that the two states should form 
a Customs Union for the next ten years; the customs were to 
be paid to the common exchequer; all sums required in addition 
to this to meet the expenses were to be provided as to 30% by 
Hungary and as to 70 % by Austria. After the financial question 
had been thus settled, the whole of these arrangements 
were then, on the 21st and the 24th of December 1867, enacted 
by the two parliaments, and the system of dualism was estab- 
lished. 

The acts were accepted in Austria out of necessity; but no 



settle' 
meat. 



parties were really satisfied. The Germans, who accepted the 
principle of dualism, were indignant at the financial arrange- 
ments; for Hungary, while gaining more than an equal share 
of power, paid less than one-third of the common expenses. 
On the other hand, according to British ideas of taxable capacity, 
Hungary paid, and still pays, more than her share. The Ger^ 
mans, however, could at least hope that in the future the financial 
arrangements might be revised; the complaints of the Slav 
races were political, and within the constitution there was no 
means of remedy, for, while the settlement gave to the Hungarians 
all that they demanded, it deprived the Bohemians or Galicians 
of any hope that they would be able to obtain similar independ- 
ence. Politically, the principle underlying the agreement was 
that the empire should be divided into two portions; in one of 
these the Magyars were to rule, in the other the Germans; in 
either section the Slav races — the Serbs and Croatians, the Czechs, 
Poles and Slovenes — were to be placed in a position of political 
inferiority. 1 

The logical consistency with which the principle of Dualism was 
carried out is shown in a change of title. By a letter to Beust of 
the 14th of November 1868 the emperor ordered that he should 
henceforward be styled, not as before " Emperor of Austria, King of 
Hungary, King of Bohemia, &c," but " Emperor of Austria, King 
of Bohemia, &c, and Apostolic King of Hungary," thereby signify- 
ing the separation of the two districts over which he rules. His 
shorter style is " His Majesty the Emperor and King," and " His 
Imperial and Apostolic Royal Majesty " ; the lands over which he 
rules are called " The Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy " or " The 
Austrian-Hungarian Realm." The new terminology, " Imperial 
and Royal " (Kaiserlich und Koniglich), has since then been applied 
to all those branches of the public service which belong to the 
common ministries; this was first the case with the diplomatic 
service; not till 1889 was it applied to the army, which for some 
time kept up the old style of Kaiserlich-Koniglich; in 1895 it was 
applied to the ministry of the imperial house, an office always held 
by the minister for foreign affairs. The minister for foreign affairs 
was at first called the Reichskanzler ; but in 1 871,, when Andrassy 
succeeded Beust, this was given up in deference to Hungarian feeling, 
for it might be taken to imply that there was a single state of which 
he was minister. The old style Kaiserlich-Koniglich, the " K.K." 
which has become so familiar through long use, is still retained in the 
Austrian half of the monarchy. There are, therefore, e.g., three 
ministries of finance: the Kaiserlich und Koniglich lor joint affairs; 
the Kaiserlich-Koniglich for Austrian affairs ; the Kirdlye for 
Hungary. 

The settlement with Hungary consisted then of three parts: — 
(1) the political settlement, which was to be permanent an& 
has since remained part of the fundamental constitu- 
tion of the monarchy; (2) the periodical financial affairs. 
settlement, determining the partition of the common 
expenses as arranged by the Quota-Deputations and ratified 
by the parliaments; (3) the Customs Union and the agreement 
as to currency — a voluntary and terminable arrangement made 
between the two governments and parliaments. The history 
of the common affairs which fall under the management of the 
common ministries is, then, the history of the foreign policy 
of the empire and of the army. It is with this and this alone that 
the Delegations are occupied, and it is to this that we must now 
turn. The annual meetings call for little notice; they have 
generally been the occasion on which the foreign minister has 
explained and justified his policy; according to the English 
custom, red books, sometimes containing important despatches, 
have been laid before them; but the debates have caused less 
embarrassment to the government than is generally the case 
in parliamentary assemblies, and the army budget has generally 
been passed with few and unimportant alterations. 

For the first four years, while Beust was chancellor, the 
foreign policy was still influenced by the feelings left by the war 
of 1866. We do not know how far there was a real 
intention to revenge Koniggratz and recover the policy. 
position lost in Germany. This would be at least a 
possible policy, and one to which Beust by his previous history 
would be inclined. There were sharp passages of arms with the 

1 Baron H. de Worms, The Austro-Hungarian Empire (London, 
1876), and Beust's Memoirs. 



HISTORY] 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



19 



Prussian government regarding the position of the South German 
states; a close friendship was maintained with France; there 
were meetings of the emperor and of Napoleon at Salzburg in 
1 868, and the next year at Paris; the death of Maximilian in 
Mexico cast a shadow over the friendship, but did not destroy 
it. The opposition of the Hungarians and financial difficulties 
probably prevented a warlike policy. In 1870 there were dis- 
cussions preparatory to a formal alliance with France against 
the North German Confederation, but nothing was signed. 1 The 
war of 1870 put an end to all ideas of this kind; the German 
successes were so rapid that Austria was not exposed to the 
temptation of intervening, a temptation that could hardly have 
b£en resisted had the result been doubtful or the struggle pro-, 
longed. The absorption of South Germany in the German 
empire took away the chief cause for friction; and from that 
time warm friendship, based on the maintenance of the estab- 
lished order, has existed between the two empires. Austria, 
gave up all hope of regaining her position in Germany; Germany 
disclaimed all intention of acquiring the German provinces of 
Austria. Beust's retirement in 1871 put the finishing touch on 
the new relations. His successor, Count Andr&ssy, a Hungarian, 
established a good understanding with Bismarck; and in 1872 
the visit of the emperor Francis Joseph, accompanied by his 
minister, to Berlin, was the final sign of the reconciliation with 
his uncle. The tsar was also present on that occasion, and for 
the next six years the close friendship between the three empires 
removed all danger of war. Three years later the full reconcilia- 
tion with Italy followed, when Francis Joseph consented to visit 
Victor Emmanuel in Venice. 

The outbreak of disturbance in the Balkans ended this period 
of calm. The insurrection in Bosnia and Herzegovina immedi- 
ately affected Austria; refugees in large numbers 
Eastern crossed the frontier and had to be maintained by 
question, the government. The political problem presented was 
a very difficult one. The sympathy of the Slav 
inhabitants of the empire made it impossible for the government 
of Vienna to regard with indifference the sufferings of Christians 
in Turkey. Active support was impossible, because the Hun- 
garians, among whom the events of 1848 had obliterated the 
remembrance of the earlier days of Turkish conquest, were full 
of sympathy for the Turks. It was a cardinal principle of 
Austrian policy that she could not allow the erection of new 
Slav states on her southern frontier. Moreover, the disturbances 
were fomented by Russian agents, and any increase of Russian 
influence (for which the Pan-Slav party was working) was full 
of danger to Austria. For a time the mediation of Germany 
preserved the good understanding between the two eastern 
empires. In 1875 Andrassy drafted a note, which was accepted 
by the powers, requiring Turkey to institute the reforms necessary 
for the good government of the provinces. Turkey agreed to 
do this, but the insurgents required a guarantee from the Powers 
that Turkey would keep her engagements. This could not be 
given, and the rebellion continued and spread to Bulgaria. The 
lead then passed to Russia, and Austria, even after the outbreak 
of war, did not oppose Russian measures. At the beginning of 
1877 a secret understanding had been made between the two 
powers, by which Russia undertook not to annex any territory, 
and in other ways not to take steps which would be injurious 
to Austria. The advance of the Russian army on Constantinople, 
however, was a serious menace to Austrian influence; Andrassy 
therefore demanded that the terms of peace should be submitted 
to a European conference, which he suggested should meet at 
Vienna. The peace of San Stefano violated the engagements 
made by Russia, and Andr&ssy was therefore compelled to ask 
for a credit of 60 million gulden and to mobilize a small portion 
of the army; the money was granted unanimously in the 
Hungarian Delegation, though the Magyars disliked a policy 
the object of which appeared to be not the defence of Turkey 
against Russia, but an agreement with Russia which would 
give Austria compensation at the expense of Turkey; in 

1 See General Le Brun, Souvenirs militaires (1866-1870, Paris, 
1895) ; also, Baron de Worms, op. cit., and the article on Beust. 



the Austrian Deputation it was voted only by a majority 
of 39 to 20, for the Germans were alarmed at the report that 
it would be used for an occupation of part of the Turkish 
territory. 

The active share taken by Great Britain, however, relieved 
Austria from the necessity of having recourse to further measures. 
By an arrangement made beforehand, Austria was Bosnia 
requested at the congress of Berlin to undertake the and 
occupation and administration of Bosnia and Herze- Herze- 
govina — an honourable but arduous task. The gor ""' 
provinces could not be left to the Turks; Austria could not 
allow them to fall under Russian influence. The occupation 
was immediately begun, and 60,000 Austrian troops, under the 
command of General Philippovich, 2 crossed the frontier on the 
29th of July. The work was, however, more difficult than had 
been anticipated; the Mahommedans offered a strenuous 
resistance; military operations were attended with great difficulty 
in the mountainous country; 200,000 men were required, and 
they did not succeed in crushing the resistance till after some 
months of obstinate fighting. The losses on either side were 
very heavy; even after the capture of Serajevo in August, the 
resistance was continued; and besides those who fell in battle, 
a considerable number of the insurgents were put to death under 
military law. The opposition in the Delegations, which met at 
the end of the year, was so strong that the government had to 
be content with a credit to cover the expenses for 1879 of less 
than half what they had originally asked, and the supplementary 
estimate of 40,000,000 gulden for 1878 was not voted till the 
next year. In 1879 the Porte, after long delay, recognized the 
occupation on the distinct understanding that the sovereignty 
of the sultan was acknowledged. A civil administration was 
then established, the provinces not being attached to either 
half of the empire, but placed under the control of the joint 
minister of finance. The government during the first two years 
was not very successful; the Christian population were dis- 
appointed at finding that they still had, as in the old days, to 
pay rent to the Mahommedan begs. There were difficulties 
also between the Roman Catholics and the members of the 
Greek Church. In 188 1 disturbances in Dalmatia spread over 
the frontier into Herzegovina, and another expedition had to 
be sent to restore order. When this was done Benjamin de 
Kallay was appointed minister, and under his judicious govern- 
ment order and prosperity were established in the provinces. 
In accordance with another clause of the treaty of Berlin, Austria 
was permitted to place troops in the sanjak of Novi-Bazar, a 
district of great strategic importance, which separated Servia 
and Montenegro, and through which the communication between 
Bosnia and Salonica passed. This was done in September 1879 
an agreement with Turkey having specified the numbers and 
position of the garrison. Another slight alteration of the frontier 
was made in the same year, when, during the delimitation of 
the new frontier of Montenegro, the district of Spizza ■ was 
incorporated in the kingdom of Dalmatia. 

The congress of Berlin indirectly caused some difficulties with 
Italy. In that country was a large party which, under the 
name of the " Irredentists," demanded that those 
Italian-speaking districts, South Tirol, Istria and th/im- 
Trieste, which were under Austrian rule, should be dentists. 
joined to Italy; there were public meetings and riots 
in Italy; the Austrian flag was torn down from the consulate in 
Venice and the embassy at Rome insulted. The excitement spread 
across the frontier; there were riots in Trieste, and in Tirol it 
was necessary to make some slight movement of troops as a 
sign* that the Austrian government was determined not to 
surrender any territory. For a short time there was appre- 
hension that the Italian government might not be strong enough 
to resist the movement, and might even attempt to realize these 
wishes by means of an alliance with Russia; but the danger 
quickly passed away. 

In the year 1879 the European position of the monarchy was 

2 Josef, Freiherr Philippovlc von Philippsberg (1818-1S 
belonged to an old Christian noble family of Bosnia. 



20 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



[HISTORY 



placed on a more secure footing by the conclusion of a formal 
alliance with Germany. In the autumn of that year Bismarck 

visited Vienna and arranged with Andrassy a treaty 
A 'ith" Ce ky which Germany bound herself to support Austria 
Germany, against an attack from Russia, Austria-Hungary 

pledging herself to help Germany against a combined 
attack of France and Russia; the result of this treaty, of which 
the tsar was informed, was to remove, at least for the time, 
the danger of war between Austria-Hungary and Russia. It 
was the last achievement of Andrassy, who had already resigned, 
but it was maintained by his successor, Baron Haymerle, and 
after his death in 1881 by Count Kalnoky. It was strengthened 
in 1882 by the adhesion of Italy, for after 1881 the Italians re- 
quired support, owing to the French occupation of Tunis, and 
after five years it was renewed. Since that time it has been the 
foundation on which the policy of Austria-Hungary has depended , 
and it has survived all dangers arising either from commercial 
differences (as between 1880 and 1890) or national discord. 
The alliance was naturally very popular among the German 
Austrians; some of them went so far as to attempt to use it to 
influence internal policy, and suggested that fidelity to this 
alliance required that there should be a ministry at Vienna 
which supported the Germans in their internal struggle with 
the Slavs; they represented it as a national alliance of the 
Teutonic races, and there were some Germans in the empire who 
supported them in this view. The governments on both sides 
could of course give no countenance to this theory; Bismarck 
especially was very careful never to let it be supposed that he 
desired to exercise influence over the internal affairs of his ally. 
Had he done so, the strong anti-German passions of the Czechs 
and Poles, always inclined to an alliance with France, would have 
been aroused, and no government could have maintained the 
alliance. After 1880, the exertions of Count Kaln6ky again 
established a fairly good understanding with Russia, as was 
shown by the meetings of Francis Joseph with the tsar in 1884 
and 1885, but the outbreak of the Bulgarian question in 1885 
again brought into prominence the opposed interests of Russia 
and Austria-Hungary. In the December of this year Austria- 
Hungary indeed decisively interfered in the war between Bulgaria 
and Servia, for at this time Austrian influence predominated 
in Servia, and after the battle of Slivnitza the Austro-Hungarian 
minister warned Prince Alexander of Bulgaria that if he advanced 
farther he would be met by Austro-Hungarian as well as Servian 
troops. But after the abdication of Alexander, Count Kalnoky 
stated in the Delegations that Austria-Hungary would not permit 
Russia to interfere with the independence of Bulgaria. This 
decided step was required by Hungarian feeling, but it was a 
policy in which Austria-Hungary could not depend on the support 
of Germany, for — as Bismarck stated — Bulgaria was not worth 
the bones of a single Pomeranian grenadier. Austria-Hungary 
also differed from Russia as to the position of Prince Ferdinand 
of Bulgaria, and during 1886-1887 much alarm was caused by 
the massing cf Russian troops on the Galician frontier. Councils 
of war were summoned to consider how this exposed and distant 
province was to be defended, and for some months war was 
considered inevitable; but the danger was averted by the re- 
newal of the Triple Alliance and the other decisive steps taken 
at this time by the German government (see Germany). 1 

Since this time the foreign policy of Austria-Hungary has 
been peaceful and unambitious; the close connexion with 
Germany has so far been maintained, though during the last 
few years it has been increasingly difficult to prevent the violent 
passions engendered by national enmity at home from reacting 
on the foreign policy of the monarchy; it would scarcely be 
possible to do so, were it not that discussions on foreign policy 
take place not in the parliaments but in the Delegations where 
the numbers are fewer and the passions cooler. In May 1895 
Count Kalnoky had to retire, owing to a difference with Banffy, 
the Hungarian premier, arising out of the struggle with Rome. 
He was succeeded by Count Goluchowski, the son of a well- 

1 Sir Charles Dilke, The Present Position of European Politics 
(London, 1887). 



known Polish statesman. In 1898 the expulsion of Austrian 
subjects from Prussia, in connexion with the Anti-Polish policy 
of the Prussian government, caused a passing irritation, to which 
Count Thun, the Austrian premier, gave expression. The chief 
objects of the government in recent years have been to maintain 
Austro-Hungarian trade and influence in the Balkan states by the 
buildingof railways, by the opening of the Danube for navigation, 
and by commercial treaties with Rumania, Servia and Bulgaria; 
since the abdication of King Milan especially, the affairs of Servia 
and the growth of Russian influence in that country have caused 
serious anxiety. 

The disturbed state of European politics and the great increase 
in the military establishments of other countries made it desirable 
for Austria also to strengthen her military resources. The ar 
The bad condition of the finances rendered it, however, 
impossible to carry out any very great measures. In 1868 there 
had been introduced compulsory military service in both Austria 
and Hungary; the total of the army available in war had been 
fixed at 800,000 men. Besides this joint army placed under the 
joint ministry of war, there was in each part of the monarchy 
a separate militia and a separate minister for national defence. 
In Hungary this national force or honvid was kept quite distinct 
from the ordinary army; in Austria, however (except in Dalmatia 
and Tirol, where there was a separate local militia) , the Landwehr,- 
as it was called, was practically organized as part of the standing 
army. At the renewal of the periodical financial and economic 
settlement (Ausgleich) in 1877 no important change was made, 
but in 1882 the system of compulsory service was extended to 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, and a reorganization was carried out, 
including the introduction of army corps and local organization 
on the Prussian plan. This was useful for the purposes of speedy 
mobilization, though there was some danger that the local and 
national spirit might penetrate into the army. In 1886 a law 
was carried in either parliament creating a Landsturm, and 
providing for the arming and organization of the whole male 
population up to the age of forty-two in case of emergency, 
and in 1889 a small increase was made in the annual number 
of recruits. A further increase was made in 189 2- 1893. In 
contrast, however, with the military history of other continental 
powers, that of Austria-Hungary shows a small increase in the 
army establishment. Of recent years there have been signs of an 
attempt to tamper with the use of German as the common 
language for the whole army. This, which is now the principal 
remnant of the old ascendancy of German, and the one point of 
unity for the whole monarchy, is a matter on which the govern- 
ment and the monarch allow no concession, but in the Hungarian 
parliament protests against it have been raised, and in 1899 and 
1900 it was necessary to punish recruits from Bohemia, who 
answered the roll call in the Czechish zde instead of the 
German hier. 

In those matters which belong to the periodical and terminable 
agreement, the most important is the Customs Union, which 
was established in 1867, and it is convenient to treat 
separately the commercial policy of the dual state. 2 V"*. 

sZ r . ,1 .«■•»■ -r-r Customs 

At first the customs tariff in Austria-Hungary, as in union. 
most other countries, was based on a number of 
commercial treaties with Germany, France, Italy, Great Britain, 
&c, each of which specified the maximum duties that could be 
levied on certain articles, and all of which contained a " most 
favoured nation " clause. The practical result was a system 
very nearly approaching to the absence of any customs duties, 
and for the period for which these treaties lasted a revision of the 
tariff could not be carried out by means of legislation. After 
the year 1873, a strong movement in favour of protective duties 
made itself felt among the Austrian manufacturers who were 
affected by the competition of German, English and Belgian 
goods, and Austria was influenced by the general movement in 
economic thought which about this time caused the reaction 

2 Matlekovits, Die Zollpolitik der osterreichish-ungarischen 
Monarchie (Leipzig, 1891),.. gives the Hungarian point of view; 
Bazant, Die Handelspolitik Osterreich-Ungarns (1875-1892, Leipzig, 
1894)- 



HISTORY] 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



21 



against the doctrines of free trade. Hungary, on the other hand, 
was still in favour of free trade, for there were no important 
manufacturing industries in that country, and it required a 
secure market for agricultural produce. After 1875 the com- 
mercial treaties expired; Hungary thereupon also gave notice 
to terminate the commercial union with Austria, and negotiations 
began as to the principle on which it was to be renewed. This 
was done during the year 1877, and in the new treaty, while raw 
material was still imported free of duty, a low duty was placed 
on textile goods as well as on corn, and the excise on sugar and 
brandy was raised. All duties, moreover, were to be paid in 
gold — this at once involving a considerable increase. The 
tariff treaties with Great Britain and France were not renewed, 
and all attempts to come to some agreement with Germany 
broke down, owing to the change of policy which Bismarck 
was adopting at this period. The result was that the system 
of commercial treaties ceased, and Austria-Hungary was free 
to introduce a fresh tariff depending simply on legislation, 
an " autonomous tariff " as it is called. With Great Britain, 
France and Germany, there was now only a " most favoured 
nation " agreement; fresh commercial treaties were made with 
Italy (1879), Switzerland and Servia (1881). During 1881-1882 
Hungary, desiring means of retaliation against the duties on 
corn and the impediments to the importation of cattle recently 
introduced into Germany, withdrew her opposition to protective 
duties; the tariff was completely revised, protective duties were 
introduced on all articles of home production, and high finance 
duties on other articles such as coffee and petroleum. At the 
same time special privileges were granted to articles imported by 
sea, so as to foster the trade of Trieste and Fiume; as in Germany 
a subvention was granted to the great shipping companies, 
the Austrian Lloyd and Adria; the area of the Customs Union 
was enlarged so as to include Trieste, Istria and Dalmatia, as 
well as Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1887 a further increase 
of duties was laid on corn (this was at the desire of Hungary as 
against Rumania, for a vigorous customs war was being carried 
on at this time) and on woollen and textile goods. Austria, 
therefore, during these years completely gave up the principle 
of free trade, and adopted a nationalist policy similar to that 
which prevailed in Germany. A peculiar feature of these 
treaties was that the government was empowered to impose 
an additional duty (Retorsionszoll) on goods imported from 
countries in which Austria-Hungary received unfavourable 
treatment. In 1881 this was fixed at 10 % (5 % for some 
articles), but in 1887 it was raised to 30 and 15 % respectively. 
In 1892 Austria-Hungary joined with Germany, Italy, Belgium, 
and Switzerland in commercial treaties to last for twelve years, 
the object being to secure to the states of central Europe a stable 
and extended market; for the introduction of high tariffs in 
Russia and America had crippled industry. Two years later 
Austria-Hungary also arranged with Russia a treaty similar 
to that already made between Russia and Germany; the 
reductions in the tariff secured in these treaties were applicable 
also to Great Britain, with which there still was a most favoured 
nation treaty. The system thus introduced gave commercial 
security till the year 1903. 

The result of these and other laws was an improvement in financial 
conditions, which enabled the government at last to take in hand 
„ , the long-delayed task of reforming the currency. Hitherto 

a/the" t * le currenc y had been partly in silver (gulden), the 
currency "Austrian currency " which had been introduced in 1857, 
partly in paper money, which took the form of notes issued 
by the Austro-Hungarian Bank. This institution had, in 1867, 
belonged entirely to Austria; it had branches in Hungary, and its 
notes were current throughout the monarchy, but the direction was 
entirely Austrian. The Hungarians had not sufficient credit to 
establish a national bank of their own, and at the settlement of 1877 
they procured, as a concession to themselves, that it should be con- 
verted into an Austro-Hungarian bank, with a head office at Pest 
as well as at Vienna, and with the management divided between the 
twocountries. This arrangement was renewed in 1887. Ini848the 
government had been obliged to authorize the bank to suspend cash 
payments, and the wars of 1859 and 1866 had rendered abortive all 
attempts to renew them. The notes, therefore, formed an incon- 
vertible paper currency. The bank by its charter had the sole right 
of issuing notes, but during the war of 1866 the government, in order 



to raise money, had "itself issued notes (Staatsnoten) to the value of 
312 million gulden, thereby violating the charter of the bank. The 
operation begun in 1892 was therefore threefold : (1) the substitution 
of a gold for a silver standard ; (2) the redemption of the Staatsnoten ; 
(3) the resumption of cash payments by the bank. 

In 1867 Austria-Hungary had taken part in the monetary confer- 
ence which led to the formation of the Latin Union ; it was intended 
to join the Union, but this was not done. A first step, however, had 
been taken in this direction by the issue of gold coins of the value of 
eight and four gulden. No attempt was made, however, to regulate 
the relations of these coins to the " Austrian " silver coinage; the 
two issues were not brought into connexion, and every payment 
was made in silver, unless it was definitely agreed that it should be 
paid in gold. In 1879, owing to the continued depreciation of silver, 
the free coinage of silver was suspended. In 1892 laws introducing 
a completely new coinage were carried in both parliaments, in accord- 
ance with agreements made by the ministers. The unit in the new 
issue was to be the krone, divided into 100 heller; the krone being 
almost of the same value (24-251)1) as the franc. (The twenty-krone 
piece in gold weighs 6-775 gr., the twenty-franc piece 6-453.) The 
gold krone was equal to -42 of the gold gulden, and it was declared 
equal to -5 of the silver gulden, so much allowance being made for the 
depreciation of silver. The first step towards putting this act into 
practice was the issue of one-krone pieces (silver), which circulated 
as half gulden, and of nickel coins; all the copper coins and other 
silver coins were recalled, the silver gulden alone being left in cir- 
culation. The coinage of the gold four- and eight-gulden wan 
suspended. Nothing more could be done till the supply of gold had 
been increased. The bank was required to buy gold (during 1892 it 
bought over forty M. gulden), and was obliged to coin into twenty- 
or ten-krone pieces all gold brought to it for that purpose. Then 
a loan of 150 M. gulden at 4% was made, and from the gold (chiefly 
bar gold and sovereigns) which Rothschild, who undertook the loan, 
paid in, coins of the new issue were struck to the value of over 34 
million kronen. This was, however, not put into circulation; it 
was used first for paying off the Staatsnoten. By 1894 the state was 
able to redeem them to the amount of 200 million gulden, including 
all those for one gulden. It paid them, however, not in gold, but in 
silver (one-krone pieces and gulden) and in bank notes, the coins and 
notes being provided by the bank, and in exchange the newly-coined 
gold was paid to the bank to be kept as a reserve to cover the issue 
of notes. At the same time arrangements were made between Austria 
and Hungary to pay off about 80 million of exchequer bills which had 
been issued on the security of the government salt-works, and were 
therefore called " salinenscheine." In 1899 the remainder of the 
Staatsnoten (112 million gulden) were redeemed in a similar manner. 
The bank had in this way acquired a large reserve of gold, and in the 
new charter which was (after long delay) passed in 1899, a clause 
was introduced requiring the resumption of cash payments,' though 
this was not to come into operation immediately. Then from 
1st January 1900 the old reckoning by gulden was superseded, that 
by krone being introduced in all government accounts, the new silver 
being made a legal tender only for a limited amount. For the time 
until the 1st of July 1908, however, the old gulden were left in cir- 
culation, payments made in them, at the rate of two kronen to one 
gulden, being legal up to any amount. 

This important reform has thereby been brought to a satisfactory 
conclusion, and at a time when the political difficulties had reached 
a most acute stage. It is indeed remarkable that notwithstanding 
the complicated machinery of the dual monarchy, and the numerous 
obstacles which have to be overcome before a reform affecting both 
countries can be carried out, the financial, the commercial,, and the 
foreign policy- has been conducted since 1870 with success. The 
credit of the state has risen, the chronic deficit has disappeared, the 
currency has been put on a sound basis, and part of the unfunded 
debt has been paid off. Universal military service has been intro- 
duced, and all this has been done in the presence of difficulties greater 
than existed in any other civilized country. 

Each of the financial and economic reforms described above 
was, of course, the subject of a separate law, but, so far as they 
are determined at the general settlement which takes y Ae 
place between Austria and Hungary every ten years, Ausgieich 
they are comprised under the expression " Ausgieich " wltl > 
(compact or compromise), which includes especially """Z&ry- 
the determination of the Quota, and to this extent they are all 
dealt with together as part of a general settlement and bargain. 
In this settlement a concession on commercial policy would be 
set off against a gain on the financial agreement; e.g. in 1877 
Austria gave Hungary a share in the management of the bank, 
while the arrangement for paying the bonus on exported sugar 
was favourable to Austria; on the other hand, since the increased 
duty on coffee and petroleum would fall more heavily on Austria, 
the Austrians wished to persuade the Hungarians to pay a larger 
quota of the common expenses, and there was also a dispute 
whether Hungary was partly responsible for a debt of 80 M. 



22 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



[HISTORY 



gulden to the bank. Each measure had, therefore, to be considered 
not only on its own merits, but in relation to the general balance 
of advantage, and an amendment in one might bring about 
the rejection of all. The whole series of acts had to be carried 
in two parliaments, each open to the influence of national 
jealousy and race hatred in its most extreme form, so that the 
negotiations have been conducted under serious difficulties, and 
the periodical settlement has always been a time of great anxiety. 
The first settlement occupied two full years, from 1876, when 
the negotiations began, to June 1878, when at last all the bills 
were carried successfully through the two parliaments; and it 
was necessary to prolong the previous arrangements (which 
expired at the end of 1877) till the middle of 1878. First the 
two ministries had to agree on the drafts of all the bills; then 
the bills had to be laid before the two parliaments. Each 
parliament elected a committee to consider them, and the two 
committees carried on long negotiations by notes supplemented 
by verbal discussions. Then followed the debates in the two 
parliaments; there was a ministerial crisis in Austria, because 
the House refused to accept the tax on coffee and petroleum 
which was recommended by the ministers; and finally a great 
Council of all the ministers, with the emperor presiding, deter- 
mined the compromise that was at last accepted. In 1887 
things went better; there was some difficulty about the tariff, 
especially about the tax on petroleum, but Count Taaffe had a 
stronger position than the Austrian ministers of 1877. Ten 
years later, on the third renewal, the difficulties were still greater. 
They sprang from a double cause. First the Austrians were 
determined to get a more favourable division of the common 
expenses; that of 1867 still continued, although Hungary had 
grown relatively in wealth. 1 Moreover, a proposed alteration 
in the taxes on sugar would be of considerable advantage to 
Hungary; the Austrians, therefore, demanded that henceforth 
the proportion should be not 68-6:31-4 but 58:42. On this 
there was a deadlock; all through 1897 and 1898 the Quota- 
Deputations failed to come to an agreement. This, however, 
was not the worst. Parliamentary government in Austria had 
broken down; the opposition had recourse to obstruction, and 
no business could be done. Their object was to drive out the 
Badeni government, and for that reason the obstruction was 
chiefly directed against the renewal of the Ausgleich; for, 
as this was the first necessity of state, no government could 
remain in office which failed to carry it through. The extreme 
parties of the Germans and the anti-Semites were also, for racial 
reasons, opposed to the whole system. When, therefore, the 
government at the end of 1897 introduced the necessary measures 
for prolonging the existing arrangements provisionally till the 
differences with Hungary had been settled, scenes of great dis- 
order ensued, and at the end of the yeaT the financial arrange- 
ments had not been prolonged, and neither the bank charter 
nor the Customs Union had been renewed. The government, 
therefore (Badeni having resigned), had to proclaim the necessary 
measures by imperial warrant. Next year it was even Worse; 
for there was obstruction in Hungary as well as in Austria; the 
Quota-Deputations again came to no agreement, and the pro- 
posals for the renewal of the Bank charter, the reform of the 
currency, the renewal of the Customs Union, and the new taxes 
on beer and brandy, which were laid before parliament both 
at Vienna and Pest, were not carried in either country; this time, 
therefore, the existing arrangements had to be prolonged pro- 
visionally by imperial and royal warrant both in Austria and 
Hungary. During 1899 parliamentary peace was restored in 
Hungary by the resignation of Banffy; in Austria, however, 
though there was again a change of ministry the only result 
was that the Czechs imitated the example of the Germans and 
resorted to obstruction so that still no business could be done. 
The Austrian ministry, therefore, came to an agreement with the 
Hungarians that the terms of the new Ausgleich should be 

' The only change was that as the military frontier had been given 
over to Hungary, Hungary in consequence of this addition of terri- 
tory had to pay 2%, the remaining 98% being divided as before, 
so that the real proportion was 31-4 and 68-6. 



finally proclaimed in Austria by imperial warrant; the 
Hungarians only giving their assent to this in return for con- 
siderable financial concessions. ; 
The main points of the agreement were: (1) the Bank charter 
was to- be renewed till. 1910, the Hungarians receiving a larger 
share in the . direction than, they had hitherto enjoyed; (2) the 
Customs Union so far as it was based on a reciprocal and binding 
treaty lapsed, both sides, however, continuing it in practice, and 
promising to do so until the 31st of December 1907: Not later than 
1901 negotiations were to be begun for a renewal of the alliance, 
and if possible it was to be renewed. from the year 1903, in which 
year the commercial treaties would expire. If this were done, then 
the tariff would be revised before any fresh commercial treaties were 
made. If it were not done, then no fresh treaties would be made 
extending beyond the year 1907, so that if the Commercial Union of 
Austria and Hungary w.ere not renewed before 1907, each party 
would be able to determine its own policy unshackled by any previous 
treaties. These arrangements in Hungary received the sanction of 
the parliament ; but this could not be procured in Austria, and they 
were, therefore, proclaimed by imperial warrant; first of all, on 
20th July,: the new duties on beer, brandy and sugar; then on 
23rd September the Bank charter, &c. In November the Quota- 
Deputations at last agreed that Hungary should" henceforward pay 
33^1 a very small increase, and this was also in Austria proclaimed 
in the same way. The result was that a working agreement was 
made, by which the Union was preserved. (J. W. He.) 

Since the years 1866-1871 no period of Austro-Hungarian 
development has been so important as the years 1903-1907. 
The defeat of the old Austria by Prussia at Sadowa 
in 1866, the establishment of the Dual Monarchy Hungarian 
in 1867 and the foundation of the new German empire crisis, 
in 1 87 1 , formed. the starting-pcint of Austro-Hungarian ,903 ' 
history properly so called; but the Austro-Hungarian ' ' 
crisis of 1 903-1 906— a crisis temporarily settled but not defini- 
tively solved, — and the introduction of universal suffrage in 
Austria, discredited the original interpretation of the dual 
system and raised the question whether it represented the 
permanent form of the Austro-Hungarian polity. 

At the close of the 19th century both states of the Dual 
Monarchy were visited by political crises of some severity. 
Parliamentary life in Austria was paralysed by the feud between 
Germans and Czechs that ' resulted directly from the Badeni 
language ordinances of 1897 and indirectly from the development 
of Slav influence, particularly that of Czechs and Poles during 
the Taaffe era (1 879-1 893). Government in Austria was carried 
on by cabinets of officials with the help of the emergency 
clause (paragraph 14) of the constitution. Ministers, nominally 
responsible to parliament, were in practice responsible only to 
the emperor. Thus during the closing years of last and the 
opening years of the present century, political life in Austria 
was at a low ebb and the constitution was observed in the 
letter rather than in spirit. 

Hungary was apparently better situated. Despite the campaign 
of obstruction that overthrew the Banffy and led to the formation 
of the Szell cabinet in 1899, the hegemony of the Liberal party 
which, under various names, had been the mainstay of dualism 
since 1867, appeared to be unshaken. But clear signs of the 
decay of the dualist and of the growth of an extreme nationalist 
Magyar spirit were already visible. The Army bills of 1889, 
which involved an increase of the peace footing of the joint 
AUstro-Hungarian army, had been carried with difficulty, 
despite the efforts of Koloman Tisza and of Count' Julius Andrassy 
the Elder. Demands tending towards the Magyarization of 
the joint army had been advanced and had found such an echo 
in Magyar public opinion that Count Andrassy was obliged 
solemnly to warn the country of the dangers of nationalist 
Chauvinism and to remind it of its obligations under the Compact 
of 1867. The struggle over the civil marriage and divorce laws 
that filled the greater part of the nineties served and was perhaps 
intended by the Liberal leaders to serve as a diversion in favour 
of the Liberal-dualist standpoint; nevertheless, Nationalist 
feeling found strong expression during the negotiations of 
Banffy and Sz6U with various Austrian premiers for the renewal 
of the economic Ausgleich, or " Customs and Trade Alliance." 
At the end of 1902 the Hungarian premier, Szell, concluded with 
the Austrian premier, Kerber, a. new customs and trade alliance 



HISTORY] 



AUSTRIA-BUNGARY 



23 



comprising a joint Austro-Hungarian tariff as a basis for the 
negotiation of new commercial treaties with Germany, Italy 
and other states. This arrangement, which for the sake of 
brevity will henceforth beref erred to as the Szell-Korber Compact, 
was destined to play an important part in the history of the 
next few years, though it was never fully ratified by either 
parliament and was ultimately discarded. Its conclusion was 
prematurely greeted as the end of a period of economic strife 
between the two halves of the monarchy and as a pledge of a 
decade of peaceful development. Events were soon to demon- 
strate the baselessness of these hopes. 

In the autumn of 1902 the Austrian and the Hungarian 
governments, at the instance of the crown and in agreement 

with the joint minister for war and the Austrian and 
question? Hungarian ministers for national defence, laid before 

their respective parliaments bills providing for an 
increase of 21,000 men in the annual contingents of recruits. 
16,700 men were needed for the joint army, and the remainder 
for the Austrian and Hungarian national defence troops (Land- 
wehr and honved). The total contribution of Hungary would 
have been some 6500 and of Austria some 14,500 men. The 
military authorities made, however, the mistake of detaining 
in barracks several thousand supernumerary recruits (i.e. 
recruits liable to military service but in excess of the annual 
103,000 enrollable by law) pending the adoption of the Army 
bills by the two parliaments. The object of this apparently 
high-handed step was to avoid the expense and delay of summon- 
ing the supernumeraries again to the colours when the bills 
should have received parliamentary sanction; but it was not 
unnaturally resented by the Hungarian Chamber, which has 
ever possessed a lively sense of its prerogatives. The Opposition, 
consisting chiefly of the independence party led by Francis 
Kossuth (eldest son of Louis Kossuth), made capital out of the 
grievance and decided to obstruct ministerial measures until 
the supernumeraries should be discharged. The estimates 
could not be sanctioned, and though Kossuth granted the Szell 
cabinet a vote on account for the first four months of 1903, the 
Government found itself at the mercy of the Opposition. At 
the end of 1902 the supernumeraries were discharged — too late 
to calm the ardour of the Opposition, which proceeded to demand 
that the Army bills should be entirely withdrawn or that, if 
adopted, they should be counterbalanced by concessions to 
Magyar nationalist feeling calculated to promote the use of the 
Magyar language in the Hungarian part of the army and to 
render the Hungarian regiments, few of which are purely Magyar, 
more and more Magyar in character. Szell, who vainly advised 
the crown and the military authorities to make timely conces- 
sions, was obliged to reject these demands which enjoyed the 
secret support of Count Albert Apponyi, the Liberal president 
of the Chamber and of his adherents. The obstruction of the 
estimates continued. On the 1st of May the Szell cabinet found 
itself without supply and governed for a time " ex-lex "; Szell, 
who had lost the confidence of the crown, resigned and was 
succeeded (June 26) by Count Khuen-Hedervary, previously 
ban, or governor, of Croatia. Before taking office Khuen- 
Hedervary negotiated with Kossuth and other Opposition 
leaders, who undertook that obstruction should cease if the 
Army bills were withdrawn. Despite the fact that the Austrian 
Army bill had been voted by the Reichsrath (February 19), 
the crown consented to withdraw the bills and thus compelled 
the Austrian parliament to repeal, at the dictation of the Hun- 
garian obstructionists, what it regarded as a patriotic measure. 
Austrian feeling became embittered towards Hungary and the 
action of the crown was openly criticized. 

Meanwhile the Hungarian Opposition broke its engagement. 
Obstruction was continued by a section of the independence 
The party; and Kossuth, seeing his authority ignored, 

Magyar resigned the leadership. The obstructionists now 
words of raised the cry that the German words of command 
comman . . q ^ j om (- arm y must be replaced by Magyar words 
in the regiments recruited from Hungary— a demand which, 
apart from its disintegrating influence on the army, the crown 



considered to be an encroachment upon the royal military 
prerogatives as defined by the Hungarian Fundamental Law 
XII. of 1867. Clause n of the law runs: — " In pursuance of 
the constitutional military prerogatives of His Majesty, every- 
thing relating to the unitary direction, leadership and inner 
organization of the whole army, and thus also of the Hungarian 
army as a complementary part of the whole army, is recognized 
as subject to His Majesty's disposal." The cry for the Magyar 
words of command on which the subsequent constitutional 
crisis turned, was tantamount to a demand that the monarch 
should differentiate the Hungarian from the Austrian part of 
the joint army, and should render it impossible for any but 
Magyar officers to command Hungarian regiments, less than 
half of which have a majority of Magyar recruits. The partisans 
of the Magyar words of command based their claim upon clause 
12 of the Fundamental Law XII. of 1867 — which runs:— 
" Nevertheless the country reserves its right periodically to 
complete the Hungarian army and the right of granting recruits, 
the fixing of the conditions on which the recruits are granted, the 
fixing of the term of service and all the dispositions concerning 
the stationing and the supplies of the troops according to existing 
law both as regards legislation and administration." Since 
Hungary reserved her right to fix the conditions on which 
recruits should be granted, the partisans of the Magyar words 
of command argued that the abolition of the German words 
of command in the Hungarian regiments might be made such 
a condition, despite the enumeration in the preceding clause n, 
of everything appertaining to the unitary leadership and inner 
organization of the joint Austro-Hungarian army as belong- 
ing to the constitutional military prerogatives of the crown. 
Practically, the dispute was a trial of strength between Magyar 
nationalist feeling and the crown. Austrian feeling strongly 
supported the monarch in his determination to defend the unity 
of the army, and the conflict gradually acquired an intensity 
that appeared to threaten the very existence of the dual system. 

When Count Khuen-HederVary took office and Kossuth, 
relinquished the leadership of the independence party, the ex- 
tension of the crisis could not be foreseen. A few extreme 
nationalists continued to obstruct the estimates, and it appeared 
as though their energy would soon flag. An attempt to quicken 
this process by bribery provoked, however, an outburst of feeling 
against Khuen-Hedervary who, though personally innocent, 
found his position shaken. Shortly afterwards Magyar resent- 
ment of an army order issued from the cavalry manoeuvres at 
Chlopy in Galicia — in which the monarch declared that he would 
" hold fast to the existing and well-tried organization of the 
army'* and would never "relinquish the rights and privileges 
guaranteed to its highest war-lord"; and of a provocative 
utterance of the Austrian premier Korber in the Reichsrath 
led to the overthrow of the Khuen-Hedervary cabinet (September 
30) by an immense majority. The cabinet fell on a motion of 
censure brought forward by Kossuth, who had profited by the 
bribery incident to resume the leadership of his party. 

An interval of negotiation between the crown and many 
leading Magyar Liberals followed, until at the end of October 1903 
Count Stephen Tisza, son of Koloman Tisza, accepted 
a mission to form a cabinet after all others had declined. risza\ 
As programme Tisza brought with him a number 
of concessions from the crown to Magyar nationalist feeling 
in regard to military matters, particularly in regard to military 
badges, penal procedure, the transfer of officers of Hungarian 
origin from Austrian to Hungarian regiments, the establishment 
of military scholarships for Magyar youths and the introduction 
of the two years' service system. In regard to the military 
language, the Tisza programme — which, having been drafted 
by a committee of nine members, is known as the " programme 
of the nine "—declared that the responsibility of the cabinet 
extends to the military prerogatives of the crown, and that 
" the legal influence of parliament exists in this respect as in 
respect of every constitutional right." The programme, however, 
expressly excluded for " weighty political reasons affecting 
great interests of the nation " the question of the military 



24 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



[HISTORY 



language; and on Tisza's motion the Liberal party adopted 
an addendum, sanctioned by the crown: " the party maintains 
the standpoint that the king has a right to fix the language of 
service and command in the Hungarian army on the basis of his 
constitutional prerogatives as recognized in clause 1 1 of law XII. 
of 1867." 

Notwithstanding the concessions, obstruction was continued 
by the Clericals and the extreme Independents, partly in the 
hope of compelling the crown to grant the Magyar words of 
command and partly out of antipathy towards the person of 
the young calvinist premier. In March 1004, Tisza, therefore, 
introduced a drastic " guillotine " motion to amend the standing 
orders of the House, but withdrew it in return for an undertaking 
from the Opposition that obstruction would cease. This time 
the Opposition kept its word. The Recruits bill and the estimates 
were adopted, the Delegations were enabled to meet at Budapest 
— where they voted £22,000,000 as extraordinary estimates for 
the army and navy and especially for the renewal of the field 
artillery — and the negotiations for new commercial treaties 
with Germany and Italy were sanctioned, although parliament 
had never been able to ratify the Szell-Korber compact with 
the tariff on the basis of which the negotiations would have to 
be conducted. But, as the autumn session approached, Tisza 
foresaw a new campaign of obstruction, and resolved to revert 
to his drastic reform of the standing orders. The announcement 
of his determination caused the Opposition to rally against him, 
and when on the 18th of November the Liberal party adopted 
a " guillotine " motion by a show of hands in defiance of orthodox 
procedure, a section of the party seceded. On the 13th of 
December the Opposition, infuriated by the formation of a special 
corps of parliamentary constables, invaded and wrecked the 
Chamber. Tisza appealed to the country and suffered, on the 
26th of January 1905, an overwhelming defeat at the hands 
of a coalition composed of dissentient Liberals, Clericals, In- 
dependents and a few Banffyites. The Coalition gained an 
absolute majority and the Independence party became the 
strongest political group. Nevertheless the various adherents 
of the dual system retained an actual majority in the Chamber 
and prevented the Independence party from attempting to 
realize its programme of reducing the ties between Hungary and 
Austria to the person of the joint ruler. On the 25th of January, 
the day before his defeat, Count Tisza had signed on behalf 
of Hungary the new commercial treaties concluded by the 
Austro-Hungarian foreign office with Germany and Italy on 
the basis of the Szell-Korber tariff. He acted ultra vires, but by 
his act saved Hungary from a severe economic crisis and retained 
for her the right to benefit by economic partnership with Austria 
until the expiry of the new treaties in 1017. 

A deadlock, lasting from January 1905 until April 1906, 
ensued between the crown and Hungary and, to a great extent, 
between Hungary and Austria. The Coalition, though 
o//90j' possessing the majority in the Chamber, resolved not 
to take office unless the crown should grant its demands, 
including the Magyar words of command and customs 
separation from Austria. The crown declined to concede these 
points, either of which would have wrecked the dual system as 
interpreted since 1867. The Tisza cabinet could not be relieved 
of its functions till June 1905, when it was succeeded by a non- 
parliamentary administration under the premiership of General 
Baron Fejervary, formerly minister for national defence. Seeing 
that the Coalition would not take office on acceptable terms, 
Fejervary obtained the consent of the crown to a scheme, 
drafted by Kristoffy, minister of the interior, that the dispute 
between the crown and the Coalition should be subjected to 
the test of universal suffrage and that to this end the franchise 
in Hungary be radically reformed. The scheme alarmed the 
Coalition, which saw that universal suffrage might destroy not 
only the hegemony of the Magyar nobility and gentry in whose 
hands political power was concentrated, but might, by admitting 
the non-Magyars to political equality with the Magyars, under- 
mine the supremacy of the Magyar race itself. Yet the Coalition 
did not yield at once. Not until the Chamber had been dissolved 



by military force (February 10, rgo6) and an open breach of the 
constitution seemed within sight did they fome to terms with 
the crown and form an administration. The miserable state 
of public finances and the depression of trade doubtless helped 
to induce them to perform a duty which they ought to have 
performed from the first; but their chief motive was the desire 
to escape the menace of universal suffrage or, at least, to make 
sure that it would be introduced in such a form as to safeguard 
Magyar supremacy over the other Hungarian races. 

The pact concluded (April 8, 1906) between the Coalition and 
the crown is known to have contained the following conditions: — 
All military questions to be suspended until after the 
introduction of universal suffrage; the estimates 1906? 
and the normal contingent of recruits to be voted for 
1 905 and 1906; the extraordinary military credits, sanctioned 
by the delegations in 1904, to be voted by the Hungarian 
Chamber; ratification of the commercial treaties concluded 
by Tisza; election of the Hungarian Delegation and of the 
Quota-Deputation; introduction of a suffrage reform at least 
as far reaching as the Kristoffy scheme. These " capitulations " 
obliged the Coalition government to carry on a dualist policy, 
although the majority of its adherents became, by the general 
election of May 1906, members of the Kossuth or Independence 
party, and, as such, pledged to the economic and political 
separation of Hungary from Austria save as regards the person 
of the ruler. Attempts were, however, made to emphasize the 
independence of Hungary. During the deadlock (June 2, 1905) 
Kossuth had obtained the adoption of a motion to authorize 
the compilation of an autonomous Hungarian tariff, and on the 
28th of May 1906, the Coalition cabinet was authorized by the 
crown to present the Szell-Korber tariff to the Chamber in the 
form of a Hungarian autonomous tariff distinct from but identical 
with the Austrian tariff. This concession of form having been 
made to the Magyars without the knowledge of the Austrian 
government, Prince Konrad Hohenlohe, the Austrian premier, 
resigned office; and his successor, Baron Beck, eventually 
(July 6) withdrew from the table of the Reichsrath the whole 
Szell-Korber compact, declaring that the only remaining 
economic ties between the two countries were freedom of trade, 
the commercial treaties with foreign countries, the joint state 
bank and the management of excise. If the Hungarian govern- 
ment wished to regulate its relationship to Austria in a more 
definite form, added the Austrian premier, it must conclude a 
new agreement before the end of the year 1907, when the recipro- 
city arrangement of 1899 would lapse. The Hungarian govern- 
ment replied that any new arrangement with Austria must be 
concluded in the form of a commercial treaty as between two 
foreign states and not in the form of a " customs and trade 
alliance." 

Austria ultimately consented to negotiate on this basis. 
In October 1907 an agreement was attained, thanks chiefly to 
the sobering of Hungarian opinion by a severe economic 
crisis, which brought out with unusual clearness the meatoi 
fact that separation from Austria would involve a 1907. 
period of distress if not of commercial ruin for Hungary. 
Austria also came to see that separation from Hungary would 
seriously enhance the cost of living in Cisleithania and would 
deprive Austrian manufacturers of their best market. The 
main features of the new " customs and commercial treaty " 
were: (1) Each state to possess a separate but identical customs 
tariff. (2) Hungary to facilitate the establishment of direct 
railway communication between Vienna and Dalmatia, the 
communication to be established by the end of 191 1, each state 
building the sections of line that passed through its own territory. 
(3) Austria to facilitate railway communication between Hungary 
and Prussia. (4) Hungary to reform her produce and Stock 
Exchange laws so as to prevent speculation in agrarian produce. 
(5) A court of arbitration to be established for the settlement 
of differences between the two states, Hungary selecting four 
Austrian and Austria four Hungarian judges, the presidency of 
the court being decided by lot, and each government being repre- 
sented before the court by its own delegates. (6) Impediments 



HISTORY] 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



25 



to free trade in sugar to be practically abolished. (7) Hungary 
to be entitled to redeem her share of the old Austrian debt 
(originally bearing interest at 5 and now at 4-2%) at the 
rate of 4-325% within the next ten years; if not redeemed 
within ten years the rate of capitalization to decrease annually 
by tSr % unt ^ ^ reaches 4-2 %. This arrangement represents a 
potential economy of some £2,000,000 capital for Hungary as 
compared with the original Austrian demand that the Hungarian 
contribution to the service of the old Austrian debt be capitalized 
at 4-2%. (8) The securities of the two governments to rank 
as investments for savings banks, insurance companies and 
similar institutions in both countries, but not as trust fund 
investments. (9) Commercial treaties with foreign countries 
to be negotiated, not, as hitherto, by the joint minister for 
foreign affairs alone, but also by a nominee of each government. 
(10) The quota of Austrian and Hungarian contribution to 
joint expenditure to be 63-6 and 36-4 respectively — an increase 
of 2 % in the Hungarian quota, equal to some £200,000 a year. 

The economic dispute between Hungary and Austria was thus 
settled for ten years after negotiations lasting more than twelve 
years. One important question, however, that of the future of 
the joint State Bank, was left over for subsequent decision. 
During the negotiations for the customs and commercial treaty, 
the Austrian government attempted to conclude for a longer 
period than ten years, but was unable to overcome Hungarian 
resistance. Therefore, at the end of 1917, the commercial 
treaties with Germany, Italy and other countries, and the Austro- 
Hungarian customs and commercial treaty, would all lapse. 
Ten years of economic unity remained during which the Dual 
Monarchy might grow together or grow asunder, increasing 
accordingly in strength or in weakness. (H. W. S.) 

During this period of internal crisis the international position 
of the Dual Monarchy was threatened by two external dangers. 
The unrest in Macedonia threatened to reopen the Eastern 
Question in an acute form; with Italy the irredentist attitude 
of the Zanardelli cabinet led in 1902-1903 to such strained 
relations that war seemed imminent. The southern Tirol, the 
chief passes into Italy, strategic points on the Istrian and 
Dalmatian coasts, were strongly fortified, while in the interior 
the Tauern, Karawanken and Wochein railways were constructed, 
partly in order to facilitate the movement of troops towards the 
Italian border. The tension was relaxed with the fall of the 
Zanardelli government, and comparatively cordial relations 
were gradually re-established. *.-;■ • 

In the affairs of the Balkan Peninsula a temporary agreement 
with Russia was reached in 1903 by the so-called " February 
Programme," supplemented in the following October 
crisis." by the "Miirzsteg Programme" (see Macedonia; 
Turkey ; Europe : History) . The terms of the Miirzsteg 
programme were observed by Count Goluchowski, in spite of 
the ruin of Russian prestige in the war with Japan, so long as 
he remained in office. In October 1906, however, he retired, 
and it was soon clear that his successor, Baron von Aerenthal, 1 
was determined to take advantage of the changed European 
situation to take up once more the traditional policy of the 
Habsburg monarchy in the Balkan Peninsula. He gradually 
departed from the Miirzsteg basis, and in January 1908 
deliberately undermined the Austro-Russian agreement by 
obtaining from the sultan a concession for a railway from the 
Bosnian frontier through the sanjak of Novibazar to the Turkish 
terminus at Mitrovitza. This was done in the teeth of the 
expressed wish of Russia; it roused the helpless resentment 
of Servia, whose economic dependence upon the Dual Monarchy 
was emphasized by the outcome of the war of tariffs into which 
she had plunged in 1906, and who saw in this scheme another 
link in the chain forged for her by the Habsburg empire; it 

1 Alois, Count Lexa von Aerenthal, was born on the 27th of 
September 1854 at Gross-Skal in Bohemia, studied at Bonn and 
Prague, was attache at Paris (1877) and afterwards at St Petersburg, 
envoy extraordinary at Bucharest (1895) and ambassador at St 
Petersburg (1896). He was created a count on the emperor's 79th 
birthday in 1909. 



offended several of the great powers, who seemed to see in this 
railway concession the price of the abandonment by Austria- 
Hungary of her interest in Macedonian reforms. That Baron 
von Aerenthal was able to pursue a policy apparently so rash, 
was due to the fact that he could reckon on the support of 
Germany. The intimate relations between the two powers 
had been revealed during the dispute between France and 
Germany about Morocco; in the critical division of the 3rd 
of March 1906 at the Algeciras Conference Austria-Hungary, 
alone of all the powers, had sided with Germany, and it was a 
proposal of the Austro-Hungarian plenipotentiary that formed 
the basis of the ultimate settlement between Germany and 
France (see Morocco: History). The cordial relations thus 
emphasized encouraged Baron Aerenthal, in the autumn of 

1908, to pursue a still bolder policy. The revolution in Turkey 
had entirely changed the face of the Eastern Question; the 
problem of Macedonian reform was swallowed up in that of the 
reform of the Ottoman empire generally, there was even a 
danger that a rejuvenated Turkey might in time lay claim to 
the provinces occupied by Austria-Hungary under the treaty 
of Berlin; in any case, the position of these provinces, governed 
autocratically from Vienna, between a constitutional Turkey 
and a constitutional Austria-Hungary, would have been highly 
anomalous. In the circumstances Baron Aerenthal determined 
on a bold policy. Without consulting the co-signatory powers 
of the treaty of Berlin, and in deliberate violation of its provisions, 
the king-emperor issued, on the 13 th of October, a decree 
annexing Bosnia and Herzegovina to the Habsburg Monarchy, 
and at the same time announcing the withdrawal of the Austro- 
Hungarian troops from the sanjak of Novibazar. (See Europe: 
History.) 

Meanwhile the relations between the two halves of the Dual 
Monarchy had again become critical. The agreement of 1907 
had been but a truce in the battle between two 
irreconcilable principles : between Magyar nationalism, ^«.™ a ' 
determined to maintain its ascendancy in an inde- cuUies. 
pendent Hungary, and Habsburg imperialism, equally 
determined to preserve the economic and military unity of the 
Dual Monarchy. In this conflict the tactical advantage lay 
with the monarchy; for the Magyars were in a minority in 
Hungary, their ascendancy was based on a narrow and artificial 
franchise, and it was open to the king-emperor to hold in terrorem 
over them an appeal to the disfranchised majority. It was the 
introduction of a Universal Suffrage Bill by Mr Joseph Krist6ffy, 
minister of the interior in the " unconstitutional " cabinet of 
Baron Fejervary, which brought the Opposition leaders in the 
Hungarian parliament to terms and made possible the agreement 
of 1907. But the Wekerle ministry which succeeded that of 
Fejervary on the 9th of April 1906 contained elements which 
made any lasting compromise impossible. The burning question 
of the " Magyar word of command " remained unsettled, save 
in so far as the fixed determination of the king-emperor had 
settled it; the equally important question of the renewal of 
the charter of the Austro-Hungarian State Bank had also 
formed no part of the agreement of 1907. On the other hand, 
the Wekerle ministry was pledged to a measure of franchise 
reform, a pledge which they showed no eagerness to redeem, 
though the granting of universal suffrage in the Austrian half 
of the Monarchy had made such a change inevitable. In March 
1908 Mr Hallo laid before the Hungarian parliament a formal 
proposal that the charter of the Austro-Hungarian Bank, which 
was to expire at the end of 1910, should not be renewed; and 
that, in the event of failure to negotiate a convention between 
the banks of Austria and Hungary, a separate Hungarian Bank 
should be established. This question, obscured during the winter 
by the Balkan crisis, once more became acute in the spring of 

1909. In the Coalition cabinet itself opinion was sharply divided, 
but in the end the views of the Independence party prevailed, 
and Dr Wekerle laid the proposal for a separate Hungarian 
Bank before the king-emperor and the Austrian government. 
Its reception was significant. The emperor Francis Joseph 
pointed out that the question of a separate Bank for Hungary 



26 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



[HISTORY 



did not figure in the act of 1867, and could not be introduced 
into it, especially since the capital article of the ministerial pro- 
gramme, i.e. electoral reform, was not realized, nor near being 
realised. This was tantamount to an appeal from the Magyar 
populus to the Hungarian plebs, the disfranchised non-Magyar 
majority; an appeal all the more significant from the fact that 
it ignored the suffrage bill brought in on behalf of the Hungarian 
government by Count Julius Andrassy in November 1008, a bill 
which, under the guise of granting the principle of universal 
suffrage, was ingeniously framed so as to safeguard and even 
to extend Magyar ascendancy (see Hungary: History). In 
consequence of this rebuff Dr Wekerle tendered his resignation 
on the 27th of April. Months passed without it being possible 
to form a new cabinet, and a fresh period of crisis and agitation 
was begun. (W. A. P.) 

II. Austria Proper since 1867. 

As already explained, the name Austria is used for convenience 
to designate those portions of the possessions of the house of 
Habsburg, which were not included by the settlement of 1867 
among the lands of the Hungarian crown. The separation of 
Hungary made it necessary to determine the method by which 
these territories 1 were henceforth to be governed. It was the 
misfortune of the country that there was no clear legal basis 
on which new institutions could be erected. Each of the terri- 
tories was a separate political unit with a separate history, and 
some of them had a historic claim to a large amount of self- 
government; in many the old feudal estates had survived till 
1848, Since that year the empire had been the subject of 
numerous experiments in government; by the last, which 
began in i860, Landtage or diets have been instituted in each 
of the territories on a nearly uniform system and with nearly 
identical powers, and by the constitution published in February 
1861 (the February Constitution, as it is called), which is still 
Tlle the ultimate basis for the government, there was 

February instituted a Reichsrath or parliament for the whole 
Constitu- empire; it consisted of a House of Lords (Herren- 
tlon ' haus) , in which sat the archbishops and ; prince bishops, 

members of the imperial family, and other members appointed 
for life, besides some hereditary members, and a Chamber of 
Deputies. The members of the latter for each territory were 
not chosen by direct election, but by the diets. The diets 
themselves were elected for six years; they were chosen generally 
(there were slight local differences) in the following way : (a) 
a certain number of bishops and rectors of universities sat in 
virtue of their office; (b) the rest of the members were chosen 
by four electoral bodies or curiae, — (1) the owners of estates 
which before 1848 had enjoyed certain feudal privileges, the 
so-called great proprietors; (2) the chambers of commerce; 
(3) the towns; (4) the rural districts. In the two, latter classes 
all had the suffrage who paid at least ten gulden in direct taxes. 
The districts were so arranged as to give the towns a very large 
representation in proportion to their populations. In Bohemia, 
e.g., the diet consisted of 241 members: of these five were 
ex officio members; the feudal proprietors had seventy; the 
towns and chambers of commerce together had eighty-seven; 
the rural districts seventy-nine. The electors in the rural 
districts were 236,000, in the towns 93,000. This arrangement 
seems to have been deliberately made by Schmerling, so as to 

1 It is impossible to avoid using the word " Austria " to designate 
these territories, though it is probably incorrect. Officially the word 
"Austria" is not found, and though the sovereign is emperor of 
Austria, an Austrian empire appears not to exist ; the territories are 
spoken of in official documents as ." the kingdoms and lands repre- 
sented in the Reichsrath." The Hungarians and the German party 
in Austria have expressed their desire that the word Austria should 
be used, but it has not been gratified. On the other hand, expressions 
such as " Austrian citizens," " Austrian law " are found. The 
reason of this peculiar use is probably twofold. On the one hand, a 
reluctance to confess that Hungary is no longer in any sense a part 
of Austria ; on the other hand, the refusal of the Czechs to recognize 
that their country is part of Austria. Sometimes the word Erblander, 
which properly is applied only to the older ancestral dominions of the 
house of Habsburg, is used for want of a better word. 



give greater power to the German inhabitants of the towns; 
the votes of the proprietors would, moreover, nearly always give 
the final decision to the court and the government, for the 
influence exercised by the government over the nobility would 
generally be strong enough to secure a majority in favour of the 
government policy. ' : 

This, constitution had failed; territories so different in size, 
history and circumstances were not contented with similar 
institutions, and a form of self-government which satisfied 
Lower Austria and Salzburg did not satisfy Galicia and Bohemia. 
The Czechs of Bohemia, like the Magyars, had refused to recog- 
nize the common parliament on the ground that it violated the 
historic rights' of the Bohemian as of the Hungarian crown, 
and in 1865 the constitution of 1861 had been superseded, while 
the territorial diets remained. In 1867 it was necessary once 
more to summon, in some form or another, a common parliament 
for the whole of Austria, by which the settlement with Hungary 
could be ratified. , 

This necessity brought to a decisive issue the struggle between 
the parties of the Centralists and Federalists. The latter 
claimed that the new constitution must be made by ceatraU 
agreement with the territories; the former maintained ists ans 
that the constitution of 1861 was still valid, and Federal- 
demanded that in accordance with it the Reichsrath ,sts ' 
should be summoned and a "constitutional" government 
restored. The difference between the two parties was to a great 
extent,, though not entirely, one' of race. The kernel of the 
empire was the purely German district, including Upper and 
Lower Austria, Salzburg, Tirol (except the south) and Vorarlberg, 
all Styria except the southern districts, and a large part of 
Carinthia. There was strong local feeling, especially in Tirol, 
but it -was local feeling similar to that which formerly existed 
in the provinces of France; among all classes and parties there 
was great. loyalty both to the ruling house and to the idea of the 
Austrian state; hut while the Liberal party, which was dominant 
in Lower Austria and Styria, desired to develop the central 
institutions, there was a strong Conservative and Clerical party 
which supported local institutions as a protection against the 
Liberal influence of a centralized parliament and bureaucracy, 
and the bishops and clergy were willing to gain support in the 
struggle by alliance with the Federalists. 

Very different was it in the other territories where the majority 
of the population was not German — and where there was a 
lively recollection of the time when they were not 
Austrian. With Palacky, they said," We existed j[* e 
before Austria ; we shall continue to exist after it ? an <is. 
is gone." Especially was this the case in Bohemia. 
In this great country, the richest part of the Austrian dominions, 
where over three-fifths of the population were Czech, racial 
feeling was supported by the appeal to historic law. A great 
party, led by Pajacky and Rieger, demanded the restoration of 
the Bohemian monarchy in its fullest extent, including Moravia 
and Silesia, and insisted that the emperor should be crowned 
as king of Bohemia at Prague as his predecessors had been, and 
that Bohemia should have a position in the monarchy similar 
to that obtained by Hungary. Not only did the party include 
all the Czechs, but they were supported by many of the great 
nobles who were of German descent, including Count Leo Thun, 
his brother-in-law Count Heinrich Clam-Martinitz, and Prince 
Friedrich von Schwarzenberg, cardinal archbishop of Prague, 
who hoped in a: self-governing kingdom of Bohemia' to preserve 
that power which' was threatened by the German Liberals. The 
feudal nobles had great power arising from their wealth, the 
great traditions of their families, and the connexion with the 
court, and by the electoral law they had a large number of 
representatives in the diet. On the other hand the Germans 
of Bohemia, fearful of falling under the control of the Czechs, 
were the most ardent advocates of centralization. The Czechs 
were supported also by their fellow-countrymen in Moravia^ 
and some of the nobles, headed by Count Belcredi, brother of 
the minister; but in Briinn there was a strong German party. 
In Silesia the Germans had a considerable majority, and as 



HISTORY] 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



07 



there was a large Polish element which did not support the 
Czechs, the diet refused to recognize the claims of the 
Bohemians. 

The Poles of Galicia stood apart from the other Slav races. 
The German-speaking population was very small, consisting 
chiefly of government officials, railway servants and Jews; 
but there was a large minority (some 43%) of Ruthenes. The 
Poles wished to gain as much autonomy as they could for their 
own province, but they had no interest in opposing the central- 
ization of other parts; they were satisfied if Austria 1 would 
surrender the Ruthenes to them. They were little influenced 
by the pan-Slav agitation; it was desirable for them that 
Austria, which gave them freedom and power, should continue 
strong and united. Their real interests were outside the 
monarchy, and they did not cease to look forward to a restoration 
of the Polish kingdom. The great danger was that they might 
entangle Austria in a war with Russia. 

The southern Slavs had neither the unity, nor the organization, 
nor the historical traditions of the Czechs and Poles; but the 
Slovenes, who formed a large majority of the population in 
Carniola, and a considerable minority in the adjoining territory 
of Carinthia and the south of Styria, demanded that their 
language should be used for purposes of government and educa- 
tion. Their political ideal Was an " Illyrian "kingdom, including 
Croatia and all the southern Slavs in the coast district, and a 
not very successful movement had been started to establish a 
so-called Illyrian language, which should be accepted by both 
Croats and Slovenes. There was, however, another element in 
the southern districts, viz. the Serbs, who, though of the same 
race and language as the Croats, were separated from them by 
religion. Belonging to the Orthodox Church they were attracted 
by Russia. They were in constant communication with Servia 
and Montenegro; and their ultimate hope, the creation of a 
great Servian kingdom, was less easy to reconcile with loyalty 
to Austria. Of late years attempts have been made to turn the 
Slovenian national movement into this direction, and to attract 
the Slovenes also towards the Orthodox non- Austrian Slavs. 

In the extreme south of Dalmatia is a small district which had 
not formed part of the older duchy of Dalmatia, and had not been 
South joined to the Austrian empire till 1814; in former years 
Dalmatia. P 31 "* °? '*- formed the republic- of Ragusa, and the rest 
belonged to Albania. The inhabitants of this part, who 
chiefly belonged to the Greek Church, still kept up a close connexion 
with Albania and with Montenegro, and Austrian authority was 
maintained with difficulty. Disturbances had already broken put 
once before; and in 1869 another outbreak took place. This district 
had hitherto been exempted from military service; by the law of 
1869, which introduced universal military service, those who had 
hitherto been exempted were required to serve, not in the regular 
army but in the militia. The inhabitants of the district round the 
Bocche di Cattaro (the Bocchesi, as they are commonly called) refused 
to obey this order, and when a military force was sent it failed to 
overcome their resistance; and by an agreement made at Knezlac 
in December 1869, Rodics, who had taken command, granted the 
insurgents all they asked and a complete amnesty. After the con- 
quest of Bosnia another attempt was made to enforce military 
service; once more a rebellion broke out, and spread to the 
contiguous districts of Herzegovina. This time, however, the govern- 
ment, whose position in the Balkans had been much strengthened 
by the occupation of the new provinces, did not fear to act with 
decision. A considerable force was sent under General Baron Stephan 
von Jovanovich (1828-1885); they were supported from sea by the 
navy, and eventually the rebellion was crushed. An amnesty was 
proclaimed, but the greater number of the insurgents sought refuge 
in Montenegro rather than submit to military' service. 

The Italians of Trieste and Istria were the only people of the 
empire who really desired separation from Austria; annexation 
to Italy was the aim of the Italianissimi, as they were' called. 
The feeling was less strong in Tirol, where, except in the city of 
Trent, they seem chiefly to have wished for separate local 
institutions, so that they should no longer be governed from 
Innsbruck. The Italian-speaking population on the coast of 
Dalmatia only asked that the government should uphold them 
against the pressure of the Slav races in the interior, and for this 
reason were ready to support the German constitutionalists. 

The party of centralization was then the Liberal German 



party, supported by a few Italians and the Ruthenes, and ae 
years went by it was to become the National German party. 
They hoped by a common parliament to create the aerman 
feeling of a common Austrian nationality, by German Const/to- 
schools to spread the use of the German language. m "?* 
Every grant of self-government to the territories party ' 
must diminish the influence of the Germans, and bring about a 
restriction in the use of the German language; moreover, in 
countries such as Bohemia, full self-government would almost 
certainly mean that the Germans would become the subject race; 
This was a result which they could not accept. It was intolerable 
to them that just at the time when the national power of the 
non- Austrian Germans was so greatly increased, and the Germans 
were becoming the first race in Europe, they themselves should 
resign the position as rulers which they had won during the last 
three hundred years. They maintained, moreover, that the 
ascendancy of the Germans was the only means of preserving the 
unity of the monarchy; German was the only language in which 
the different races could communicate with one another; it must 
be the language of the army, the civil service and the parliament. 
They laid much stress on the historic task of Austria in bringing 
German culture to the half-civilized races of the east. They 
demanded, therefore, that all higher schools and universities 
should remain German; and that so far as possible the elementary 
schools should be Germanized. They looked on the German 
schoolmaster as the apostle of German culture, and they looked 
forward to the time when the feeling of a common Austrian 
nationality should obscure the national feeling of the Slavs, and 
the Slavonic idioms should survive merely as the local dialects of 
the peasantry, the territories becoming merely the provinces 
of a united and centralized state. The total German population 
was not quite -a third of the whole. The maintenance of their 
rule was, therefore, only possible by the exercise of great political 
ability, the more so, since, as we have seen, they were not united 
among themselves, the clergy and Feudal party being opposed 
to the Liberals. Their watchword was the constitution of 1861, 
which had been drawn up by their leaders; they demanded 
that it should be restored, and with it parliamentary government. 
They called themselves, therefore, the Constitutional party. 
But the introduction of parliamentary government really added 
greatly to the difficulty of the task before them. In the old days 
German ascendancy had been secured by the common army, the 
civil service and the court. As soon, however, as power was 
transferred to a parliament, the Germans must inevitably be in 
a minority, unless the method of election was deliberately 
arranged so as to give them a majority. Parliamentary discus- 
sion, moreover, was sure to bring out those racial differences 
which it was desirable should be forgotten, and the elections 
carried into every part of the empire a political agitation which 
was very harmful when each party represented a different race. 

The very first events showed one of those extraordinary 
changes of policy so characteristic of modern Austrian history. 
Th« decision of the government on the constitutional question 
was really determined by immediate practical necessity. The 
Hungarians required that the settlement should be ratified by a 
parliament, therefore^ parliament must be procured which would 
do this. It must be a parliament in which the Germans had a 
majority, for the system of dualism was directly opposed to the 
ambitions of the Slavs and the Federalists. Belcredi, who had 
come into power in 1865 as a Federalist, and had suspended 
the constitution of 1861 on the 2nd of January 1867, ordered 
new elections for the diets, which were then to elect deputies to 
an extraordinary Reichsrath which should consider the Ausgleich, 
or compact with Hungary. The wording of the decree implied 
that the February constitution did not exist as of law; the 
Germans and Liberals, strenuously objecting to a " feudal- 
federal " constitution which would give the Slavs a preponder- 
ance in the empire, maintained that the February consti- 
tution was still in force, and that changes could only be 
introducedbya regular Reichsrath summoned in accord- 
ance wi-th it, protested against the decree, and, in some cases, 
threatened not to take part in the elections. As the Federalists 



Crista of 
1867. 



28 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



[HISTORY 



were all opposed to the Ausgleich, it was clear that a Reichsrath 
chosen in these circumstances would refuse to ratify it, and this 
was probably Belcredi's intention. As the existence of the empire 
would thereby be endangered, Beust interfered; Belcredi was 
dismissed, Beust himself became minister-president on the 7th 
of February 1867, and a new edict was issued from Vienna 
ordering the diets to elect a Reichsrath, according to the con- 
stitution, which was now said to be completely valid. Of course, 
however, those diets in which there was a Federalist majority, 
viz. those of Bohemia, Moravia, Carinthia and Tirol, which were 
already pledged to support the January policy of the government, 
did not acquiesce in the February policy; and they refused to 
elect except on terms which the government could not accept. 
The first three were immediately dissolved. In the elections 
which followed in Bohemia the influence of the government was 
sufficient to secure a German majority among the landed pro- 
prietors; the Czechs, who were therefore in a minority, declared 
the elections invalid, refused to take any part in electing deputies 
for the Reichsrath, and seceded altogether from the diet. The 
result was that Bohemia now sent a large German majority to 
Vienna, and the few Czechs who were chosen refused to take their 
seat in the parliament. Had the example of the Czechs been 
followed by the other Slav races it would still have been difficult 
_ , to get together a Reichsrath to pass the Ausgleich. 
compact It wa s, however, easier to deal with the Poles of Galicia, 
with the for they had no historical rights to defend ; and by 
Poles - sending delegates to Vienna they would not sacrifice 
any principle or prejudice any legal claim; they had only to 
consider how they could make the best bargain. Their position 
was a strong one; their votes were essential to the government, 
and the government could be useful to them; it could give them 
the complete control over the Ruthenes. A compact then was 
easily arranged. 

Beust promised them that there should be a special minister 
for Galicia, a separate board for Galician education, that Polish 
should be the language of instruction in all secondary schools, 
that Polish instead of German should be the official language in 
the law courts and public offices, Ruthenian being only used 
in the elementary schools under strict limitations. On these 
terms the Polish deputies, led by Ziemialkowski, agreed to go to 
Vienna and vote for the Ausgleich. 

When the Reichsrath met, the government had a large 
majority ; and in the House, in which all the races except the 
Czechs were represented, the Ausgleich was ratified 
^ift?"' almost unanimously. This having been done, it was 
of 1867. possible to proceed to special legislation for the 
territories, which were henceforward officially known 
as " the kingdoms and lands represented in the Reichsrath." 
A series of fundamental laws were carried, which formally 
established parliamentary government, with responsibility of 
ministers, and complete control over the budget, and there were 
included a number of clauses guaranteeing personal rights and 
liberties in the way common to all modern constitutions. The 
influence of the Poles was still sufficient to secure considerable 
concessions to the wishes of the Federalists, since if they did not 
get what they wished they would leave the House, and the 
Slovenes, Dalmatians and Tirolese would certainly follow them. 
Hence the German Liberals were prevented from introducing 
direct elections to the Reichsrath, and the functions of the 
Reichsrath were slightly less extensive than they had hitherto 
been. Moreover, the Delegation was to be chosen not by the 
House as a whole, but by the representatives of the separate 
territories. This is one reason for the comparative weakness 
of Austria as compared with Hungary, where the Delegation is 
elected by each House as a whole; the Bohemian representatives, 
e.g., meet and choose 10 delegates, the Galicians 7, those from 
Trieste 1 ; the Delegation, is, therefore, not representative of the 
majority of the chamber of deputies, but includes representa- 
tives of all the groups which may be opposing the government 
there, and they can carry on their opposition even in the Delega- 
tion. So it came about in 1869, that on the first occasion when 
there was a joint sitting of the Delegations to settle a point in the 



budget, which Hungary had accepted and Austria rejected, the 
Poles and Tirolese voted in favour of the Hungarian proposal. 

As soon as these laws had been carried (December 1867), 
Beust retired from the post of minister-president ; and in 
accordance with constitutional practice a parliament- Tb 
ary ministry was appointed entirely from the ranks BUrger 
of the Liberal majority; a ministry generally known Minis- 
as the " Burger Ministerium " in which Giskra and tertum. 
Herbst — the leaders of the German party in Moravia and 
Bohemia — were the most important members. Austria now 
began its new life as a modern constitutional state. From this 
time the maintenance of the revised constitution of 1867 has 
been the watchword of what is called the Constitutional party. 
The first use which the new government made of their power 
was to settle the finances, and in this their best work was done. 
Among them were nearly all the representatives of trade and 
industry, of commercial enterprise and financial speculation; 
they were the men who hoped to make Austria a great industrial 
state, and at this time they were much occupied with railway 
enterprise. Convinced free-traders, they hoped by private 
energy to build up the fortunes of the country, parliamentary 
government — which meant for them the rule of the educated 
and well-to-do middle class — being one of the means to this end. 
They accepted the great burden of debt which the action of 
Hungary imposed upon the country, and rejected the proposals 
for repudiation, but notwithstanding the protest of foreign 
bondholders they imposed a tax of 16 % on all interest on the 
debt. They carried out an extension of the commercial treaty 
with Great Britain by which a further advance was made in 
the direction of free trade. 

Of equal importance was their work in freeing Austria from 
the control of the Church, which checked the intellectual life 
of the people. The concordat of 1855 had given the The 
Church complete freedom in the management of all Liberals 
ecclesiastical affairs; there was full liberty of inter- and the 
course with Rome, the state gave up all control over «° acordat 
the appointment of the clergy, and in matters of church discipline 
the civil courts had no voice — the clergy being absolutely subject 
to the power of the bishops, who could impose temporal as well 
as spiritual penalties. The state had even resigned to the Church 
all authority over some departments of civil life, and restored 
the authority of the canon law. This was the case as regards 
marriage; all disputes were to be tried before ecclesiastical 
courts, and the marriage registers were kept by the priests. 
All the schools were under the control of the Church; the bishops 
could forbid the use of books prejudicial to religion; in ele- 
mentary schools all teachers were subject to the inspection of 
the Church, and in higher schools only Roman Catholics could 
be appointed. It had been agreed that the whole education 
of the Roman Catholic youth, in all schools, private as well as 
public, should be in accordance with the teaching of the Roman 
Catholic Church. The authority of the Church extended even 
to the universities. Some change in this system was essential; 
the Liberal party demanded that the government should simply 
state that the concordat had ceased to exist. To this, however, 
the emperor would not assent, and there was a difficulty in over- 
throwing an act which took the form of a treaty. The govern- 
ment wished to come to some agreement by friendly discussion 
with Rome, but Pius IX. was not willing to abate anything of 
his full claims. The ministry, therefore, proceeded by internal 
legislation, and in 1868 introduced three laws : (1) a marriage law 
transferred the decisions on all questions of marriage from the 
ecclesiastical to the civil courts, abolished the authority of the 
canon law, and introduced civil marriage in those cases where 
the clergy refused to perform the ceremony; (2) the control of 
secular education was taken from the Church, and the manage- 
ment of schools transferred to local authorities which were to 
be created by the diets; (3) complete civil equality between 
Catholics and non-Catholics was established. These laws were 
carried through both Houses in May amid almost unparalleled 
excitement, and at once received the imperial sanction, notwith- 
standing the protest of all the bishops, led by Joseph Othmar 



HISTORY] 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



29 



von Rauscher (1797-1875), cardinal archbishop of Vienna, who 
had earned his red hat by the share he had taken in arranging the 
concordat of 1855, and now attempted to use his great personal 
influence with the emperor (his former pupil) to defeat the bill. 

The ministry had the enthusiastic support of the German 
population in the towns. They were also supported by the 
teaching profession, which desired emancipation from ecclesi- 
astical control, and hoped that German schools and German 
railways were to complete the work which Joseph II. had begun. 
But the hostility of the Church was dangerous. The pope, in an 
allocution of 22nd June 1868, declared that these " damnable 
and abominable laws " which were " contrary to the concordat, 
to the laws of the Church and to the principles of Christianity," 
were " absolutely and for ever null and void." The natural 
result was that when they were carried into effect the bishops 
in many cases refused to obey. They claimed that the laws were 
inconsistent with the concordat, that the concordat still was 
in force, and that the laws were consequently invalid. The 
argument was forcible, but the courts decided against them. 
Rudigier, bishop of Linz, was summoned to a criminal court for 
disturbing the public peace; he refused to appear, for by the 
concordat bishops were not subject to temporal jurisdiction; 
and when he was condemned to imprisonment the emperor at 
once telegraphed his full pardon. In the rural districts the 
clergy had much influence; they were supported by the peasants, 
and the diets of Tirol and Vorarlberg, where there was a clerical 
majority, refused to carry out the school law. 

On the proclamation of papal infallibility in 1870, the government 
took the opportunity of declaring that the concordat had lapsed, 
on the ground that there was a fundamental change in the character 
of the papacy. Nearly all the Austrian prelates had been opposed 
to the new doctrine; many of them remained to the end of the 
council and voted against it, and they only declared their submission 
with great reluctance. The Old Catholic movement, however, never 
made much progress in Austria. Laws regulating the position of 
the Church were carried in 1874. (For the concordat see Laveleye, 
La Prusse et VAutriche, Paris, 1870.) 

During 1868 the constitution then was open to attack on two 
sides, for the nationalist movement was gaining ground in 
National- Bohemia and Galicia. In Galicia the extreme party, 
ism in Qa- headed by Smolka, had always desired to imitate the 
ihia and Czechs and not attend at Vienna; they were outvoted, 
o em a. ^ u) _ ^ p ar ti e s agreed on a declaration in which the 
final demands of the Poles were drawn up; 1 they asked that 
the powers of the Galician diet should be much increased, and 
that the members from Galicia should cease to attend the 
Reichsrath on the discussion of those matters with which the 
Galician diet should be qualified to deal. If these demands 
were not granted they would leave the Reichsrath. In Bohemia 
the Czechs were very active; while the Poles were parading their 
hostility to Russia in such a manner as to cause the emperor 
to avoid visiting Galicia, some of the Czech leaders attended a 
Slav demonstration at Moscow, and in 1868 they drew up and 
presented to the diet at Prague a " declaration " which has since 
been regarded as the official statement of their claims. They 
asked for the full restoration of the Bohemian kingdom; they 
contended that no foreign assembly was qualified to impose 
taxes in Bohemia; that the diet was not qualified to elect 
representatives to go to Vienna, and that a separate settlement 
must be made with Bohemia similar to that with Hungary. 
This declaration was signed by eighty-one members, including 
many of the feudal nobles and bishops. 2 The German majority 
declared that they had forfeited their seats, and ordered new 
elections. The agitation spread over the country, serious riots 
took place, and with a view to keeping order the government 
decreed exceptional laws. Similar events happened in Moravia, 
and in Dalmatia the revolt broke out among the Bocchesi. 

Before the combination of Clericals and Federalists the 
ministry broke down; they were divided among themselves; 
Counts Taaffe and Alfred Potocki, the minister of agriculture, 
wished to conciliate the Slav races — a policy recommended 

1 The documents are printed in Baron de Worms, op. cit. 
1 It is printed in the Europdischer Geschichtskalender (1868). 



by Beust, probably with the sympathy of the emperor; the 
others determined to cripple the opposition by taking away 
the elections for the Reichsrath from the diets. p ar // a . 
Taaffe and his friends resigned in January 1870, but mentary 
the majority did not long survive. In March, after breakdown 
long delay, the new Galician demands were definitely ° 
rejected; the whole of, the Polish club, followed by the Tirolese 
and Slovenes, left the House, which consequently consisted of 
no members — the Germans and German representatives from 
Bohemia and Moravia. It was clearly impossible to govern with 
such a parliament. Not four years had gone by, and the new 
constitution seemed to have failed like the old one. The only 
thing to do was to attempt a reconciliation with the Slavs. The 
ministry resigned, and Potocki and Taaffe formed a government 
with this object. Potocki, now minister-president, then entered 
on negotiations, hoping to persuade the Czechs to accept the 
constitution. Rieger and Thun were summoned to Vienna; 
he himself went to Prague, but after two days he had to give 
up the attempt in despair. Feudals and Czechs all supported 
the declaration of 1868, and would accept no compromise, and 
he returned to Vienna after what was the greatest disappoint- 
ment of his life. Government, however, had to be carried on; 
the war between Germany and France broke out in July, and 
Austria might be drawn into it; the emperor could not at such 
a crisis alienate either the Germans or the Slavs. The Reichsrath 
and all the diets were dissolved. This time in Bohemia the 
Czechs, supported by the Feudals' and the Clericals, gained a 
large majority; they took their seats in the diet only to declare 
that they did not regard it as the legal representative of the 
Bohemian kingdom, but merely an informal assembly, and 
refused to elect delegates for the Reichsrath. The Germans 
in their turn now left the diet, and the Czechs voted an address 
to the crown, drawn up by Count Thun, demanding the restora- 
tion of the Bohemian kingdom. When the Reichsrath met 
there were present only 130 out of 203 members, for the whole 
Bohemian contingent was absent; the government then, under 
a law of 1868, ordered that as the Bohemian diet had sent no 
delegates, they were to be chosen directly from the people. 
Twenty-four Constitutionalists and thirty Declaranten were 
chosen; the latter, of course, did not go to Vienna, but the 
additional twenty-four made a working majority by which the 
government was carried on for the rest of the year. 

But Potocki's influence was gone, and as soon as the European 
crisis was over, in February 1871, the emperor appointed a 
ministry chosen not from the Liberals but from the fhe 
Federalists and Clericals, led by Count Hohenwart ministry 
and A. E.F. Schaffle, a professor at the university of otHohen- 
Vienna, chiefly known for his writings on political waH ' 
economy. They attempted to solve the problem by granting 
to the Federalists all their demands. So long as parliament was 
sitting they were kept in check; as soon as it had voted supplies 
and the Delegations had separated, they ordered new elections 
in all those diets where there was a Liberal majority. By the 
help of the Clericals they won enough seats to put the Liberals 
in a minority in the Reichsrath, and it would be possible to revise 
the constitution if the Czechs consented to come. They would 
only attend, however, on their own terms, which were a com- 
plete recognition by the government of the claims made in the 
Declaration. This was agreed to; and on the 12th of September 
at the opening of the diet, the governor read a royal message 
recognizing the separate existence of the Bohemian kingdom, 
and promising that the emperor should be crowned as king at 
Prague. It was received with delight throughout Bohemia, 
and the Czechs drew a draft constitution of fundamental rights. 
On this the Germans, now that they were in a minority, left the 
diet, and began preparations for resistance. In Upper Austria, 
Moravia and Carinthia, where they were outvoted by the 
Clericals, they seceded, and the whole work of 1867 was on the 
point of being overthrown. Were the movement not stopped 
the constitution would be superseded, and the union with 
Hungary endangered. Beust and Andrassy warned the emperor 
of the danger, and the crown prince of Saxony was summoned 



3° 



AUSTRIAJ-HUNGARY 



[HISTORY 



by Beust to remonstrate with him. A great council was called 
at Vienna (October 20), at which the emperor gave his decision 
that the Bohemian demands could not be accepted. The Czechs 
must come to Vienna, and consider a revision of the constitution 
in a constitutional manner. Hohenwart resigned, but at the 
same time BeUst was dismissed, and a new cabinet was chosen 
once more from among the German Liberals, under the leadership 
of Prince Adolf Auersperg, whose brother Carlos had been one 
of the chief members in the Burger Ministerium. For the second 
time in four years the policy of the government had completely 
changed within a few months. On 12 th September the decree 
had been published accepting the Bohemian claims; before the 
end of the year copies of it were seized by the police, and men 
were thrown into prison for circulating it. 

Auersperg's ministry held office for eight years. They began 
as had the Burger Ministerium, with a vigorous Liberal central- 
Auers- izing policy. In Bohemia they succeeded at first in 
Peng's almost crushing the opposition. In 1872 the diet was 
ministry, dissolved; and the whole influence of the government 
'f/ 7 ' g ia was used to procure a German majority. Koller, the 

governor, acted with great vigour. Opposition news-, 
papers were suppressed; cases in which Czech journalists were 
concerned were transferred to the German districts, so that they 
were tried by a hostile German jury. Czech manifestoes were 
confiscated, and meetings stopped at the slightest appearance 
of disorder; and the riots were punished by quartering soldiers 
upon the inhabitants. The 1 decision between the two races 
turned on the vote of the feudal proprietors, and in order to win 
this a society was formed among the German capitalists of 
Vienna (to which the name of Chabms .was popularly given) 
to acquire by real or fictitious purchase portions of those estates 
to which a vote was attached. These measures were successful ; 
a large German majority was secured; Jews from Vienna sat 
in the place of the Thuns and the Schwarzenbergs; and as for 
many years the Czechs refused to sit in the diet, the government 
could be carried on without difficulty. A still greater blow to 
the Federalists was the passing of a new electoral law in 1873. 
The measure transferred the right of electing members of the 
Reichsrath from the diets to the direct vote of the people, the 
result being to deprive the Federalists of their chief weapon; 
it was no longer possible to take a formal vote of the legal repre- 
sentatives in any territory refusing to appoint deputies, and 
if a Czech or Slovene member did not take his seat the only 
result was that a single constituency was unrepresented, and 
the opposition weakened. The measure was strongly opposed. 
A petition with 250,000 names was presented from Bohemia; 
and the Poles withdrew from the Reichsrath when the law was 
introduced. But enough members remained to give the legal 
quorum, and it was carried by 1 20 to 2 votes. At the same time 
the number of members was increased to 353, but the proportion 
of representatives from the different territories was maintained 
and the system of election was not altered. The proportion of 
members assigned to the towns was increased, the special 
representatives of the chambers of commerce and of the landed 
proprietors were retained, and the suffrage was not extended.' 
The artificial system which gave to the Germans a parliamentary 
majority continued. 

At this time the Czechs were much weakened by quarrels 
among themselves. A new party had arisen, calling themselves 

Radicals, but generally known as the Young Czechs. 
mnUoas' They disliked the alliance with the aristocracy and the 

clergy; they wished for universal suffrage, and recalled 
the Hussite traditions. They desired to take their seats in the 
diet, and to join with the Germans: in political reform. They 
violently attacked Rieger, the leader of the Old Czechs., who 
maintained the alliance with the Feudalists and the policy of 
passive opposition. Twenty-seven members of the diet led by 
Gregr and Stadkowsky, being outvoted in the Czech Club,- 
resigned their seats. They were completely defeated in the 
elections which followed, but for the next four years the two 
parties among the Czechs were as much occupied in opposing one 
another as in opposing the Germans. These events might have 



•secured the predominance of the Liberals for many years. The 
election after the reform bill gave them an increased majority 
in the Reichsrath. Forty-two Czechs who had won seats did 
not attend; forty-three Poles stood aloof from all party com- 
bination, giving their votes on each occasion as the interest 
of their country seemed to require; the real opposition was 
limited to forty Clericals and representatives of the other 
Slav races, who were collected on the Right under the leadership 
of Hohenwart. Against them were 227 Constitutionalists, and 
it seemed to matter little that they were divided into three 
groups; there were 105 in the Liberal Club under the leadership 
of Herbst, 57 Constitutionalists, elected by the landed proprietors, 
and a third %ody of Radicals, some of< whom were more 
democratic than the old Constitutional party, while others laid 
more stress on nationality. They used their majority to carry a 
number of important laws regarding ecclesiastical affairs. Yet 
within four years the government was obliged to turn for support 
to the Federalists and Clericals, and the rule of the German 
Liberals was overthrown. Their influence was in- ■ 

directly affected by the great commercial crisis of 1873 . cHsls c ot 
For some years there had been active speculations on 1873. 
the Stock Exchange; a great number of companies, 
chiefly banks and building societies, had been founded on a very 
insecure basis. The inevitable crisis began in 1872; it was 
postponed for a short time, and there was some hope that the 
Exhibition, fixed for 1873, would bring fresh prosperity; the 
hope was not, however, fulfilled, and the final crash, which 
occurred in May, brought with it the collapse of hundreds of 
Undertakings. The loss fell almost entirely on those who had 
attempted to increase their wealth by speculative investment. 
Sound industrial concerns were little touched by it, but specula- 
tion had become so general that every class of society was affected, 
and in the investigation which followed it became apparent that 
some of the most distinguished members of the governing Liberal 
party, including at least two members of the government, were 
among those who had profited by the unsound finance. It 
appeared also that many of the leading newspapers of Vienna, 
by which the Liberal party was supported, had received money 
from financiers. For the next two years political interest was 
transferred from parliament to the law courts, in which financial 
scandals were exposed, and the reputations of some of the leading 
politicians were destroyed. 1 

This was to bring about a reaction against the economic 
doctrines which had held the field for nearly twenty years; but 
the 1 full effect of the change was not seen for some - 

tithe. What ruined the government was the want of ubera i 
unity in the party, and their neglect to support a ministry. 
ministry which had been taken from their own ranks. 
In a country like Austria, in which a mistaken foreign policy or 
a serious quarrel with Hungary might bring about' the disruption 
of the monarchy, parliamentary government was impossible 
unless the party which the government helped in internal 
matters were prepared to support it in foreign affairs and in the 
commercial policy bound up with the settlement with Hungary. 
This the constitutional parties did not do. During discussions 
on the economic arrangement with Hungary in 1877 a large 
number voted against the duties on coffee and petroleum, which 
were an essential part of the agreement; they demanded, 
moreover, that the treaty of Berlin should be laid before the 
House, and 112 members, led by Herbst, gave a vote hostile to 
some of its provisions, and in the^ Delegation refused the supplies 
necessary for the occupation of Bosnia. They doubtless were 
acting in accordance with their principles, but- the situation was 
such that it would have been impossible to carry out their wishes; 
the only result was that the Austrian ministers and Andrassy 
had to turn for help to the Poles, who began to acquire the 
position of a government party, which they have kept since then. 
At the beginning of 1870 Auersperg's resignation, which had long 
been offered, was accepted. The constitutionalists remained 

1 See Wirth, Geschkhte der Handelskrisen (Frankfort, 1885); and 
an interesting article by Schaffle in the Zeitschrift f. Staatswissen- 
schaft (Stuttgart, 1874). 



HISTORY] 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



3 1 



in power; but in the reconstructed cabinet, though Stremayr 
was president, Count Taaffe, as minister of the interior, was the 
most important member. 

Parliament was dissolved in the summer, and Taaffe, by 
private negotiations, first of all persuaded the Bohemian feudal 
proprietors to give the Feudalists, who had long been excluded, 
a -certain number of seats; secondly, he succeeded where Potocki 
had failed, and. came to an : agreement with the Czechs; they 
had already, in 1878, taken their seats in the diet at Prague, and 
now gave up the policy of " passive resistance," and consented 
to take their seats also in the parliament at Vienna. 

On entering the House they took the oath without reservation, 
but in the speech from the throne the emperor himself stated 
that they had entered without prejudice to their 
Taaffe. convictions, and on the first day of the session Rieger 
read a formal reservation of right. The Liberals had 
also lost many seats, so that the House now had a completely 
different aspect; the constitutionalists were reduced to 91 
Liberals and 54 Radicals; but the Right, under Hoheriwart, 
had increased to 57, and there were 57 Poles and: 54 Czechs. 
A combination of these three parties might govern against the 
constitutionalists. Taaffe, who now became first minister, tried 
first of all to govern by the help of the moderates of all parties, 
and he included representatives of nearly every party in his 
cabinet. But the Liberals again voted against the government 
on an important military bill, an offence almost as unpardonable 
in Austria as in Germany, and a great meeting of the party 
decided that they would not support the government. Taaffe, 
therefore, was obliged to turn for support to the Right. The 
German members of the government resigned, their place was 
taken by Clericals, Poles and Czechs, Smolka was elected 
president of the Lower House of the Reichsrath, and the German 
Liberals found themselves in a minority opposed by the "iron 
ring " of these three parties, and helpless in the parliament of 
their own creation. For fourteen years Taaffe succeeded in 
maintaining the position he had thus secured. He was not 
himself a party man; he had sat in a Liberal. government; he 
had never assented to the principles of the Federalists, nor was 
he an adherent of the Clerical party. He continued to rule 
according to the constitution; his watchword was " unpolitical 
politics," and he brought in Little contentious legislation. The 
great source of his strength was that he stood between the Right 
and a Liberal government. There was a large minority of 
constitutionalists; they might easily become a majority, and 
the Right were therefore obliged to support Taaffe in order to 
avert this. They continued to support him, even if they did 
not get from him all that they could have wished, and the 
Czechs acquiesced in a foreign policy with which they had little 
sympathy. Something, however, had to be done for them, and 
from time to time concessions had to be made to the Clericals 
and the Federalists. 

The real desire of the Clericals was an alteration of the school 
law, by which the control of the schools should be restored to 
the Church and the period of compulsory education 
reduced. In this, however, the government did not 
meet them, and in 1882 the Clericals, under Prince 
Alfred v. Liechtenstein, separated from Hohenwart's party and 
founded their own club, so that they could act more freely. Both 
the new Clerical Club and the remainder of the Conservatives 
were much affected by the reaction against the doctrines of 
economic Liberalism. They began to adopt the principles of 
Christian Socialism expounded by Rudolf Mayer and Baron von 
Vogelfang, and the economic revolt against the influence of 
capital was with them joined to a half -religious attack upon the 
Jews. They represented that Austria was being governed by a 
close ring of political financiers, many of whom were Jews or in 
the pay of the Jews, who used the forms of the constitution, 
under which there was no representation of the working classes, 
to exploit the labour of the poor at the same time that they 
ruined the people by alienating them from Christianity in " god- 
less schools." It was during these years that the foundation for 
tb,e democratic clericalism of the future was laid. The chief 



The 
Clericals. 



political leader in this new tendency was Prince Aloys v. Liechten- 
stein, who complained of the political influence exercised by the 
chambers of commerce, and demanded the organization cf 
working men in gilds. It was by their influence that a law was 
introduced limiting the rate of interest, and they co-operated 
with the government in legislation for improving the material 
condition of the people, which had been neglected during the 
period of Liberal government, and which was partly similar to 
the laws introduced at the same time in Germany. 

, There seems no doubt that the condition of the workmen in the 
factories of Moravia and the oil-mines of Galicia was peculiarly 
unfortunate; the hours of work were very long, the 
conditions were very injurious to health, and there / e *fe/ a . 
were no precautions against accidents. The report of tloa. 
a parliamentary inquiry, called for by the Christian 
Socialists, showed the necessity for interference. In 1883 a law 
was carried, introducing factory inspection, extending to mines 
and all industrial undertakings. The measure seems to have 
been successful, and there is a general agreement that the 
inspectors have done their work with skill and courage. In 
1884 and 1885 important laws were passed regulating the work 
in mines and factories, and introducing a maximum working day 
of eleven hours in factories, and ten hours in mines. Sunday 
labour was forbidden, and the hours during which women and 
children could be employed were limited. Great power was 
given to the administrative authorities to relax the application 
of these laws in special cases and special trades. This power 
was at first freely used, but it was Closely restricted by a further 
law of 1893. In 1887-1888 laws, modelled on the new German 
laws, introduced compulsory insurance against accidents and 
sickness. , These measures, 1 ^ though severely criticized by the 
Opposition, were introduced to remedy obvious, and in some 
cases terrible social evils. Other laws to restore gilds among 
working men had a more direct political object. Another form 
of state socialism was the acquisition of railways by the state. 
Originally railways had been built by private enterprise, sup- 
ported in some cases by a state guarantee; a law of 1877 per- 
mitted the acquisition of private lines; when Taaffe retired the 
state possessed nearly 5000 m. of railway, not including those 
which belonged to Austria and Hungary conjointly. In 1809 
a minister of railways was appointed., In this policy military 
considerations as well as economic were of influence. In every 
department we find the same reaction against the doctrines of 
laissez-faire. In 1889 for the first time the Austrian budget 
showed a surplus, partly the result of the new impoit duties, 
partly due to a reform of taxation. 

For a fuller description of these social reforms, see the Jahrbuch 
fur Gesetzgebung (Leipzig, 188.6, 1888 and 1894) ; also the annual 
summary of new laws in the Z'eitschrift fiir Staatswissenschaft (Stutt- 
gart). For the Christian Socialists, see Nitti,. Catholic Socialism 
(London, 1895). 

Meanwhile it was necessary for the government to do some- 
thing for the Czechs and the other Slavs, on whose support 
they depended for their majority. The influence of 
the government became more favourable to them in language 
the matter of language, and this caused the struggle question. 
of nationalities to assume the first place in Austrian 
public life — a place which it has ever since maintained. The 
question of language becomes a political one, so far as it concerns 
the use of different languages in the public offices and law courts, 
and in the schools. There never was any general law laying 
down clear and universal rules, but since the time of Joseph II. 
German had been the ordinary language of the government. 
All laws were published in German; German was the sole 
language used in the central public offices in Vienna, and the 
language of the court and of the army; moreover, in almost 
every part of the monarchy it had become the language of what 
is called the internal service in the public offices and law courts; 
all books and correspondence were kept in German, not only in 
the German districts, but also in countries such as Bohemia and 
Galicia. The bureaucracy and the law courts had therefore be- 
come a network of German-speaking officialism extending over 
the whole country; no one had any share in the government 



32 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



[HISTORY 



unless he could speak and write German. The only excep- 
tion was in the Italian districts; not only in Italy itself (in 
Lombardy, and afterwards in Venetia), but in South Tirol, 
Trieste, Istria and Dalmatia, Italian has always been used, 
even for the internal service Of the government offices, and 
though the actual words of command are now given in German 
and the officers are obliged to know Serbo-Croatian it remains to 
this day the language of the Austrian navy. Any interference 
with the use of German would be a serious blow to the cause of 
those who hoped to Germanize the whole empire. Since 1867 the 
old rules have been maintained absolutely as regards the army, 
and German has also, as required by the military authorities, 
become the language of the railway administration. It remains 
the language of the central offices in Vienna, and is the usual, 
though not the only, language used in the Reichsrath. In 
1869 a great innovation was made, when Polish was introduced 
throughout the whole of Galicia as the normal language of 
government; and since that time the use of German has almost 
entirely disappeared in that territory. Similar innovations have 
also begun, as we shall see, in other parts. 

Different from this is what is called the external service. Even 
in the old days it* was customary to use the language of the 
district in communication between the government offices and 
private individuals, and evidence could be given in the law 
courts in the language generally spoken. This was not the result 
of any law, but depended on administrative regulations of the 
government service; it was practically necessary in remote 
districts, such as Galicia and Bukovina, where few of the popu- 
lation understood German. In some places a Slav-speaking 
individual would himself have to provide the interpreter, and 
approach the government in German. Local authorities, e.g. 
town councils and the diets, were free to use what language 
they wished, and in this matter the Austrian government has 
shown great liberality. The constitution of 1867 laid down a 
principle of much importance, by which previous custom became 
established as a right. Article 19 runs: "All races of the 
empire have equal rights, and every race has an inviolable right 
to the preservation and use of its own nationality and language. 
The equality of all customary (landesilblick) languages in school, 
office and public life, is recognized by the state. In those 
territories in which several races dwell, the public and educational 
institutions are to be so arranged that, without applying com- 
pulsion to learn a second Landessprache, each of the races re- 
ceives the necessary means of education in its own language." 
The application of this law gives great power to the government, 
for everything depends on what is meant by landesiiblich, and 
it rests with them to determine when a language is customary. 
The Germans demand the recognition of German as a customary 
language in every, part of the empire, so that a German may 
claim to have his business attended to in his own language, even 
in Dalmatia and Galicia. In Bohemia the Czechs claim that their 
language shall be recognized as customary, even in those districts 
such as Reichenberg, which are almost completely German; 
the Germans, on the other hand, claim that the Czech language 
shall only be recognized in those towns and districts where 
there is a considerable Czech population. What Taaffe's 
Administration did was to interpret this law in a sense more 
favourable to the Slavs than had hitherto been the case. 

Peculiar importance is attached to the question of education. 
The law of 1867 required that the education in the elementary 
schools in the Slav districts should be given in Czech or Slovenian, 
as the case might be. The Slavs, however, required that, even 
when a small minority of Slav race settled in any town, they 
should not be compelled to go to the German schools, but 
should have their own school provided for them; and this 
demand was granted by Prazak, minister of education under 
Count Taaffe. The Germans had always hoped that the people 
as they became educated would cease to use their own particular 
language. Owing to economic causes the Slavs, who increase 
more rapidly than the Germans, tend to move westwards, and 
large numbers settle in the towns and manufacturing districts. 
It might have been expected that they would then cease to use 



their own language and become Germanized; but, on the con- 
trary, the movement of population is spreading their language 
and they claim that special schools should be provided for them, 
and that men of their own nationality should be appointed to 
government offices to deal with their business. This has hap- 
pened not only in many places in Bohemia, but in Styria, and 
even in Vienna, where there has been a great increase in the 
Czech population and a Czech school has been founded. The 
introduction of Slavonic into the middle and higher schools has 
affected the Germans in their most sensitive point. They have 
always insisted that German is the Kultur-sprache. On one 
occasion Count A. Auersperg (Anastasius Griin) entered the 
diet of Carniola carrying the whole of the Slovenian literature 
under his arm, as evidence that the Slovenian language could not 
well be substituted for German as a medium of higher education. 

The first important regulations which were issued under the 
law of 1867 applied to Dalmatia, and for that country between 
1872 and 1876 a series of laws and edicts were issued determining 
to what extent the Slavonic idioms were to be recognized. 
Hitherto all business had been done in Italian, the language of 
a small minority living in the seaport towns. The effect of these 
laws has been to raise Croatian to equality with Italian. It 
has been introduced in all schools, so that nearly all educa- 
tion is given in Croatian, even though a knowledge of Italian 
is quite essential for the maritime population; and it is only 
in one or two towns, such as Zara, the ancient capital of the 
country, that Italian is able to maintain itself. Since 1882 
there has been a Slav majority in the diet, and Italian has been 
disused in the proceedings of that body. In this case the con- 
cessions to the Servo-Croatians had been made by the Liberal 
ministry; they required the parliamentary support of the 
Dalmatian representatives, who were more numerous than the 
Italian, and it was also necessary to cultivate the loyalty of the 
Slav races in this part so as to gain a support for Austria against 
the Russian party, which was very active in the Balkan Peninsula. 
It was better to sacrifice the Italians of Dalmatia than the 
Germans of Carinthia. 1 

It was not till 1879 tnat the Slovenes received the support 
of the government. In Carniola they succeeded, in 1882, in 
winning a majority in the diet, and from this time, while the diet 
of Styria is the centre of the German, that of Carniola is the 
chief support of the Slovene agitation. In the same year they 
won the majority in the town council of Laibach, which had 
hitherto been German. They were able, therefore, to introduce 
Illyrian as the official language, and cause the names of the streets 
to be written up in Illyrian. This question of street names is, 
as it were, a sign of victory. Serious riots broke out in some 
of the towns of Istria when, for the first time, Illyrian was used 
for this purpose as well as Italian. In Prague the victory of the 
Czechs has been marked by the removal of all German street 
names, and the Czech town council even passed a by-law 
forbidding private individuals to have tablets put up with the 
name of the street in German. In consequence of a motion by 
the Slovene members of the Reichsrath and a resolution of the 
diet of Carniola, the government also declared Slovenian to be a 
recognized language for the whole of Carniola, for the district 
of Cilli in Styria, and for the Slovene and mixed districts in the 
south of Carinthia, and determined that in Laibach a Slovene 
gymnasium should be maintained as well as the German one. 

The Germans complain that in many cases the government acted 
very unfairly to them. They constantly refer to the case of Klagen- 
furt. This town in Carinthia had a population of 16,401 German- 
speaking Austrians; the Slovenian-speaking population numbered 
568, of whom 180 were inhabitants of the gaol or the hospital. The 
government, however, in 1880 declared Slovenian a customary 
language, so that provision had to be made in public offices and law 
courts for dealing with business" in Slovenian. It must be remem- 
bered, however, that even though the town was German, the rural 
population of the surrounding villages was chiefly Slovene. 

It was in Bohemia and Moravia that the contest was fought 
out with the greatest vehemence. The two races were nearly 
equal, and the victory of Czech would mean that nearly two 

1 For Dalmatia, see T. G. Jackson, Dalmatia, &c. (Oxford, 1889). 



HISTORY] 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



33 



million Germans would be placed in a position of subordination; 
but for the last twenty years there had been a constant encroach- 
ment by Czech on German. This was partly due to the direct 
action of the government. An ordinance of 1880 determined 
that henceforward all business which had been brought before 
any government office or law court should be dealt with, within 
the office, in the language in which it was introduced; this 
applied to the whole of Bohemia and Moravia, and meant that 
Czech would henceforward have a position within the government 
service. It was another step in the same direction when, in 
1886, it was ordered that " to avoid frequent translations " 
business introduced in Czech should be dealt with in the same 
language in the high courts of Prague and Briinn. Then not 
only were a large number of Czech elementary schools founded, 
but also many middle schools were given to the Czechs, and 
Czech classes introduced in German schools ; and, what affected 
the Germans most, in 1882 classes in Czech were started in the 
university of Prague — a desecration, as it seemed, of the oldest 
German university. 

The growth of the Slav races was, however, not merely the 
result of government assistance ; it had begun long before Taaffe 
assumed office ; it was to be seen in the census returns and in the 
results of elections. Prague was no longer the German city it 
had been fifty years before ; the census of 1880 showed 36,000 
Germans to 120,000 Czechs. It was the same in Pilsen. In 
1861 the Germans had a majority in this town; in 1880 they were 
not a quarter of the population. This same phenomenon, which 
occurs elsewhere, cannot be attributed to any laxity of the 
Germans. The generation which was so vigorously demanding 
national rights had themselves all been brought up under the 
old system in German schools, but this had not implanted in 
them a desire to become German. It was partly due to economic 
causes — the greater increase among the Czechs, and the greater 
migration from the country to the towns ; partly the result 
of the romantic and nationalist movement which had arisen 
about 1830, and partly the result of establishing popular educa- 
tion and parliamentary government at the same time. As soon 
as these races which had so long been ruled by the Germans 
received political liberty and the means of education, they 
naturally used both toreassert their national individuality. 

It may be suggested that the resistance to the German language 
is to some extent a result of the increased national feeling among 
the Germans themselves. They have made it a matter of principle. 
In the old days it was common for the children of German parents 
in Bohemia to learn Czech; since 1867 this has ceased to be the 
case. It may almost be said that they make it a point of honour 
not to do so. A result of this is that, as educated Czechs are gener- 
ally bilingual, it is easier for them to obtain appointments in districts 
where a knowledge of Czech is required, and the Germans, therefore, 
regard every order requiring the use of Czech as an order which 
excludes Germans from a certain number of posts. This attitude of 
hostility and contempt is strongest among the educated middle 
class; it is not shown to the same extent by the clergy and the 
nobles. 

The influence of the Church is also favourable to the Slav races, 
not so much from principle as owing to the fact that they supply 
more candidates for ordination than the Germans. There is no 
doubt, however, that the tendency among Germans has been to 
exalt the principle of nationality above religion, and to give it an 
absolute authority in which the Roman Catholic Church cannot 
acquiesce. In this, as in other ways, the Germans in Austria have 
been much influenced by the course of events in the German empire. 
This hostility of the Church to the German nationalist movement 
led in 1898 to an agitation against the Roman Catholic Church, and 
among the Germans of Styria and other territories large numbers left 
the Church, going over either to Protestantism or to Old Catholicism. 
This " Los von Rom " movement, which was caused by the con- 
tinued alliance of the Clerical party with the Slav parties, is more 
of the nature of a political demonstration than of a religious move- 
ment. 

The Germans, so long accustomed to rule, now saw their old 
ascendancy threatened, and they defended it with an energy 

that increased with each defeat. In 1880 they founded a 
hostility g re at society, the Deutscher Schulverein, to establish and 

assist German schools. It spread over the whole of the 
empire; in a few years it numbered 100,000 members, and had an 
income of nearly 300,000 gulden ; no private society in Austria 



had ever attained so great a success. In the Reichsrath a motion 
was introduced, supported by all the German Liberal parties, 
demanding that German should be declared the language of state 
and regulating the conditions under which the other idioms 
could be recognized ; it was referred to a committee from which 
it never emerged, and a bill to the same effect, introduced in 
1886, met a similar fate. In Bohemia they demanded, as a means 
of protecting themselves against the effect of the language 
ordinances, that the country should be divided into two parts; 
in one German was to be the sole language, in the other Czech 
was to be recognized. A proposal to this effect was introduced 
by them in the diet at the end of 1886, but since 1882 the Germans 
had been in a minority. The Czechs, of course, refused even to 
consider it; it would have cut away the ground on which their 
whole policy was built up, namely, the indissoluble unity of the 
Bohemian kingdom, in which German and Czech should through- 
out be recognized as equal and parallel languages. It was 
rejected on a motion of Prince Karl Schwarzenberg without 
discussion, and on this all the Germans rose and left the diet, 
thereby imitating the action of the Czechs in old days when they 
had the majority. 

These events produced a great change on the character of the 
German opposition. It became more and more avowedly 
racial; the defence of German nationality was put 
in the front of their programme. The growing national aerman 
animosity added bitterness to political life, and de- parties. 
stroyed the possibility of a strong homogeneous party 
on which a government might depend. The beginning of this 
movement can be traced back to the year 1870. About that time 
a party of young Germans had arisen who professed to care little 
for constitutionalism and other " legal mummies," but made 
the preservation and extension of their own nationality their 
sole object. As is so often the case in Austria, the movement 
began in the university of Vienna, where a Leseverein (reading 
club) of German students was formed as a point of cohesion for 
Germans, which had eventually to be suppressed. The first 
representative of the movement in parliament was Herr von 
Schonerer, wjio did not scruple to declare that the Germans 
looked forward to union with the German empire. They were 
strongly influenced by men outside Austria. Bismarck was their 
national hero, the anniversary of Sedan their political festival, 
and approximation to Germany was dearer to them than the 
maintenance of Austria. After 1878 a heightening of racial 
feeling began among the Radicals, and in 1881 all the German 
parties in opposition joined together in a club called the United 
Left, and in their programme put in a prominent place the defence 
of the position of the Germans as the condition for the existence 
of the state, and demanded that German should be expressly 
recognized as the official language. The younger and more 
ardent spirits, however, found it difficult to work in harmony 
with the older constitutional leaders. They complained that 
the party leaders were not sufficiently decisive in the measures 
for self-defence. In 1885 great festivities in honour of Bismarck's 
eightieth birthday, which had been arranged* in Graz, were 
forbidden by the government, and the Germans of Styria were 
very indignant that the party did not take up the matter with 
sufficient energy. After the elections of 1885 the Left, therefore, 
broke up again into two clubs, the " German Austrian," which 
included the more moderate, and the " German," which wished 
to use sharper language. The German Club, e.g., congratulated 
Bismarck on his measures against the Poles; the German 
Austrians refused to take cognizance of events outside Austria 
with which they had nothing to do. Even the German Club was 
not sufficiently decided for Herr von Schonerer and his friends, 
who broke off from it and founded a " National German Union." 
They spoke much of Germanentum and Unverjalsehtes Deutsch- 
tum, and they advocated a political union with the German 
empire, and were strongly anti-Hungarian and wished to resign 
all control over Galicia, if by a closer union with Germany 
they could secure German supremacy in Bohemia and the 
south Slav countries. They play the same part in Austria as does 
the " Dan-Germanic Union " in Germany. When in 1888 the 



34 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



[HISTORY 



two clubs, the German Austrians and the Germans, joined once 
more under the name of the " United German Left " into a 
new club' with eighty-seven members, so as the better to guard 
against the common danger and to defeat the educational 
demands of the Clericals, the National Germans remained apart 
with seventeen members. They were also infected by the growing 
spirit of anti-Semitism. The German parties had originally 
been the party of the capitalists, and comprised a large number 
of Jews; this new German party committed itself to violent 
attacks upon the Jews, and for this reason alone any real 
harmony between the different branches would have been 
impossible. 

Notwithstanding the concessions about language the Czechs 
had, however, made no advance towards their real object — the 
recognition of the Bohemian kingdom. Perhaps the leaders of 
the party, who were now growing old, would have been content 
with the influence they had already attained, but they were 
hard pressed at home by the Young Czechs, who were more 
impatient. When Count Thun was appointed governor of 
Bohemia their hopes ran high, for he was supposed to favour 
the coronation of the emperor at Prague. In 1890, however, 
instead of proceeding to the coronation as was expected, Taaffe 
The agree attempted to bring about a reconciliation between 
meat the opposing parties. The influence by which his 

»■"* policy was directed is not quite clear, but the Czechs 

Bohemia, j^d j )een Q j recen (. y ears l ess eaS y to deal with, and 

Taaffe had never really shown any wish to alter the constitution; 
his policy always was to destroy the influence of parliament 
by playing off one party against the other, and so to win a clear 
field for the government. During the month of January con- 
ferences were held at Vienna, with Taaffe in the chair, to which 
were invited representatives of the three groups into which 
the Bohemian representatives were divided, the German party, 
the Czechs, and the Feudal party. After a fortnight's discussion 
an agreement was made on the basis of a separation between the 
German and the Czech districts, and a revision of the electoral 
law. A protocol enumerating the points agreed on was signed 
by all who had taken part in the conference, and, in May bills 
were laid before the diet incorporating the chief points in the 
agreement. But they were not carried; the chief reason being 
that the Young Czechs had not been asked to take part in the con- 
ference, and did not consider themselves bound by its decisions; 
they opposed the measures and had recourse to obstruction, and 
a certain number of the Old Czechs gradually came over to them. 
Their chief ground of criticizing the proposed measures was that 
they would threaten the unity of the Bohemian country. 1 At 
the elections in 189 1 a great struggle took place between the Old 
and the Young Czechs. The latter were completely victorious; 
Rieger, who had led the party for thirty years, disappeared 
from the Reichsrath. The first result was that the proposed 
agreement with Bohemia came to an end. But the disappearance 
of the Old Czechs made the parliamentary situation very insecure. 
The Young Czechs could not take their place: their Radical 
and anti-clerical tendencies alarmed the Feudalists and Clericalists 
who formed so large a part of the Right; they attacked the 
alliance with Germany; they made public demonstration of 
their French sympathies; they entered into communication 
with other Slav races, especially the Serbs of Hungary and 
Bosnia; they demanded universal suffrage, and occasionally 
supported the German Radicals in their opposition to the Clerical 
parties, especially in educational matters; under their influence 
disorder increased in Bohemia, a secret society called the 
Umladina (an imitation of the Servian society of that name) was 
discovered, and stringent measures had to be taken to preserve 
order. The government therefore veered round towards the 
German Liberals; some of the ministers most obnoxious to the 
Germans resigned, and their places were taken by Germans. 
For two years the government seemed to waver, looking now to 
the Left, now to Hohenwart and his friends; for a time Taaffe 
really had the support of all parties except the Young Czechs. 

1 On this see Menger, Der Ausgleich mit Bohmen (Vienna, 1891), 
where the documents are printed. 



After two years he gave up his cautious policy and took a 
bold move. In October 1 893 he introduced a reform bill. Univer- 
sal suffrage had long been demanded by the working 
men and the Socialists; the Young Czechs also had reform. 
put it on their programme, and many of the Christian 
Socialists and anti-Semites desired an alteration of the franchise. 
Taaffe's bill, while keeping the curiae of the feudal proprietors 
and the chambers of commerce as they were, and making no 
change in the number of members, proposed to give the franchise 
in both towns and rural districts to every one who could read and 
write, and had resided six months in one place. This was 
opposed by the Liberals, for with the growth of socialism and 
anti-Semitism, they knew that the extension of the franchise 
would destroy their influence. On this Taaffe had probably 
calculated, but he had omitted to inquire what the other parties 
would do. He had not even consulted Hohenwart, to whose 
assistance he owed his long tenure of power. Not even the 
pleasure of ruining the Liberals was sufficient to persuade the 
Conservatives to vote for a measure which would transfer the 
power from the well-to-do to the indigent, and Hohenwart 
justly complained that they ought to have been secure against 
surprises of this kind. The Poles also were against a measure 
which would give more influence to the Ruthenes. The position 
of the government was hopeless, and without waiting for a division 
Taaffe resigned. 

The event to which for fourteen years the Left had looked 
forward had now happened. Once more they could have a 
share in the government, which they always believed rae 
belonged to them by nature. Taught by experience coalition 
and adversity, they did not scruple to enter into an mlaistry, 
alliance with their old enemies, and a coalition ministry ' 

was formed from the Left, the Clericals and the Poles. The 
president was Prince Alfred Windisch-Gratz, grandson of the 
celebrated general, one of Hohen wart's ablest lieutenants; 
Hohenwart himself did not take office. Of course an administra- 
tion of this kind could not take a definite line on any controversial 
question, but during 1894 they carried through the commercial 
treaty with Russia and the laws for the continuance of the 
currency reform. The differences of the clubs appeared, how- 
ever, in the discussions on franchise reform; the government, 
not strong enough to have a policy of its own, had referred the 
matter to a committee; for the question having once been 
raised, it was impossible not to go on with it. This would 
probably have been fatal to the coalition, but the final blow 
was given by a matter of very small importance arising from the 
disputes on nationality. The Slovenes had asked that in the 
gymnasium at CilU classes in which instruction was given in 
Slovenian should be formed parallel to the German classes. 
This request caused great excitement in Styria and the neigh- 
bouring districts; the Styrian diet (from which the Slovene 
minority had seceded) protested. The Slovenes were, however, 
members of the Hohenwart Club, so Hohenwart and his followers 
supported the request, which was adopted by the ministry. The 
German Left opposed it; they were compelled to do so by the 
popular indignation in the German districts; and when the 
vote was carried against them (12th June 1895) they made it a 
question of confidence, and formally withdrew their support 
from the government, which therefore at once resigned. 

After a short interval the emperor appointed as minister- 
president Count Badeni, who had earned a great reputation 
as governer of Galicia. He formed an administration 
the merit of which, as of so many others, was that it was m ; /l ; s<0 ,. 
to belong to no party and to have no programme. He 
hoped to be able to work in harmony with the moderate elements 
of the Left; his mission was to carry through the composition 
(Ausgleich) with Hungary; to this everything else must be sub- 
ordinated. During 1896 he succeeded in carrying a franchise 
reform bill, which satisfied nearly all parties. All the old categories 
of members were maintained, but a fifth curia was added, in which 
almost any one might vote who had resided six months in one place 
and was not in domestic service; in this way seventy-two would 
be added to the existing members. This matter having been 



HISTORY] 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



35 



settled, parliament was dissolved. The result of the elections of 
1897 was the return of a House so constituted as to make any 
strong government impossible. On both sides the anti-Semitic 
parties representing the extreme demagogic elements were present 
in considerable numbers. The United German Left had almost 
disappeared; it was represented only by a few members chosen 
by the great proprietors; in its place there were the three parties 
— the German Popular party, the German Nationalists, and the 
German Radicals — who all put questions of nationality first and 
had deserted the old standpoint of the constitution. Then there 
were the fourteen Social Democrats who had won their seats under 
the new franchise. The old party of the Right was, however, 
also broken up; side by side with forty-one Clericals there were 
twenty-eight Christian Socialists led by Dr Lueger, a man of 
great oratorical power, who had won a predominant influence in 
Vienna, so long the centre of Liberalism, and had quite eclipsed 
the more modest efforts of Prince Liechtenstein. As among 
the German National party, there were strong nationalist ele- 
ments in his programme, but they were chiefly directed against 
Jews and Hungarians; Lueger had already distinguished 
himself by his violent attacks on Hungary, which had caused 
some embarrassment to the government at a time when the 
negotiations for the Ausgleich were in progress. Like anti-Semites 
elsewhere, the Christian Socialists were reckless and irresponsible, 
appealing directly to the passions and prejudices of the most 
ignorant. There were altogether 200 German members of the 
Reichsrath, but they were divided into eight parties, and nowhere 
did there seem to be the elements on which a government could 
be built up. 



The parliamentary situation is best explained by the following 
table showing the parties : — 
German Liberals — 

Constitutional Landed Proprietors 
German Radicals 



German Popular Party 
Schoenerer Group 
Kronawetter 
Democrat. 

Social Democrats 

German Conservatives — 
German Clericals 
Catholic Popular Party 
Christian Socialists 

Federalist Great Proprietors 
Czechs — 

Young Czechs 

Radical Young Czechs 

Clerical Czechs . 

Agrarian Czechs . 

Poles- 
Polish Club . 
Stoyalovski Group 
Popular Polish Party 



Slovenes — 

Clerical Slovenes 
Radical „ 

Italians — 
Liberal Italians 
Clerical ,, 

Croatians . 
Serbs 
Ruthenes — 

Ruthenes 

Young Ruthenes 

Rumanians — 
Rumanians . 
Young Rumanians 



1897. 
28 

49 
42 

5 

1 
1 



1901. 

28 

41 

51 

21 



126 

14 



141 
10 



3° ( 
15 \ 

28 



60 
1 
1 
1 



73 
16 



37 
23 



53 
4 

2 
6 



60 
16 



- 63 - 65 



59 
6 

3 
— 68 



60 



11 

5 



14 
5 



16 



J9 
11 

2 



71 



16 



19 
9 

2 



Total 



425 



425 



The most remarkable result of the elections was the disappear- 
ance of the Liberals in Vienna. In 1879, out of 37 members 
returned in Lower Austria, 33 were Liberals, but now they were 



replaced to a large extent by the Socialists. It was impossible 
to maintain a strong party of moderate constitutionalists, on 
whom the government could depend, unless there was a large 
nucleus from Lower Austria. The influence of Lueger was very 
embarrassing; he had now a majority of two- thirds in the town 
council, and had been elected burgomaster. The emperor had 
refused to confirm the election; he had been re-elected, and 
then the emperor, in a personal interview, appealed to him' to 
withdraw. He consented to do so; but, after the election of 
1897 had given him so many followers in the Reichsrath, Badeni 
advised that his election as burgomaster should be confirmed. 
There was violent antipathy between the Christian Socialists 
and the German Nationalists, and the transference of their 
quarrels from the Viennese Council Chamber to the Reichstath 
was very detrimental to the orderly conduct of debate. 

The limited suffrage had hitherto prevented socialism from 
becoming a political force in Austria as it had in Germany, and 
the national divisions have always impeded the socialism 
creation of a centralized socialist party. The first 
object of the working classes necessarily was the attainment 
of political power; in 1867 there had been mass demonstrations 
and petitions to the government for universal suffrage. During 
the next years there was the beginning of a real socialist move- 
ment in Vienna and in Styria, where there is a considerable 
industrial population; after 1879, however, the growth of the 
party was interrupted by the introduction of anarchical doctrines. 
Most's paper, the Freiheit, was introduced through Switzerland, 
and had a large circulation. The anarchists, under the leadership 
of Peukert, seem to have attained considerable numbers. In 
1883-1884 there were a number of serious strikes, collisions 
between the police and the workmen, followed by assassinations ; 
it was a peculiarity of Austrian anarchists that in some cases 
they united robbery to murder. The government, which was 
seriously alarmed, introduced severe repressive measures; the 
leading anarchists were expelled or fled the country. In 1887, 
under the leadership of Dr Adler, the socialist party began to 
revive (the party of violence having died away) , and since then 
it has steadily gained in numbers; in the forefront of the political 
programme is put the demand for universal suffrage. In no 
country is the 1st of May, as the festival of Labour, celebrated 
so generally. 

Badeni after the election sent in his resignation, but the 
emperor refused to accept it, and he had, therefore, to do the best 
he could arid turn for support to the other nationalities. The 
strongest of them were the fifty-nine Poles and sixty Young 
Czechs; he therefore attempted, as Taaffe had done, to come 
to some agreement with thern. The Poles were always ready 
to support the government ; among the Young Czechs the more 
moderate had already attempted to restrain the wilder spirits 
of the party, and they were quite prepared to enter into negotia- 
tions. They did not wish to lose the opportunity which now 
was open to them of winning influence over the administration. 
What they required was further concession as to the language 
in Bohemia. In May 1897 Badeni, therefore, published his 
celebrated ordinances. They determined (1) that all corre- 
spondence and documents regarding every matter j^ e 
brought before the government officials should be language 
conducted in the language in which it was first intro- °"W"aaces 
duced. This applied to the whole of Bohemia, and 
meant the introduction of Czech into the government offices 
throughout the whole of the kingdom; (2) after 1903 no 
one was to be appointed to a post under the government in 
Bohemia until he had passed an examination in Czech. These 
ordinances fulfilled the worst fears of the Germans. The German 
Nationalists and Radicals declared that no business should be 
done till they were repealed and Badeni dismissed. They 
resorted to obstruction. They brought in repeated motions to 
impeach the ministers, and parliament had to be prorogued in 
June, although no business of any kind had been transacted. 
Badeni had not anticipated the effect his ordinances would have; 
as a Pole he had little experience in the western part of the 
empire. During the recess he tried to open negotiations, but 



36 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



[HISTORY 



the Germans refused even to enter into a discussion until the 
ordinances had been withdrawn. The agitation spread through- 
out the country; great meetings were held at Eger and Aussig, 
which were attended by Germans from across the frontier, and 
led to serious disturbances; the cornflower, which had become 
the symbol of German nationality and union with Germany, was 
freely worn, and the language used was in many cases treasonable. 
The emperor insisted that the Reichsrath should again be 
summoned to pass the necessary measures for the agreement 
with Hungary; scenes then took place which have no parallel 
in parliamentary history. To meet the obstruction it was 
determined to sit at night, but this was unsuccessful. On one 
occasion Dr Lecher, one of the representatives of Moravia, spoke 
for twelve hours, from 9 p.m. till g a.m., against the Ausgleich. 
The opposition was not always limited to feats of endurance of 
this kind. On the 3rd of November there was a free fight in the 
House; it arose from a quarrel between Dr Lueger and the 
Christian Socialists on the one side (for the Christian Socialists 
had supported the government since the confirmation of Lueger 
as burgomaster) and the German Nationalists under Herr Wolf, 
a German from Bohemia, the violence of whose language had 
already caused Badeni to challenge him to a duel. The Nation- 
alists refused to allow Lueger to speak, clapping their desks, 
hissing and making other noises, till at last the Young Czechs 
attempted to prevent the disorder by violence. On the 24th of 
November the scenes of disturbance were renewed. The pre- 
sident, Herr v. Abrahamovitch, an Armenian from Galicia, 
refused to call on Schonerer to speak. The Nationalists therefore 
stormed the platform, and the president and ministers had to 
fly into their private rooms to escape personal violence, until 
the Czechs came to their rescue, and by superiority in numbers 
and physical strength severely punished Herr Wolf and his 
friends. The rules of the House giving the president no authority 
for maintaining order, he determined, with the assent of the 
ministers, to propose alterations in procedure The next day, 
when the sitting began, one of the ministers, Count Falkenhayn, 
a Clerical who was very unpopular, moved " That any member 
who continued to disturb a sitting after being twice called to 
order could be suspended — for three days by the president, and 
for thirty days by the House." The din and uproar was such 
that not a word could be heard, but at a pre-arranged signal 
from the president all the Right rose, and he then declared that 
the new order had been carried, although the procedure of the 
House required that it should be submitted to a committee. 
The next day, at the beginning of the sitting, the Socialists 
rushed on the platform, tore up and destroyed all the papers 
lying there, seized the president, and held him against the wall. 
After he had escaped, eighty police were introduced into the 
House and carried out the fourteen Socialists. The next day 
Herr Wolf was treated in the same manner. The excitement 
spread to the street. Serious disorders took place in Vienna and 
in Graz; the German opposition had the support of the people, 
and Lueger warned the ministers that as burgomaster he would 
be unable to maintain order in Vienna; even the Clerical 
Germans showed signs of deserting the government. The 
emperor, hastily summoned to Vienna, accepted 
Badeni's resignation, the Germans having thus by 
obstruction attained part of their wishes. The new 
minister, Gautsch, a man popular with all parties, held office for 
three months; he proclaimed the budget and the Ausgleich, 
and in February replaced the language ordinances by others, 
under which Bohemia was to be divided into three districts — 
one Czech, one German and one mixed. The Germans, however, 
were not satisfied with this; they demanded absolute repeal. 
The Czechs also were offended; they arranged riots at Prague; 
the professors in the university refused to lecture unless the 
German students were defended from violence; Gautsch 
resigned, and Thun, who had been governor of Bohemia, was 
appointed minister. Martial law was proclaimed in Bohemia, 
and strictly enforced. Thun then arranged with the Hungarian 
ministers a compromise about the Ausgleich. 
The Reichsrath was again summoned, and the meetings were 



Badeni 
resigns. 



less disturbed than in the former year, but the Germans still 
prevented any business from being done. The Germans now had 
a new cause of complaint. Paragraph 14 of the 
Constitutional law of 1867 provided that, in cases of conflict 
pressing necessity, orders for which the assent of the between 
Reichsrath was required might, if the Reichsrath were Germans 
not in session, be proclaimed by the emperor; they had ^echs. 
to be signed by the whole ministry, and if they were 
not laid before the Reichsrath within four months of its meeting, 
or if they did not receive the approval of both Houses, they 
ceased to be valid. The Germans contended that the application 
of this clause to the Ausgleich was invalid, and demanded that 
it should be repealed. Thun had in consequence to retire, in 
September 1899. His successor, Count Clary, began by with- 
drawing the ordinances which had been the cause of so much 
trouble, but it was now too late to restore peace. The Germans 
were not sufficiently strong and united to keep in power a 
minister who had brought them the relief for which they had 
been clamouring for two years. The Czechs, of course, went 
into opposition, and used obstruction. The extreme German 
party, however, took the occasion to demand that paragraph 
14 should be repealed. Clary explained that this was impossible, 
but he gave a formal pledge that he would not use it. The 
Czechs, however, prevented him passing a law on excise which 
was a necessary part of the agreements with Hungary; it was, 
therefore, impossible for him to carry on the government without 
breaking his word; there was nothing left for him to do but to 
resign, after holding office for less than three months. The 
emperor then appointed a ministry of officials, who were not 
bound by his pledge, and used paragraph 14 for the necessary 
purposes of state. They then made way for a ministry under 
Herr v. Korber. During the early months of 1900 matters were 
more peaceful, and Korber hoped to be able to arrange a com- 
promise; but the Czechs now demanded the restoration of their 
language in the internal service of Bohemia, and on 8th June, 
by noise and disturbance, obliged the president to suspend the 
sitting. The Reichsrath was immediately dissolved, the emperor 
having determined to make a final attempt to get together a 
parliament with which it would be possible to govern. The 
new elections on which so much was to depend did not take 
place till January 1901. They resulted in a great increase of 
the extreme German Nationalist parties. Schonerer and the 
German Radicals — the fanatical German party who in their 
new programme advocated union of German Austria with the 
German empire — now numbered twenty-one, who chiefly came 
from Bohemia. They were able for the first time to procure the 
election of one of their party in the Austrian Delegation, and 
threatened to introduce into the Assembly scenes of disorder 
similar to those which they had made common in the Reichsrath. 
All those parties which did not primarily appeal to national 
feeling suffered loss; especially was this the case with the two 
sections of the Clericals, the Christian Socialists and the Ultra- 
montanes; and the increasing enmity between the German 
Nationalists (who refused even the name German to a Roman 
Catholic) and the Church became one of the most conspicuous 
features in the political situation. The loss of seats by the 
Socialists showed that even among the working men the national 
agitation was gaining ground; the diminished influence of the 
anti-Semites was the most encouraging sign. 

Notwithstanding the result of the elections, the first months 
of the new parliament passed in comparative peace. There was 
a truce between the nationalities. The Germans were more 
occupied with their opposition to the Clericals than with their 
feud with the Slavs. The Czechs refrained from obstruction, 
for they did not wish to forfeit the alliance with the Poles 
and Conservatives, on which their parliamentary strength 
depended, and the Germans used the opportunity to pass 
measures for promoting the material prosperity of the country, 
especially for an important system of canals which would 
bring additional prosperity to the coal-fields and manufactures 
of Bohemia. (J. W. He.). 

. The history of Austria since the general election of 1901 is the 



HISTORY] 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



37 



history of 'franchise reform as a crowning attempt to restore 
parliament to normal working conditions. The premier, Dr 
von Korber, who had undertaken to overcome obstruc- 
works ti° n anc ^ wno hoped to effect a compromise between 
policy. Germans and Czechs, induced the Chamber to sanction 
the estimates, the contingent of recruits and other 
" necessities of state " for iooi and 1902, by promising to under- 
take large public works in which Czechs and Germans were alike 
interested. These public works were chiefly a canal from the 
Danube to the Oder; a ship canal from the Danube to the 
Moldau near Budweis, and the canalization of the Moldau from 
Budweis to Prague; a ship canal running from the projected 
Danube-Oder canal near Prerau to the Elbe near Pardubitz, 
and the canalization of the Elbe from Pardubitz to Melnik; a 
navigable connexion between the Danube-Oder Canal and the 
Vistula and the Dniester. It was estimated that the construction 
of these four canals would require twenty years, the funds being 
furnished by a 4% loan amortizable in ninety years. In addition 
to the canals, the cabinet proposed and the Chamber sanctioned 
the construction of a " second railway route to Trieste " de- 
signed to shorten the distance between South Germany, Salzburg 
and the Adriatic, by means of a line passing under the Alpine 
ranges of central and southern Austria. The principal sections 
of this line were named after the ranges they pierced, the chief 
tunnels being bored through the Tauern, Karawanken and 
Wochein hills. Sections were to be thrown open to traffic as 
soon as completed and the whole work to be ended during 1909. 
The line forms one of the most interesting railway routes in 
Europe. The cost, however, greatly exceeded the estimate 
sanctioned by parliament; and the contention that the parlia- 
mentary adoption of the Budget in 1901-1902 cost the state 
£100,000,000 for public works, is not entirely unfounded. True, 
these works were in most cases desirable and in some cases 
necessary, but they were hastily promised and often hastily 
begun under pressure of political expediency. The Korber 
administration was for this reason subsequently exposed to 
severe censure. 

Despite these public works Dr von K6rber found himself 
unable to induce parliament to vote the Budgets for 1903, 
KSrber's I0O 4 or IQ0 5> anc ^ was obliged to revert to the expedient 
pariia- employed by his predecessors of sanctioning the esti- 
mentary mates by imperial ordinance under paragraph 14 of 
aif f' the constitution. His attempts in December 1902 

and January 1903 to promote a compromise between 
Czechs and Germans proved equally futile. Korber proposed 
that Bohemia be divided into 10 districts, of which 5 would be 
Czech, 3 German and 2 mixed. Of the 234 district tribunals, 
133 were to be Czech, 94 German and 7 mixed. The Czechs 
demanded on the contrary that both their language and German 
should be placed on an equal footing throughout Bohemia, and 
be used for all official purposes in the same way. As this demand 
involved the recognition of Czech as a language of internal 
service in Bohemia it was refused by the Germans. Thence- 
forward, until his fall on the 31st of December 1904, Korber 
governed practically without parliament. The Chamber was 
summoned at intervals rather as a pretext for the subsequent 
employment of paragraph 14 than in the hope of securing its 
assent to legislative measures. The Czechs blocked business by 
a pile of " urgency motions " and occasionally indulged in noisy 
obstruction. On one occasion a sitting lasted 57 hours without 
interruption. In consequence of Czech aggressiveness, the 
German parties (the German Progressists, the German Populists, 
the ConstitutionalLandedProprietors and the Christian Socialists) 
created a joint executive committee and a supreme committee of 
four members to watch over German racial interests. 

By the end of 1904 "it had become clear that the system of 
government by paragraph 14, which Dr von Korber had perfected 
was not effective in the long run. Loans were needed 
a "tech f° r military and other purposes, and paragraph 14 
premier. itself declares that it cannot be employed for the 
contraction of any lasting burden upon the exchequer, 
nor for any sale of state patrimony. As the person of the premier 



had become so obnoxious to the Czechs that his removal would 
be regarded by them as a concession, his resignation was suddenly 
accepted by the emperor, and, on the 1st of January 1905, 
a former premier, Baron von Gautsch, was appointed in his 
stead. Parliamentary activity was at once resumed; the Austro- 
Hungarian tariff contained in the Szell-Korber compact was 
adopted, the estimates were discussed and the commercial 
treaty with Germany ratified. In the early autumn, however, 
a radical change came over the spirit of Austrian politics. For 
nearly three years Austria had been watching with bitterness 
and depression the course of the crisis in Hungary. Parliament 
had repeatedly expressed its disapproval of the Magyar demands 
upon the crown, but had succeeded only in demonstrating its 
own impotence. The feeling that Austria could be compelled by 
imperial ordinance under paragraph 14 to acquiesce in whatever 
concessions the crown might make to Hungary galled Austrian 
public opinion and prepared it for coming changes. In August 
1905 the crown took into consideration and in September 
sanctioned the proposal that universal suffrage be introduced 
into the official programme of the Fejervary cabinet then engaged 
in combating the Coalition in Hungary. It is not to be supposed 
that the king of Hungary assented to this programme without 
reflecting that what he sought to further in Hungary, it would 
be impossible for him, as emperor of Austria, to oppose in 
Cisleithania. His subsequent action justifies, indeed, the belief 
that, when sanctioning the Fejervary programme, the monarch 
had already decided that universal suffrage should be introduced 
in Austria; but even he can scarcely have been prepared for the 
rapidity with which the movement in Austria gained ground and 
accomplished its object. 

On the 15th of September 1905 a huge socialist and working- 
class demonstration in favour of universal suffrage took place 
before the parliament at Budapest. The Austrian 
Socialist party, encouraged by this manifestation and r^fa-m!** 
influenced by the revolutionary movement in Russia, 
resolved to press for franchise reform in Austria also. An initial 
demonstration, resulting in some bloodshed, was organized in 
Vienna at the beginning of November. At Prague, Graz and 
other towns, demonstrations and collisions with the police were 
frequent. The premier, Baron Gautsch, who had previously 
discountenanced universal suffrage while admitting the desira- 
bility of a restricted reform, then changed attitude and per- 
mitted an enormous Socialist demonstration, in support of 
universal suffrage, to take place (November 28) in the Vienna 
Ringstrasse. Traffic was suspended for five hours while an orderly 
procession of workmen, ten abreast, marched silently along the 
Ringstrasse past the houses of parliament. The demonstration 
made a deep impression upon public opinion. On the same day 
the premier promised to introduce by February a large measure 
of franchise reform so framed as to protect racial minorities 
from being overwhelmed at the polls by majorities of other races. 
On the 23rd of February 1906 he indeed brought in a series of 
franchise reform measures. Their main principles were the 
abolition of the curia or. electoral class system and the establish- 
ment of the franchise on the basis of universal suffrage; and the 
division of Austria electorally into racial compartments within 
which each race would be assured against molestation from other 
races. The Gautsch redistribution bill proposed to increase the 
number of constituencies from 425 to 455, to allot a fixed number 
of constituencies to each province and, within each province, to 
each race according to its numbers and tax-paying capacity. 
The reform bill proper proposed to enfranchise every male 
citizen above 24 years of age with one year's residential 
qualification. 

At first the chances of the adoption of such a measure seemed 
small. It was warmly supported from outside by the Social 
Democrats, who held only n seats in the House; inside, the 
Christian Socialists or Lueger party were favourable on the 
whole as they hoped to gain seats at the expense of the German 
Progressives and German Populists and to extend their own 
organization throughout the empire. The Young Czechs, too, 
were favourable, while the Poles reserved their attitude. Hostile 



38 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



[HISTORY 



in principle and by instinct, they waited to ascertain the mind of 
the emperor, before actively opposing the reform. " With the 
exception of the German Populists who felt that a German 
" Liberal " party could not well oppose an extension of popular 
rights, all the German Liberals were antagonistic, some bitterly, 
to the measure. The Constitutional Landed Proprietors who 
had played so large a part in Austrian politics since the 'sixties, 
and had for a generation held the leadership of the German element 
in parliament and in the country, saw themselves doomed and 
the leadership of the Germans given to the Christian Socialists. 
None of the representatives of the curia system fought so 
tenaciously for their privileges as did the German nominees of 
the curia of large landed proprietors. Their opposition proved 
unavailing. The emperor frowned repeatedly upon their efforts. 
Baron Gautsch fell in April over a difference with the Poles, and 
his successor, Prince Konrad zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfiirst, 

who had taken over the reform bills, resigned also, 
f -1 ?" six weeks later, as a protest against the action of the 
premier. crown in consenting to the enactment of a customs 

tariff in Hungary distinct from, though identical with, 
the joint Austro-Hungarian tariff comprised in the SzelkRorber 
compact and enacted as a joint tariff by the Reichsrath. A new 
cabinet was formed (June 2) by Baron von Beck, permanent 
under secretary of state in the ministry for agriculture, an 
official of considerable ability who had first acquired prominence' 
as an instructor of the heir apparent, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, 
in constitutional and administrative law. By dint of skilful 
negotiation with the various parties and races, and steadily 
supported by the emperor who, on one occasion, summoned 
the recalcitrant party leaders to the Hofburg ad audiendum 
verbum and told them the reform " must be accomplished," 
Baron Beck succeeded, in October 1906, in attaining a final 
agreement, and on the 1st of December in securing the adoption 
of the reform. During the negotiations the number of con- 
stituencies was raised to 516, divided, according to provinces, as 
follows:— 

Bohemia 130 previously no 

Galicia 106 

Lower Austria .... 

Moravia 

Styria 30 

Tirol 

Upper Austria .... 

Austrian Silesia .... 

Bukovina 

Carniola 

Dalmatia 

Carinthia 

Salzburg 

Istria 

Gorz and Gradisca 
Trieste and territory . 
Vorarlberg 

In the allotment of the constituencies to the various races their 
tax-paying capacity was taken into consideration. In mixed 
districts separate constituencies and registers were established 
for the electors of each race, who could only vote on their own 
register for a candidate of their own race. Thus Germans were 
obliged to vote for Germans and Czechs for Czechs; and, though 
there might be victories of Clerical over Liberal Germans or of 
Czech Radicals over Young Czechs, there could be no victories 
of Czechs over Germans, Poles over Ruthenes, or Slovenes over 
Italians. The constituencies were divided according to race as 
follows : — 

Germans of all parties 

Czechs of all parties .... 

Poles 

Southern Slavs (Slovenes, Croats, 

Serbs) 37 27 

Ruthenes 34 » n 

Italians 19 „ 18 

Rumanians ...... 5 ,, 5 

These allotments were slightly modified at the polls by the 
victory of some Social Democratic candidates not susceptible 
of strict racial classification. The chief feature of the allotment 
was, however, the formal overthrow of the fictio'n that Austria 



06 


78 


64 


46 


49 


43 


30 


27 


25 


21 


22 „ 


20 


15 


12 


14 


11 


12 „ 


11 


11 „ 


n 


10 „ 


10 


7 


7 


6 


5 


6 


5 


5 


5 


4 


4 



233 previously 205 

108 „ 81 

80 „ 71 



is preponderatingly a German country and not a country pre- 
ponderatingly Slav with a German dynasty and a German 
facade. The German constituencies, though allotted in a 
proportion unduly favourable, left the Germans, with 233 seats, 
in a permanent minority as compared with the 259 Slav seats. 
Even with the addition of the " Latin " (Rumanian and Italian) 
seats the " German-Latin block " amounted only to 257. This 
" block " no longer exists in practice, as the Italians now tend 
to co-operate rather with the Slavs than with the Germans. 
The greatest gainers by the redistribution were the Ruthenes, 
whose representation was trebled, though it is still far from 
being proportioned to their numbers. This and other anomalies 
will doubtless be corrected in future revisions of the allotment, 
although the. German parties, foreseeing that any revision must 
work out to their disadvantage, stipulated that a two-thirds 
majority should be necessary for any alteration of the lav/. 

After unsuccessful attempts by the Upper House to introduce 
plural voting, the bill became law in January 1907, the peers 
insisting only upon the establishment of a fixed 
maximum number or Humerus clausus, of non-heredi- *fe^ 
tary peers, so as to prevent the resistance of the Upper 190T. 
Chamber from being overwhelmed at any critical 
moment by an influx of crown nominees appointed ad hoc. The 
general election which took place amid considerable enthusiasm 
on the 14th of May resulted in a sweeping victory for the Social 
Democrats whose number rose from n to 87; in a less complete 
triumph for the Christian Socialists who increased from 27 to 67; 
and in the success of the extremer over the conservative elements 
in all races. A classification of the groups in the new Chamber 
presents many difficulties, but the following statement is approxi- 
mately accurate. It must be premised that, in order to render 
the Christian Socialist or Lueger party the strongest group in 
parliament, an amalgamation was effected between them and 
the conservative Catholic party: — • 

German Conservatives — Total. 

Christian Socialists 96 

German Agrarians 19 

German Liberals — 

Progressives 15 

Populists 29 

Pan-German radicals (Wolf group) . . 13 

Unattached Pan-Germans .... 3 

,, Progressives 2 

Czechs — - • — 177 

Czech Agrarians ...... 28 

Young Czechs 18 

Czech Clericals 17 

Old Czechs . 7 

Czech National Socialists .... 9 

Realists . 2 

Unattached Czech 1 

Social Democrats — — 82 

Of all races 87 87 

Poles- 
Democrats 26 

Conservatives . . . . . . .15 

Populists 18 

Centre 12 

Independent Socialist 1 

Ruthenes— — 72 
National Democrats . . . . .25 

Old or Russophil Ruthenes . . . 5 

Slovenes — . — 30 

Clericals . . 17 

Southern Slav Club — 
Croats . ~) 

Serbs . > 20 37 

Slovene Liberals ) 

Italians — 

Clerical Populists 11 

Liberals . . 4 

— IS 

Rumanians— 

Rumanian Club 5 5 

Jews~- 

Zionists 4 

Democrats 1 5 

Unclassified, vacancies, &c 6 6 



510 



AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION 



39 



The legislature elected by universal suffrage worked fairly 
smoothly during the first year of its existence. The estimates 
were voted with regularity, racial animosity was somewhat less 
prominent, and some large issues were debated. The desire not 
to disturb the emperor's Diamond Jubilee year by untoward 
scenes doubtless contributed to calm political passion, and it 
was celebrated in 1908 with complete success. But it was no 
sooner over than the crisis over the annexation of Bosnia and 
Herzegovina, which is dealt with above, eclipsed all purely 
domestic affairs in the larger European question. (H. W. S.) 

Bibliography. — 1. Sources. A collection of early authorities 
on Austrian history was published in 3 vols, folio by Hieronymus 
Pez (Leipzig, 1 721-1725) under the title Scriptores rerum, Austria- 
carum veteres et genuini, of which a new edition was printed at 
Regensburg in 1 745, and again, under the title of Rerum A ustriacarum 
scriptores, by A. Rauch at Vienna in I793~I794- It was not, how- 
ever, till the latter half of the 19th century that the vast store of 
public and private archives began to be systematically exploited. 
Apart from the material published in the Monumenta Germ. Hist. 
of Pertz and his collaborators, there are several collections devoted 
specially to the sources of Austrian history. Of these the most 
notable is the Fontes rerum Austriacarum, published under the 
auspices of the Historical Commission of the Imperial Academy 
of Sciences at Vienna; the series, of which the first volume was 
published in 1855, is divided into two parts : (i.) Scriptores, of which 
the 9th vol. appeared in 1904; (ii.) Diplomataria et Acta, of which 
the 58th vol. appeared in 1906. It covers the whole range of Austrian 
history, medieval and modern. Another collection is the Quellen 
und Forschungen zur Geschichte, Literatur und Sprache Osterreichs 
Und seiner Kronlander, edited by J. Hirn and J. E. Wackernagel 
(Graz, 1895, &c), of which vol. x. appeared in 1906. ; Besides these 
there are numerous accounts and inventories of public and private 
archives, for which see Dahlmann-Waitz, Quellenkunde '(ed. 1906), 
pp. 14-15, 43, and suppl. vol. (1907), PP- 4-5- Of collections of 
treaties the most notable is that of L. Neumann, Recueil des traites 
conclus par VAutriche avec les puissances etrangeres depuis 1763 
(6 vols., Leipzig, 1855: c), continued by A. de Plason (18 vols., 
Vienna, 1877-1905). In 1907, however, the Imperial Commission for 
the Modern History of Austria issued the first volume of a new 
series, Osterreichische Staatsvertrdge, which promises to be of the 
utmost value. Like the Recueil des traites conclus par la Russie of 
T. T. de Martens, it is compiled on the principle of devoting separate 
volumes to the treaties entered into with the several states; this 
is obviously convenient as enabling the student to obtain a clear 
review of the relations of Austria to any particular state throughout 
the whole period covered. For treaties see also J. Freiherr von 
Vasque von Piittlingen, tjbersicht der osterreichischen Staatsvertrdge 
seit Maria Theresa bis auf die neueste Zeit (Vienna, 1868) ; and 
L. Bittner, Chronologisches Verzeichnis der osterreichischen Staats- 
vertrdge (Band G, 1526-1723, Vienna, I9°3)- ,. „ , ■„., 

2. Works. — (a) General. Archdeacon William Coxes History 
of the House of Austria, 1218-1792 (3 vols., London, 1817), with its 
continuation by W. Kelly (London, 1853; new edition, 1873), 
remains the only general history of Austria in the English language. 
It has, of course, long been superseded as a result of the research 
indicated above. The amount of work that has been devoted to this 
subject since Coxe's time will be seen from the following list of books, 
which are given in the chronological order of their publication:— 
T Mailath, Geschichte des osterreichischen Kaiserstaates (5 vols., 
Hamburg, 1 834-1 850); Count F. von Hartig, Genesis def Revolution 
in Qslerreich im Jahre 1848 (Leipzig, 1851; 3rd edition, enlarged, 
16., 1851; translated as appendix to Coxe's House of Austria, 
ed. 1853), a work which created a great sensation at the time and 
remains of much value; W. H. Stiles, Austria in 1848-1840(2 vols., 
New York, 1852), by an eye-witness of events; M. Budmger, 
Osterreichische Gesch. bis zum Ausgange des dreizehnten Jahrhunderts, 
vol. i. to a.d. 1055 (Leipzig, 185*); A. Springer, Geschichte Oster- 
reichs seit dem Wiener Frieden, 1809 (2 vols, to 1849; Leipzig, 1863- 
1865); A. von Arneth, Geschichte Maria Theresias (10 vols., Vienna, 
1 863-1 879); the series Osterreichische Gesch. fur das Volk, 17 vols., 
by various authors (Vienna, 1864, &c), for which see Dahlmann- 
Waitz, p. 86; H. Bidermann, Gesch. der osterreichischen Gesamt- 
staalsidee, 1526-1804, parts I and 2 to 1740 (Innsbruck, 1867, 1887); 
J A. Freiherr von Helfert, Gesch. Osterreichs vom Ausgange des 
Oktoberaufslandes, 1848, vols. i. T iv. (Leipzig and Prague, 1869- 
1889)- W. Rogge, Osterreich von Vildgos bis zur Gegenwart (3 vols., 
Leipzig and Vienna, 1872, 1873), and Osterreich seit der Katastrophe 
Hohenwart-Beust (Leipzig, 1879), written from a somewhat violent 
German standpoint; Franz X. Krones (Ritter von Marchland), 
Handbuch der Gesch. Osterreichs (5 vols., Berlin, 1876-1879), with 
copious references, Gesch. der Neuzeit Osterreichs vom 18 ten Jahr- 
hundert bis auf die Gegenwart (Berlin, 1879), from the German-liberal 
point of view, and Grundriss der osterreichischen Gesch. (Vienna, 
1882); Baron Henry de Worms, The Austro-Hunganan Empire 
(London 2nd ed., 1876); Louis Asseline, Histoire de VAutriche 
depuis la mart de Marie Therise (Paris, 1877), sides with the Slavs 
against Germans and Magyars; Louis Leger, Hist, de I Autriche- 



Hongrie (Paris, 1879), also strongly Slavophil ; A. Wolf, Geschicht- 
liche Bilder aus Osterreich (2 vols., Vienna, 1878-1880), and Oster- 
reich unter Maria Theresia, Joseph II. und Leopold I. (Berlin, 1882); 
E. : Wertheimer, Gesch. Osterreichs und Ungarns im ersten Jahrzehnt 
des ioten Jahrhunderts (2 vols., Leipzig, 1884-1890); A. Huber, 
Gesch. Osterreichs, vols. i. to v. up to 1648 (in Heeren's Gesch. 
der europ. Staaten, Gotha, 1885-1895) ; J. Emmer, Kaiser Franz 
Joseph I., funfzig Jahre bsterreichischer Gesch. (2 vols., Vienna, 
1808); F. M. Mayer, Gesch. Osterreichs mit besonderer Riicksicht auf 
das Kulturleben (2 vols. 2nd ed., Vienna, 1900-1901) ; A. Dopsch, 
Forschungen zur inneren Gesch. Osterreichs, vol. i. I (Innsbruck,l903) ; 
Louis Eisenmann, Le Compromis austro-hongrois de 1867 (Paris, 
1904); H. Friedjung, Osterreich von 1848 bis i860 (Stuttgart, 
1908 seq:); Geoffrey Drage, Austria-Hungary (London, 1909): 

(b) Constitutional: — E. Werunsky, Osterreichische Reichs- und 
Rechtsgeschichte {Vienna, 1894, &c); A. Bechmann, Lehrbuch der 
osterreichischen Reichsgesch. (Prague, 1895-1896); A. Huber, 
Osterreichische Reichsgesch. (Leipzig and Vienna, 1895^ 2nd ed. by 
A. Dopsch, ib., 1901); A. Luschin von Ebengreuth, Osterreichische 
Reichsgesch. (2 vols., Bamberg, 1895, 1896), a work of first-class 
importance; and Grundriss der osterreichischen Reichsgesch. (Bam- 
berg, 1899) ; G. Kolmer, Parlament und Verfassung in Osterreich, 
vols. i. to iii. from 1848 to 1885 (Vienna, 1902-1905). For relations 
with Hungary see J. Andr4ssy, 'Ungarns Ausgleich mit Osterreich, 
1867 (Leipzig, 1897) ; L. Eisenmann, Le Compromis austro-hongrois 
de 1867 (Paris, 1904). 

(c) Diplomatic. — A Beer, Zehn Jahre bsterreichischer Politik, 1801- 
1810 (Leipzig, 1877), and Die orientalische Politik Osterreichs seit 
1774 (Prague and Leipzig, 1883); A. Fournier, Gentz und Cobenzl: 
Gesch. der ost. Politik in den jahren 1801-1805 (Vienna, 1880); F. 
von Demelitsch, Metternich und seine auswartige Politik, vol. i. 
(1809-1812, Stuttgart, 1898); H. Ubersberger, Osterreich und 
Russland seit dem Ende des i<ten Jahrhunderts, vol. i. 1488 to 1605 
(Kommission fur die neuere Gesch. Osterreichs, Vienna, 1905). See 
further the bibliographies to the articles on Metternich, Gentz, 
&c. For the latest developments of the "Austrian question " see 
Andre Cheradame, L' Europe et la question d'Autriche au seuil du 
XX e siecle (Paris, 1901), and L'Allemagne, la France et la question 
d'Autriche (76, 1902); Rene Henry, Questions d'Autriche-Hongrie 
et question d'orient (Paris, 1903), with preface by Anatole Leroy- 
Beaulieu; " Scotus Viator," The Future of Austria-Hungary (London, 

1907). 

(d) Racial Question. — There is a very extensive literature on the 
question of languages and race in Austria. The best statement of 
the legal questions involved is in Josef Ulbrith and Ernst Mischler's 
Osterr. Staatsworterbuch (3. vols., Vienna, 1894-1897; 2nd ed. 1904, 
&c). See also Dummreicher, Sudostdeutsche Betrachtungen(Leipzig, 
1893); Hainisch, Die Zukunft der Deutsch-Osterreicher (Vienna, 
1892); Herkner, Die Zukunft der Deutsch-Osterreicher (ib. 1893); 
L. Leger, La Save, le Danube et le Balkan (Paris, 1884); Bressnitz 
von Sydacoff, Die panslavistische Agitation (Berlin, 1899); Bertrand 
Auerbach, Les Races et les nationalites en Autriche-Hongrie (Paris, 

1898). 

(e) Biographical. — C. von Wurzbach, Biographisches Lexikon des 
Kaisertums Osterreich (60 vols., Vienna, 1856-1891); also the All- 
gemeine deutsche Biographic 

Many further authorities, whether works, memoirs or collections 
of documents, are referred to in the lists appended to the articles in 
this book on the various Austrian sovereigns and statesmen. For 
full bibliography see Dahlmann-Waitz, Quellenkunde (ed. 1906, and 
subsequent supplements) ; many works, covering particular periods, 
are also enumerated in the bibliographies in the several volumes of 
the Cambridge Modern History. (W. A. P.) 

AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION, WAR OF THE (1740-1-748). This 
war began with the invasion of Silesia by Frederick II. of Prussia 
in 1740, and was ended by the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) 
in 1748. After 1741 nearly all the powers of Europe were 
involved in the struggle, but the most enduring interest of the 
war lies in the struggle of Prussia and Austria for Silesia. South- 
West Germany, the Low Countries and Italy were, as usual, the 
battle-grounds of France and Austria. The constant allies of 
France and Prussia were Spain and Bavaria; various other 
powers at intervals joined them. The cause of Austria was 
supported almost as a matter of course by England and Holland, 
the traditional enemies of France. Of Austria's allies from 
time to time Sardinia and Saxony were the most important. 

1. Frederick's Invasion of Silesia, i?4°- — Prussia in 1740 
was a small, compact and thoroughly organized power, with an 
army 100,000 strong. The only recent war service of this army 
had been in the desultory Rhine campaign of 1733-35- It was 
therefore regarded as one of the minor armies of Europe, and 
few thought that it could rival the forces of Austria and France. 
But it was drilled to a perfection not hitherto attained, and the 
I Prussian infantry soldier was so well trained and equipped that 



4° 



AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION 



he could fire five shots to the Austrian's three, though the 
cavalry and artillery were less efficient. But the initial advantage 
of Frederick's army was that it had, undisturbed by wars, 
developed the standing army theory to full effect. While the 
Austrians had to wait for drafts to complete the field forces, 
Prussian regiments could take the field at once, and thus 
Frederick was able to overrun Silesia almost unopposed. His 
army was concentrated quietly upon the Oder, and without 
declaration of war, on the 16th of December 1740, it crossed 
the frontier into Silesia. The Austrian generals could do no 
more than garrison a few fortresses, and with the small remnant 
of their available forces fell back to the mountain frontier of 
Bohemia and Moravia. The Prussian army was soon able to 
go into winter quarters, holding all Silesia and investing the 
strong places of Glogau, Brieg and Neisse. 

2. Silcsian Campaign of 1741. — In February 1741, the 
Austrians collected a field army under Count Neipperg (1684- 
1774) and made preparations to reconquer Silesia. The 
Austrians in Neisse and Brieg still held out. Glogau, however, 
was stormed on the night of the 9th of March, the Prussians, 
under Prince Leopold (the younger) of Anhalt-Dessau, executing 
their task in one hour with a mathematical precision which 
excited universal admiration. But the Austrian army in Moravia 
was now in the field, and Frederick's cantonments were dispersed 
over all Upper Silesia. It was a work of the greatest difficulty 
to collect the army, for the ground was deep in snow, and before 
it was completed Neisse was relieved and the Prussians cut off 
from their own country by the march of Neipperg from Neisse 
on Brieg; a few days of slow manoeuvring between these places 
ended in the battle of Mollwitz (10th April 1 741), the first pitched 
battle fought by Frederick and his army. The Prussian right 
wing of cavalry was speedily routed, but the day was retrieved 
by the magnificent discipline and tenacity of the infantry. 
The Austrian cavalry was shattered in repeated attempts to 
ride them down, and before the Prussian volleys the Austrian 
infantry, in spite of all that Neipperg and his officers could do, 
gradually melted away. After a stubborn contest the Prussians 
remained masters of the field. Frederick himself was far away. 
He had fought in the cavalry melee, but after this, when the 
battle seemed lost, he had been persuaded by Field Marshal 
Schwerin to ride away. - Schwerin thus, like Marshal Saxe at 
Fontenoy, remained behind to win the victory, and the king 
narrowly escaped being captured by wandering Austrian hussars. 
The immediate result of the battle was that the king secured 
Brieg, and Neipperg fell back to Neisse, where he maintained 
himself and engaged in a war of manoeuvre during the summer. 
But Europe realized suddenly that a new military power had 
arisen, and France sent Marshal Belleisle to Frederick's camp to 
negotiate an alliance. Thenceforward the " Silesian adventure " 
became the War of the Austrian Succession. The elector of 
Bavaria's candidature for the imperial dignity was to be sup- 
ported by a French "auxiliary" army, and other French 
forces were sent to observe Hanover. Saxony was already 
watched by a Prussian army under Prince Leopold of Anhalt- 
Dessau, the "old Dessauer," who had trained the Prussian army 
to its present perfection. The task of Sweden was to prevent 
Russia from attacking Prussia, but her troops were defeated, on 
the 3rd of September 1741, at Wilmanstrand by a greatly 
superior Russian army, and in 1742 another great reverse was 
sustained in the capitulation of Helsingfors. In central Italy 
an army of Neapolitans and Spaniards was collected for the 
conquest of the Milanese. 

3. The Allies in Bohemia. — The French duly joined the 
elector's forces on the Danube and advanced on Vienna; but 
the objective was suddenly changed, and after many counter- 
marches the allies advanced, in three widely-separated corps, on 
Prague. A French corps moved via Amberg and Pilsen. The 
elector marched on Budweis, and the Saxons (who had now 
joined the allies) invaded Bohemia by the Elbe valley. The 
Austrians could at first offer little resistance, but before long a 
considerable force intervened at Tabor between the Danube and 
the allies, and Neipperg was now on the march from Neisse to 



join in the campaign. He had made with Frederick the curious 
agreement of Klein Schnellendorf (9th October 1741), by which 
Neisse was surrendered after a mock siege, and the Austrians 
undertook to leave Frederick unmolested in return for his 
releasing Neipperg's army for service elsewhere. At the same 
time the Hungarians, moved to enthusiasm by the personal 
appeal of Maria Theresa, had put into the field a levee en masse, 
or " insurrection," which furnished the regular army with an 
invaluable force of light troops. A fresh army was collected 
under Field Marshal Khevenhuller at Vienna, and the Austrians 
planned an offensive winter campaign against the Franco- 
Bavarian forces in Bohemia and the small Bavarian army that 
remained on the Danube to defend the electorate. The French 
in the meantime had stormed Prague on the 26th of November, 
the grand-duke Francis, consort of Maria Theresa, who com- 
manded the Austrians in Bohemia, moving too slowly to save the 
fortress. The elector of Bavaria, who now styled himself arch- 
duke of Austria, was crowned king of Bohemia (19th December 
1 741) and elected to the imperial throne as Charles VII. (24th 
January 1742), but no active measures were undertaken. In 
Bohemia the month of December was occupied in mere skirmishes. 
On the Danube, Khevenhuller, the best general in the Austrian 
service, advanced on the 27th of December, swiftly drove back 
the allies, shut them up in Linz, and pressed on into Bavaria. 
Munich itself surrendered to the Austrians on the coronation day 
of Charles VII. At the close of this first act of the campaign 
the French, under the old Marshal de Broglie, maintained a 
precarious foothold in central Bohemia, menaced by the main 
army of the Austrians, and Khevenhuller was ranging unopposed 
in Bavaria, while Frederick, in pursuance of his secret obligations, 
lay inactive in Silesia. In Italy the allied Neapolitans and 
Spaniards had advanced towards Modena, the duke of which 
state had allied himself with them, but the vigilant Austrian 
commander Count Traun had outmarched them, captured 
Modena, and forced the duke to make a separate peace. 

4. Campaign of 1742. — Frederick had hoped by the truce 
to secure Silesia, for which alone he was fighting. But with the 
successes of Khevenhuller and the enthusiastic " insurrection " 
of Hungary, Maria Theresa's opposition became firmer, and she 
divulged the provisions of the truce, in order to compromise 
Frederick with his allies. The war recommenced. Frederick 
had not rested on his laurels; in the uneventful summer cam- 
paign of 1 741 he had found time to begin that reorganization of 
his cavalry which was before long to make it even more efficient 
than his infantry. Charles VII., whose territories were overrun 
by the Austrians, asked him to create a diversion by invading 
Moravia. In December 1741, therefore, Schwerin had crossed 
the border and captured Olmiitz. Glatz also was invested, and 
the Prussian army was concentrated about Olmiitz in January 
1742. A combined plan of operations was made by the French, 
Saxons and Prussians for the rescue of Linz. But Linz soon fell; 
Broglie on the Moldau, weakened by the departure of the 
Bavarians to oppose Khevenhuller, and of the Saxons to join 
forces with Frederick, was in no condition to take the offensive, 
and large forces under Prince Charles of Lorraine lay in his front 
from Budweis to Iglau. Frederick's march was made towards 
Iglau in the first place. Brttnn was invested about the same 
time (February), but the direction of the march was changed, 
and instead of moving against Prince Charles, Frederick pushed 
on southwards by Znaim and Nikolsburg. The extreme outposts 
of the Prussians appeared before Vienna. But Frederick's 
advance was a mere foray, and Prince Charles, leaving a screen 
of troops in front of Broglie, marched to cut off the Prussians 
from Silesia, while the Hungarian levies poured into Upper 
Silesia by the Jablunka Pass. The Saxons, discontented and 
demoralized, soon marched off to their own country, and 
Frederick with his Prussians fell back by Zwittau and Leuto- 
mischl to Kuttenberg in Bohemia, where he was in touch with 
Broglie on the one hand and (Glatz having now surrendered) 
with Silesia on the other. No defence of Olmiitz was attempted, 
and the small Prussian corps remaining in Moravia fell back 
towards Upper Silesia. Prince Charles, in pursuit of the king 



AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION 



4i 



marched by Iglau and Teutsch (Deutsch) Brod on Kuttenberg, 
and on the 17th of May was fought the battle of Chotusitz or 
Czaslau, in which after a severe struggle the king was victorious. 
His cavalry on this occasion retrieved its previous failure, and 
its conduct gave an earnest of its future glory not only by its 
charges on the battlefield, but its vigorous pursuit of the defeated 
Austrians. Almost at the same time Broglie fell upon a part of 
the Austrians left on the Moldau and won a small, but morally 
and politically important, success in the action of Sahay, near 
Budweis (May 24, 1742). Frederick did not propose another 
combined movement. His victory and that of Broglie dis- 
posed Maria Theresa to cede Silesia in order to make good 
her position elsewhere, and the separate peace between Prussia 
and Austria, signed at Breslau on the nth of June, closed 
the First Silesian War. The War of the Austrian Succession 
continued. 

5. The French at Prague. — The return of Prince Charles, 
released by the peace of Breslau, put an end to Broglie's offensive. 
The prince pushed back the French posts everywhere, and his 
army converged upon Prague, where, towards the end of June 
1742, the French were to all intents and purposes surrounded. 
Broglie had made the best resistance possible with his inferior 
forces, and still displayed great activity, but his position was one 
of great peril. The French government realized at last that 
it had given its general inadequate forces. The French army 
on the lower Rhine, hitherto in observation of Hanover and other 
possibly hostile states, was hurried into Franconia. Prince 
Charles at once raised the siege of Prague (September 14), 
called up Khevenhiiller with the greater part of the Austrian 
army on the Danube, and marched towards Amberg to meet the 
new opponent. Marshal Maillebois (1682-1762), its commander, 
then manoeuvred from Amberg towards the Eger valley, to gain 
touch with Broglie. Marshal Belleisle, the political head of 
French affairs in Germany and a very capable general, had 
accompanied Broglie throughout, and it seems that Belleisle 
and Broglie believed that Maillebois' mission was to regain a 
permanent foothold for the army in Bohemia; Maillebois, 
on the contrary, conceived that his work was simply to disengage 
the army of Broglie from its dangerous position, and to cover 
its retreat. His operations were no more than a demonstration, 
and had so little effect that Broglie was sent for in haste to 
take over the command from him, Belleisle at the same time 
taking over charge of the army at Prague. Broglie's command 
was now on the Danube, east of Regensburg, and the imperial 
(chiefly Bavarian) army of Charles VII. under Seckendorf aided 
him to clear-Bavaria of the Austrians. This was effected with 
ease, for Khevenhiiller and most of his troops had gone to 
Bohemia. Prince Charles and Khevenhiiller now took post 
between Linz and Passau, leaving a strong force to deal with 
Belleisle in Prague. This, under Prince Lobkowitz, was little 
superior in numbers or quality to the troops under Belleisle, 
under whom served Saxe and the best of the younger French 
generals, but its light cavalry swept the country clear of pro- 
visions. The French were quickly on the verge of starvation, 
winter had come, and the marshal resolved to retreat. On the 
night of the 16th of December 1742, the army left Prague to 
be defended by a small garrison under Chevert, and took the 
route of Eger. The retreat (December 16-26) was accounted 
a triumph of generalship, but the weather made it painful and 
costly. The brave Chevert displayed such confidence that 
the Austrians were glad to allow him freedom to join the main 
army. The cause of the new emperor was now sustained only 
in the valley of the Danube, where Broglie and Seckendorf 
opposed Prince Charles and Khevenhiiller, who were soon joined 
by the force lately opposing Belleisle. 

In Italy, Traun held his own with ease against the Spaniards 
and Neapolitans. Naples was forced by a British squadron to 
withdraw her troops for home defence, and Spain, now too weak 
to advance in the Po valley, sent a second army to Italy via 
France. Sardinia had allied herself with Austria, and at the same 
time neither state was at war with France, and this led to curious 
complications, combats being fought in the Isere valley between 



the troops of Sardinia and of Spain, in which the French took 
no part. 

6. The Campaign of 1743 opened disastrously for the emperor. 
The French and Bavarian armies were not working well to- 
gether, and Broglie and Seckendorf had actually quarrelled. 
No connected resistance was offered to the converging march 
of Prince Charles's army along the Danube, Khevenhiiller from 
Salzburg towards southern Bavaria, and Prince Lobkowitz 
(1685-1755) from Bohemia towards the Naab. The Bavarians 
suffered a severe reverse near Braunau (May 9, 1743), and now 
an Anglo-allied army commanded by King George II., which 
had been formed on the lower Rhine on the withdrawal of 
Maillebois, was advancing southward to the Main and Neckar 
country. A French army, under Marshal Noailles, was being 
collected on the middle' Rhine to deal with this new force. But 
Broglie was now in full retreat, and the strong places of Bavaria 
surrendered one after the other to Prince Charles. The French 
and Bavarians had been driven almost to the Rhine when 
Noailles and the king came to battle. George, completely 
outmanoeuvred by his veteran antagonist, was in a position of 
the greatest danger between Aschaffenburg and Hanau in the 
defile formed by the Spessart Hills and the river Main. Noailles 
blocked the outlet and had posts all around, but the allied 
troops forced their way through and inflicted heavy losses on 
the French, and the battle of Dettingen is justly reckoned as 
a notable victory of the British arms (June 27). Both Broglie, 
who, worn out by age and exertions, was soon replaced by 
Marshal Coigny (1670-1759), and Noailles were now on the strict 
defensive behind the Rhine. Not a single French soldier re- 
mained in Germany, and Prince Charles prepared to force the 
passage of the great river in the Breisgau while the king of 
England moved forward via Mainz to co-operate by drawing 
upon himself the attention of both the French marshals. The 
Anglo-allied army took Worms, but after several unsuccessful 
attempts to cross, Prince Charles went into winter quarteis. 
The king followed his example, drawing in his troops to the north- 
ward, to deal, if necessary, with the army which the French 
were collecting on the frontier of Flanders. Austria, England, 
Holland and Sardinia were now allied. Saxony changed sides, 
and Sweden and Russia neutralized each other (peace of Abo, 
August 1743). Frederick was still quiescent; France, Spain 
and Bavaria alone continued actively the struggle against Maria 
Theresa. 

In Italy, the Spaniards on the Panaro had achieved a Pyrrhic 
victory over Traun at Campo Santo (February 8, 1743), but the 
next six months were wasted in inaction, and Lobkowitz, joining 
Traun with reinforcements from Germany, drove back the 
enemy to Rimini. The Spanish-Piedmontese war in the Alps 
continued without much result, the only incident of note being 
a combat at Casteldelfino won by the king of Sardinia in person. 

7. Campaign of 1744. — With 1744 began the Second Silesian 
War. Frederick, disquieted by the universal success of the 
Austrian cause, secretly concluded a fresh alliance with Louis XV. 
France had posed hitherto as an auxiliary, her officers in Germany 
had worn the Bavarian cockade, and only with England was she 
officially at war. She now declared war direct upon Austria 
and Sardinia (April 1744). A corps was assembled at Dunkirk 
to support the cause of the Pretender in Great Britain, and Louis 
in person, with 90,000 men, prepared to invade the Austrian 
Netherlands, and took Menin and Ypres. His presumed 
opponent was the allied army previously under King George and 
now composed of English, Dutch, Germans and Austrians. On 
the Rhine, Coigny was to make head against Prince Charles, 
and a fresh army under the prince de Conti was to assist the 
Spaniards in Piedmont and Lombardy. This plan was, however, 
at once dislocated by the advance of Charles, who, assisted by 
the veteran Traun, skilfully manoeuvred his army over the Rhine 
near Philipsburg (July 1), captured the lines of Weissenburg, 
and cut off the French marshal from Alsace. Coigny, however, 
cut his way through the enemy at Weissenburg and posted him- 
self near Strassburg. Louis XV. now abandoned the invasion 
of Flanders, and his army moved down to take a decisive part 



4 2 



AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION 



in the war in Alsace and Lorraine. At the same time Frederick 
crossed the Austrian frontier (August). 

The attention and resources of Austria were fully occupied, 
and the Prussians were almost unopposed. One column passed 
through Saxony, another through Lusatia, while a third advanced 
from Silesia. Prague, the objective, was reached on the 2nd of 
September. Six days later the Austrian garrison was compelled 
to surrender, and the Prussians advanced to Budweis. Maria 
Theresa once again rose to the emergency, a new "insurrection" 
took the field in Hungary, and a corps of regulars was assembled 
to cover Vienna, while the diplomatists won over Saxony to the 
Austrian side. Prince Charles withdrew from Alsace, unmolested 
by the French, who had been thrown intb confusion by the 
sudden and dangerous illness of Louis XV. at Metz, Only 
Seckendorf with the Bavarians pursued him. No move Was 
made by the French, and Frederick thus found himself after 
all isolated and exposed to the combined attack of the Austrians 
and Saxons. Marshal Traun, summoned from the Rhine, held 
the king in check in Bohemia, the Hungarian irregulars inflicted 
numerous minor reverses on the Prussians, and finally Prince 
Charles arrived with the main army. The campaign resembled 
that of 1742; the Prussian retreat was closely watched, .and 
the rearguard pressed hard. Prague fell, and Frederick, com- 
pletely outmanoeuvred by the united forces of Prince Charles 
and Traun, regained Silesia with heavy losses. At the same 
time, the Austrians gained no foothold in Silesia itself. On the 
Rhine, Louis, now recovered, had besieged and taken Freiburg, 
after which the forces left in the north were reinforced and 
besieged the strong places of Flanders. There was also a slight 
war of manoeuvre on the middle Rhine. 

In 1744 the Italian war became for the first time serious. A 
grandiose plan of campaign was formed, and as usual the French 
and Spanish generals at the front were hampered by the orders 
of their respective governments. The object was to unite the 
army in Dauphine with that on the lower Po. The adhesion of 
Genoa was secured, and a road thereby obtained into central 
Italy. But Lobkowitz had already taken the offensive and 
driven back the Spanish army of Count de Gages towards the 
Neapolitan frontier. The king of Naples at this juncture was 
compelled to assist the Spaniards at all hazards. A combined 
army was formed at Velletri, and defeated Lobkowitz there on 
the nth of August. The crisis past, Lobkowitz then went to 
Piedmont to assist the king against Conti, the king of Naples 
returned home, and de Gages followed the Austrians with a 
weak force. The war in the Alps and the Apennines was keenly 
contested. Villefranche and Montalban were stormed by Conti 
on the 20th of April, a desperate fight took place at Peyre-Longue 
on the 1 8th of July, and the king of Sardinia was defeated in a 
great battle at Madonna del Olmo (September 30) near Coni 
(Cuneo) . Conti did not, however, succeed in taking this fortress, 
and had to retire into Dauphine for his winter quarters. The 
two armies had, therefore, failed in their attempt to combine, 
and the Austro-Sardinians still lay between them. 

8. Campaign of 1745. — The interest of the next campaign 
centres in the three greatest battles of the war — Hohenfriedberg, 
Kesselsdorf and Fontenoy. The first event of the year was the 
Quadruple Alliance of .England, Austria, Holland and Saxony, 
concluded at Warsaw on the 8th of January. Twelve days 
previously, the death of Charles VII. submitted the imperial 
title to a new election, and his successor in Bavaria was not a 
candidate. The Bavarian army was again unfortunate; caught 
in its scattered winter quarters (action of Amberg, January 7), 
it was driven from point to point, and the young elector had to 
abandon Munich once more. The peace of Fussen followed on 
the 22nd of April, by which he secured his hereditary states on 
condition of supporting the candidature of the grand-duke 
Francis, consort of Maria Theresa. The '■' imperial " army 
ceased ipso foclo to exist, and Frederick was again isolated. No 
help was to be expected from France, whose efforts this year 
were centred on the Flanders campaign. In effect, on the 10th 
of May, before Frederick took the field, Louis XV. and Saxe 
had besieged Tournay, and inflicted upon the relieving army of 



the duke of Cumberland the great defeat of Fontenoy (<?.»•). 
In Silesia the customary small war had been going on for some 
time, and the concentration of the Prussian army was not 
effected without severe fighting. At the end of May, Frederick, 
with about 65,000 men, lay in the camp of Frankenstein, between 
Glatz and Neisse, while behind the Riesengebirge about Landshut 
Prince Charles had 85,000 Austrians and Saxons. On the 4th 
of June was fought the battle of Hohenfriedberg (q.v.) orStriegau, 
the greatest victory as yet of Frederick's career, and, of all his 
battles, excelled perhaps by Leuthen and Rossbach only. 
Prince Charles suffered a complete defeat and withdrew through 
the mountains as he had come. Frederick's pursuit was method- 
ical, for the country was difficult and barren, and he did not 
know the extent to which the enemy was demoralized. The 
manoeuvres of both leaders on the upper Elbe occupied all the 
summer, while the political questions of the imperial election 
and of an understanding between Prussia and England were 
pending. The chief efforts of Austria were directed towards 
the valleys of the Main and Lahn and Frankfort, where the 
French and Austrian armies manoeuvred for a position from 
which to overawe the electoral body. Marshal Traun was 
successful, and the grand-duke became the emperor Francis I. 
on the 13th of September. Frederick agreed with England to 
recognize the election a few days later, but Maria Theresa would 
not conform to the treaty of Breslau without a further appeal 
to the fortune of war. Saxony joined in this last attempt. A 
new advance of Prince Charles quickly brought on the battle 
of Soor, fought on ground destined to be famous in the war of 
1866. < Frederick was at first in a position of great peril, but his 
army changed front in the face of the advancing enemy and by 
its boldness and tenacity won a remarkable victory (September 
30). But the campaign was not ended. An Austrian contingent 
from the Main joined the Saxons under Marshal Rutowski, and a 
combined movement was made in the direction of Berlin by 
Rutowski from Saxony and Prince Charles from Bohemia. The 
danger was very great. Frederick hurried up his forces from 
Silesia and marched as rapidly as possible on Dresden, winning 
the actions of Katholisch-Hennersdorf (November 24) and 
Gorlitz (November 25). Prince Charles was thereby forced 
back, and now a second Prussian army under the old Dessauer 
advanced up the Elbe from Magdeburg to meet Rutowski. 
The latter took up a strong position at Kesselsdorf between 
Meissen and Dresden, but the veteran Leopold attacked him 
directly and without hesitation (December 14). The Saxons 
and their allies were completely routed after a hard struggle, 
and Maria Theresa at last gave way. In the peace of Dresden 
(December ,25) Frederick recognized the imperial election, and 
retained Silesia, as at the peace of Breslau. 

o. Operations in Italy, 1745-1747. — The campaign in Italy 
this year was also no mere war of posts. In March 1745 
a secret treaty allied the Genoese republic with France, Spain 
and Naples. A change in the command of the Austrians 
favoured the first move of the allies, De Gages moved from 
Modena towards Lucca, the French and Spaniards in the Alps 
under Marshal Maillebois advanced through the Riviera to 
the Tanaro, and in the middle of July the two armies were 
at last concentrated between the Scrivia and the Tanaro, 
to the unusally large number of 80,000. A swift march on 
Piacenza drew the Austrian commander thither, and in his 
absence the allies fell upon and completely defeated the Sardinians 
at Bassignano (September 27), a victory which was quickly 
followed by the capture of Alessandria, Valenza and Casale. 
Jomini calls the concentration of forces which effected the 
victory " le plus remarquable de toute la guerre." But the 
complicated politics of Italy brought it about that Maillebois 
was ultimately unable to turn his victory to account. Indeed, 
early in 1 746, Austrian troops, freed by the peace with Frederick, 
passed through Tirol into Italy; the Franco-Spanish winter 
quarters were "brusquely attacked, and a French garrison of 
6000 men at Asti was forced to capitulate. At the same time 
Count Browne with an Austrian corps struck at the allies on the 
lower Pp, and cut off their communication with the main body 



AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION 



48 



in Piedmont. A series of minor actions thus completely destroyed 
the great concentration. The allies separated, Maillebois 
covering Liguria, the Spaniards marching against Browne. The 
latter was promptly and heavily reinforced, and all that the 
Spaniards could do was to entrench themselves at Piacenza; 
the Spanish Infant as supreme commander calling up Maillebois 
to his aid. The French, skilfully conducted and marching 
rapidly, joined forces once more, but their situation was critical, 
for only two marches behind them the army of the king of 
Sardinia was in pursuit, and before them lay the principal army 
of the Austrians. The pitched battle of Piacenza (June 16) was 
hard fought, and Maillebois had nearly achieved a victory when 
orders from the Infant compelled him to retire. That the army 
escaped at all was in the highest degree creditable to Maillebois 
and to his son and chief of staff, under whose leadership it 
eluded both the Austrians and the Sardinians, defeated an 
Austrian corps in the battle of Rottofreddo (August 12), and 
made good its retreat on Genoa. It was, however, a mere remnant 
of the allied army which returned, and the Austrians were soon 
masters of north Italy, including Genoa (September). But they 
met with no success in their forays towards the Alps. Soon 
Genoa revolted from the oppressive rule of the victors, rose and 
drove out the Austrians (December 5-1 1), and the French, now 
commanded by Belleisle, took the offensive (1747). Genoa 
held out against a second Austrian siege, and after the plan of 
campaign had as usual been referred to Paris and Madrid, it 
was relieved, though a picked corps of the French army under 
the chevalier de Belleisle, brother of the marshal, was defeated 
in the almost impossible attempt (July 19) to storm the en- 
trenched pass of Exiles (Col di Assietta), the chevalier, and with 
him the elite of the French nobility, being killed at the barricades. 
Before the steady advance of Marshal Belleisle the Austrians 
retired into Lombardy, and a desultory campaign was waged 
up to the conclusion of peace. 

In North America the most remarkable incident of what 
has been called " King George's War " was the capture of the 
French Canadian fortress of Louisburg by a British expedition 
(April 20-June 16, 1745), of which the military portion was 
furnished by the colonial militia under Colonel (afterwards 
Lieutenant-General Sir William) Pepperell (1696-1759) of 
Maine. Louisburg was then regarded merely as a nest of priva- 
teers, and at the peace it was given up, but in the: Seven Years' 
War it came within the domain of grand strategy, and its second 
capture was the preliminary step to the British conquest of 
Canada. For the war in India, see India: History. 

10. Later Campaigns. — The last three campaigns of the war 
in the Netherlands were illustrated by the now fully developed 
genius of Marshal Saxe. After Fontenoy the French carried all 
before them. The withdrawal of most of the English to aid in 
suppressing the 'Forty-Five rebellion at home left their allies in 
a helpless position. In 1746 the Dutch and the Austrians were 
driven back towards the line of the Meuse, and most of the 
important fortresses were taken by the French. The battle of 
Roucoux (or Raucourt) near Li6ge, fought on the 1 ith of October 
between the allies under Prince Charles of Lorraine and the 
French under Saxe, resulted in a victory for the latter. Holland 
itself was now in danger, and when in April 1747 Saxe's army, 
which had now conquered the Austrian Netherlands up to the 
Meuse, turned its attention to the United Provinces, the old 
fortresses on the frontier offered but slight resistance. The 
prince of Orange and the duke of Cumberland underwent a severe 
defeat at Lauffeld (Lawfeld, &c, also called Val) on the 2nd of 
July 1747, and Saxe, after his victory, promptly and secretly 
despatched a corps under (Marshal) Lowendahl to besiege Bergen - 
op-Zoom. On the 18th of September Bergen-op-Zoom was 
stormed by the French, and in the last year of the war Maestricht, 
attacked by the entire forces of Saxe and La wendahl, surrendered 
on the 7 th of May 1748. A large Russian army arrived on the 
Meuse to join the allies, but too late to be of use. The quarrel 
of Russia and Sweden had been settled by the peace of Abo in 
1 743, and in 1 746 Russia had allied herself with Austria. Eventu- 
ally a large army marched from Moscow to the Rhine, an event 



which was not without military significance, and in a manner 
preluded the great invasions of 1813-1814 and 1815. The 
general peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) was signed on the 
18th of October 1 748. 

11. General Character of the War. — Little need be said of the 
military features of the war. The intervention of Prussia as a 
military power was indeed a striking phenomenon, but her 
triumph was in a great measure due to her fuller application of 
principles of tactics and discipline universally recognized though 
less universally enforced. The other powers reorganized their 
forces after the war, not so much on the Prussian model as on the 
basis of a stricter application of known general principles. 
Prussia, moreover, was far ahead of all the other continental 
powers in administration, and over Austria, in particular, her 
advantage in this matter was almost decisive of the struggle. 
Added to this was the personal ascendancy of Frederick, not yet 
a great general, but energetic and resolute, and, further, opposed 
to generals who were responsible for their men to their individual 
sovereigns. These advantages have been decisive in many wars, 
almost in all. The special feature of the war of 1740 to 1748, 
and of other wars of the time, is the extraordinary disparity 
between the end and the means. The political schemes to be 
executed by the French and other armies were as grandiose as 
any of modern times; their execution, under the then conditions 
of time and space, invariably fell short of expectation, and the 
history of the war proves, as that of the Seven Years' War was 
to prove, that the small standing army of the 18th century 
could conquer by degrees, but could not deliver a decisive blow. 
Frederick alone, with a definite end and proportionate means 
wherewith to achieve it, succeeded completely. The French, 
in spite of their later victories, obtained so little of what they 
fought for that Parisians could say to each other, when they 
met in the streets, " You are as stupid as the Peace." And if, 
when fighting for their own hand, the governments of Europe 
could so fail of their purpose, even less was to be expected when 
the armies were composed of allied contingents, sent to the war 
each for a different object. The allied national armies of 18 13 
co-operated loyally, for they had much at stake and worked for 
a common object; those of 1741 represented the divergent 
private interests of the several dynasties, and achieved nothing. 

Bibliography. — Besides general works on Frederick's life arid 
reign, of which Carlyle, Preuss and v. Taysen are of particular 
importance, and Frederick's own works, see the Prussian official Die 
I. und II, schlesischen Kriege (Berlin, 1890-1895): Austrian official 
Kriege der Kaiserin Maria Theresia; Gesch. des Osterr. Erbfolge- 
krie'ges (Vienna, from I895); Jomini, Traiti des grandes operations 
militaires, introduction to vol. i. (Paris, 4th edition, 1851); C. von 
B.-K., Geist und Stoff im Kriege (Vienna, 1895); v. Arneth, Maria 
Teresiqs ersten Regierungsjahre (1863) ; v.Schoning, Die J ersle Jahre 
der Regierung Friedrichs des Grossen; Bernhardt, Friedrich der 
Grosse als Feldherr (Berlin, 1881); v. Canitz, Nachrichten, &fc., fiber 
die Taten und Schicksale der Reiterei, &c. (Berlin, 1861) ; Griinhagen, 
Gesch. des I. schlesischen Krieges (Gotha, 1881-1882); Orlich, Gesch- 
der schlesischen. Kriege; Deroy, Beitrage zur Gesch. des osterr. 
Erbfolgekrieges (Munich, 1883); Crousse, La Guerre de la succession 
dans les provinces belgiques (Paris, 1885) ; Duncker, Militarische, &c, 
Aktenstiicke zur Gesch. des I. schles. Krieges; Militar-Wochenblatt 
supplements 1875, 1877, 1878, 1883, 1891, 1901, &c. (Berlin); Mit- 
teilungen des k.k. Kriegsarchivs, from 1887 (Vienna) ; Baumgart, 
Die Litteratur, &c, fiber Friedrich d. Gr. (Berlin, 1886); Fortescue, 
History of the British Army, vol. ii. ; F. H. Skrine, Fontenoy and the 
War of the Austrian Succession (London, 1906); Francis Parkman, 
A Half-Century of Conflict (1892). (C. F. A.) 

Nflval Operations. 

The naval operations of this war were languid and confused. 
They are complicated by the fact that they were entangled with 
the Spanish war, which broke out in 1739 in consequence of the 
long disputes between England and Spain over their conflicting 
claims in America. Until the closing years they were conducted 
with small intelligence or spirit. The Spanish government was 
nerveless, and sacrificed its true interest to the family ambition 
of the king Philip V., who wished to establish his younger sons 
as ruling princes in Italy. French administration was corrupt, 
and the government was chiefly concerned in its political interests 
in Germany. The British navy was at its lowest point of energy 



44 



AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION 



and efficiency after the long administration of Sir Robert Walpole. 
Therefore, although the war contained passages of vigour, it 
was neither interesting nor decisive on the sea. 

War on Spain was declared by Great Britain on the 23rd of 
October 1739. It was universally believed that the Spanish 
colonies would fall at once before attack. A plan was laid for 
combined operations against them from east and west. One 
force, military and naval, was to assault them from the West 
Indies under Admiral Edward Vernon. Another, to be commanded 
by Commodore George Anson, afterwards Lord Anson, was to 
round Cape Horn and to fall upon the Pacific coast. Delays, 
bad preparations, dockyard corruption, and the unpatriotic 
squabbles of the naval and military officers concerned caused 
the failure of a hopeful scheme. On the 21st of November 1739 
Admiral Vernon did indeed succeed in capturing the ill-defended 
Spanish harbour of Porto Bello (in the present republic of 
Panama) — a trifling success to boast of. But he did nothing to 
prevent the Spanish convoys from reaching Europe. The Spanish 
privateers cruised with destructive effect against British trade, 
both in the West Indies and in European waters. When Vernon 
had been joined by Sir Chaloner Ogle with naval reinforcements 
and a strong body of troops, an attack was made on Cartagena 
in what is now Colombia (March o-April 24, 1741). The 
delay had given the Spanish admiral, Don Bias de Leso, time 
to prepare, and the siege failed with a dreadful loss of life to the 
assailants. Want of success was largely due to the incompetence 
of the military officers and the brutal insolence of the admiral. 
The war in the West Indies, after two other unsuccessful attacks 
had been made on Spanish territory, died down and did not 
revive till 1748. The expedition under Anson sailed late, was 
very ill provided, and less strong than had been intended. It 
consisted of six ships and left England on the 18th of September 
1740. Anson returned alone with his flagship the " Centurion " 
on the 15th of June 1744. The other vessels had either failed 
to round the Horn or had been lost. But Anson had harried the 
coast of Chile and Peru and had captured a Spanish galleon of 
immense value near the Philippines. His cruise was a great 
feat of resolution and endurance. 

While Anson was pursuing his voyage round the world, Spain 
was mainly intent on the Italian policy of the king. A squadron 
was fitted out at Cadiz to convey troops to Italy. It was watched 
by the British admiral Nicholas Haddock. When the blockading 
squadron was forced off by want of provisions, the Spanish 
admiral Don Jose Navarro put to sea. He was followed, but 
when the British force Came in sight of him Navarro had been 
joined by a French squadron under M. de Court (December 1 741). 
The French admiral announced that he would support the 
Spaniards if they were attacked and Haddock retired. France 
and Great Britain were not yet openly at war, but both were 
engaged in the struggle in Germany — Great Britain as the ally 
of the queen of Hungary, Maria Theresa; France as the supporter 
of the Bavarian claimant of the empire. Navarro and M. de 
Court went on to Toulon, where they remained till February 
1744. A British fleet watched them, under the command of 
admiral Richard Lestock, till Sir Thomas Mathews was sent 
out as commander-in-chief, and as minister to the court of Turin. 
Partial manifestations of hostility between the French and 
British took place in different seas, but avowed war did not 
begin till the French government issued its declaration of the 
30th of March, to which Great Britain replied on the 31st. This 
formality had been preceded by French preparations for the 
invasion of England, and by a collision between the allies and 
Mathews in the Mediterranean (see Toulon, Battle of). On 
the 1 ith of February a most confused battle was fought, in which 
the van and centre of the British fleet was engaged with the rear 
and centre of the allies. Lestock, who was on the worst possible 
terms with his superior, took no part in the action. He en- 
deavoured to excuse himself by alleging that the orders of 
Mathews were contradictory. Mathews, a puzzle-headed and 
hot-tempered man, fought with spirit but in a disorderly way, 
breaking the formation of his fleet, and showing no power of 
direction. The mismanagement of the British fleet in the battle, 



by arousing deep anger among the people, led to a drastic reform 
of the British navy which bore its first fruits before the war ended. 

The French invasion scheme was arranged in combination with 
the Jacobite leaders, and soldiers were to be transported from 
Dunkirk. But though the British government showed itself 
wholly wanting in foresight, the plan broke down. In February 
1744, a French fleet of twenty sail of the line entered the Channel 
under Jacques Aymar, comte de Roquefeuil, before the British 
force under admiral John Norris was ready to oppose him. 
But the French force was ill equipped, the admiral was nervous, 
his mind dwelt on all the misfortunes which might possibly 
happen, and the weather was bad. M. de Roquefeuil came 
up almost as far as the Downs, where he learnt that Sir John 
Norris was at hand with twenty-five sail of the line, and thereupon 
precipitately retreated. The military expedition prepared at 
Dunkirk to cross under cover of Roquefeuil's fleet naturally 
did not start. The utter weakness of the French at sea, due to 
long neglect of the fleet and the bankrupt state of the treasury, 
was shown during the Jacobite rising of 1745, when France made 
no attempt to profit by the distress of the British government. 
The Dutch having by this time joined Great Britain, made a 
serious addition to the naval power opposed to France, though 
Holland was compelled by the necessity for maintaining an army 
in Flanders to play a very subordinate part at sea. Not being 
stimulated by formidable attack, and having immediate interests 
both at home and in Germany, the British government was slow 
to make use of its latest naval strength. Spain, which could do 
nothing of an offensive character, was almost neglected. During 
1745 the New England expedition which took Louisburg (April 
30-June 16) was covered by a British naval force, but the opera- 
tions were in a general way sporadic, subordinated to the supply 
of convoy, or to unimportant particular ends. In the East 
Indies, Mahe de la Bourdonnais made a vigorous use of a small 
squadron to which no effectual resistance was offered by the 
British naval forces. He captured Madras (July 24-September 
9, 1746), a set-off for Louisburg, for which it was exchanged at 
the close of the war. In the same year a British combined naval 
and military expedition to the coast of France — the first of a long 
series of similar ventures which in the end were derided as 
" breaking windows with guineas " — was carried out during 
August and October. The aim was the capture of the French 
East India company's dockyard at L'Orient, but it was not 
attained. 

From 1747 till the close of the war in October 1748 the naval 
policy of the British government, without reaching a high level, 
was yet more energetic and coherent. A closer watch was kept 
on the French coast, and effectual means were taken to intercept 
communication between France and her American possessions. 
In the spring information was obtained that an important convoy 
for the East and West Indies was to sail from L'Orient. In 
the previous year the British government had allowed a French 
expedition under M. d'Anville to fail mainly by its own weakness. 
In 1747 a more creditable line was taken. An overwhelming 
force was employed under the command of Anson to intercept 
the convoy in the Channel. It was met, crushed and captured, 
or driven back, on the 3rd of May. On the 14th of October 
another French convoy, protected by a strong squadron, was 
intercepted by a well-appointed and well-directed squadron of 
superior numbers — the squadrons were respectively eight French 
and fourteen British — in the Bay of Biscay. The French 
admiral Desherbiers de l'Etenduere made a very gallant, resist- 
ance, and the fine quality of his ships enabled him to counteract 
to some extent the superior numbers of Sir Edward Hawke, 
the British admiral. While the war-ships were engaged, the 
merchant vessels, with the small protection which Desherbiers 
could spare them, continued on their way to the West Indies. 
Most of them were, however, intercepted and captured in those 
waters. This disaster convinced the French government of 
its helplessness at sea, and it made no further effort. 

The last naval operations took place in the West Indies, 
where the Spaniards, who had for a time been treated as a negli- 
gible quantity, were attacked on the coast of Cuba by a British 



AUTHENTIC— AUTOGRAPHS 



45 



squadron under Sir Charles Knowles. They had a naval force 
under Admiral Regio at Havana. Each side was at once 
anxious to cover its own trade, and to intercept that of the other. 
Capture was rendered particularly desirable to the British by 
the fact that the Spanish homeward-bound convoy would be 
laden with the bullion sent from the American mines. In the 
course of the movement of each to protect its trade, the two 
squadrons met on the ist of October 1 748 in the Bahama Channel. 
The action was indecisive when compared with the successes 
of British fleets in later 'days, but the advantage lay with Sir 
Charles Knowles. He was prevented from following it up by the 
speedy receipt of the news that peace had been made in Europe 
by the powers, who were all in various degrees exhausted. That 
it was arranged on the terms of a mutual restoration of conquests 
shows that none of the combatants could claim to have estab- 
lished a final superiority. The conquests of the French in the 
Bay of Bengal, and their military successes in Flanders, enabled 
them to treat on equal terms, and nothing had been taken from 
Spain. 

The war was remarkable for the prominence of privateering 
on both sides. It was carried on by the Spaniards in the West 
Indies with great success, and actively at home. The French 
were no less active in all seas. Mahe de la Bourdonnais's 
attack on Madras partook largely of the nature of a privateering 
venture. The British retaliated with vigour. The total number 
of captures by French and Spanish corsairs was in all probability 
larger than the list of British — partly for the reason given by 
Voltaire, namely, that more British merchants were taken because 
there were many more British merchant ships to take, but partly 
also because the British government had not yet begun to enforce 
the use of convoy so strictly as it did in later times. 

See Beatson's Naval and Military Memoirs (London, 1804) ; 
La Marine militaire de la France sous le regne de Louis XV, by 
G. Lacour-Gayet (Paris, 1902); The Royal Navy, by Sir W. L. 
Clowes and others (London, 1891, &c). (D. H.) 

AUTHENTIC (from Gr. avdtvrns, one who does a thing 
himself), genuine, as opposed to counterfeit, true or original. 
In music it is one of the terms used for the ecclesiastical modes. 
The title of A uthentics was also used for Justinian's Novells. 

AUTOCEPHALOUS (from Gr. afrros, self, and Kt4>a\i), head), 
of independent headship, a term used of certain ecclesiastical 
functionaries and organizations. 

AUTOCHTHONES (Gr. abrbs, and x^wi», earth, i.e. people sprung 
from earth itself; Lat. terrigenae; see also under Aborigines), 
the original inhabitants of a country as opposed to settlers, and 
those of their descendants who kept themselves free from an 
admixture of foreign peoples. The practice in ancient Greece 
of describing legendary heroes and men of ancient lineage as 
" earthborn " greatly strengthened the doctrine of autochthony; 
for instance, the Athenians wore golden grasshoppers in their 
hair in token that they were born from the soil and had always 
lived in Attica (Thucydides i. 6; Plato, Menexenus, 245). In 
Thebes, the race of Sparti were believed to have sprung from 
a field sown with dragons' teeth. The Phrygian Corybantes 
had been forced out of the hill-side like trees by Rhea, the great 
mother, and hence were called 8evdpo4>veis. It is clear from 
Aeschylus (Prometheus, 447) that primitive men were supposed 
to have at first lived like animals in caves and woods, till by 
the help of the gods and heroes they were raised to a stage 
of civilization. 

AUTOCLAVE, a strong closed vessel of metal in which liquids 
can be heated above their boiling points under pressure. Ety- 
mologically the word indicates a self-closing vessel (avrbs, self, and 
clavis, key, or clavus, nail), in which the tightness of the joints 
is maintained by the internal pressure, but this characteristic 
is frequently wanting in the actual apparatus to which the name 
is applied. The prototype of the autoclave was the digester of 
Denis Papin, invented in 1681, which is still used in cooking, 
but the appliance finds a much wider range of employment in 
chemical industry, where it is utilized in various forms in the 
manufacture of candles, coal-tar colours, &c. Frequently an 
agitator, passing through a stuffing-box, is fitted so that the 



contents may be stirred, and renewable linings are provided in 
cases where the substances under treatment exert a corrosive 
action on metal. 

AUTOCRACY (Gr. avroKparua, absolute power), a term 
applied to that form of government which is absolute or irre- 
sponsible, and vested in one single person. It is a type of 
government usually found amongst eastern peoples; amongst 
more civilized nations the only example is that of Russia, where 
the sovereign assumes as a title " the autocrat of all the 
Russias." 

AUTO-DA-FE\ more correctly Atjto-de-fe (act of faith), the 
name of the ceremony during the course of which the sentences 
of the Spanish inquisition were read and executed. The auto- 
da-fe was almost identical with the sermo generalis of the medieval 
inquisition. It never took place on a feast day of the church, 
but on some famous anniversary: the accession of a Spanish 
monarch, his marriage, the birth of an infant, &c. It was public : 
the king, the royal family, the grand councils of the kingdom, 
the court and the people being present. The ceremony comprised 
a procession in which the members of the Holy Office, with its 
familiars and agents, the condemned persons and the penitents 
took part; a solemn mass; an oath of obedience to the inquisi- 
tion, taken by the king and all the lay functionaries; a sermon 
by the Grand Inquisitor; and the reading of the sentences, 
either of condemnation or acquittal, delivered by the Holy 
Office. The handing over of impenitent persons, and those who 
had relapsed, to the secular power, and their punishment, did 
not usually take place on the occasion of an auto-da-fe, properly 
so called. Sometimes those who were condemned to the flames 
were burned on the night following the ceremony. The first 
great auto-da-fes were celebrated when Thomas de Torquemada, 
was at the head of the Spanish inquisition (Seville 1482, Toledo 
1486, &c). The last, subsequent to the time of Charles III., 
we* held in secret; moreover, they dealt with only a very small 
number of sentences, of which hardly any were capital. The 
isolated cases of the torturing of a revolutionary priest in Mexico 
in 1816, and of a relapsed Jew and of a Quaker in Spain during 
1826, cannot really be considered as auto-da-fes. (P. A.) 

AUTOGAMY (from Gr. avros, self, and ya/iia, marriage), 
a botanical term for self-fertilization. (See Angiosferms.) 

AUTOGENY, AUTOGENOUS (Gr. avroyevris), spontaneous 
generation, self-produced. Haeckel distinguished autogeny and 
plasmogeny, applying the former term when the formative fluid 
in which the first living matter was supposed to arise was in- 
organic and the latter when it was organic, i.e. contained the 
requisite fundamental substances dissolved in the form of 
complicated and fluid combinations of carbon. In " autogenous 
soldering " two pieces of metal are united by the melting of the 
opposing surfaces, without the use of a separate fusible alloy 
or solder as a cementing material. 

AUTOGRAPHS. Autograph (Gr. avros, self, yphfaiv, to 
write) is a term applied by common usage either to a document 
signed by the person from whom it emanates, or to one written 
entirely by the hand of such person (which, however, is also 
more technically described as holograph, from oXos, entire, 
ypa<S>eiv, to write), or simply to an independent signature. 

The existence of autographs must necessarily have been 
coeval with the invention of letters. Documents in the hand- 
writing of their composers may possibly exist among the early 
papyri of Egypt and the clay tablets of Babylonia and Assyria, 
and among the early examples of writing in the East. But the 
oriental practice of employing professional ' scribes in writing 
the body of documents and of using seals for the purpose of 
" signing " (the " signum " originally meaning the impression 
of the seal) almost precludes the idea. When we are told (1 Kings 
xxi. 8) that Jezebel wrote letters in Ahab's name and sealed 
them with his seal, we are, of course, .to understand that the 
letters were written by the professional scribes and that 
the impression of the king's seal was the authentication, 
equivalent to the signature of western nations; and again, 
when King Darius " signed " the writing and the decree (Dan. 
vi. 9), he did so with his seal. To find documents which we can 



4 6 



AUTOGRAPHS 



recognize with certainty to be autographs, we must descend 
to the Ptolemaic and Roman periods of Egyptian history, which 
are represented by an abundance of papyrus documents of all 
kinds, chiefly in Greek. Among them are not a few original 
letters and personal documents, in which we may see the hand- 
writing of many lettered and unlettered individuals who lived 
during the 3rd century B.C. and in succeeding times, and which 
prove how very widespread was the practice of writing in those 
days. We owe it to the dry and even atmosphere of Egypt that 
these written documents have been preserved in such numbers. 
On the other hand, in Italy and Greece ancient writings have 
perished, save the few charred papyrus rolls and waxen tablets 
which have been recovered from the ruins of Herculaneum and 
Pompeii. These tablets, however, have a special value, for many 
of them contain autograph signatures of principals and witnesses 
to legal deeds to which they were attached, together with im- 
pressions of seals, in compliance with the Roman law which 
required the actual subscriptions, or attested marks, of the 
persons concerned. 

But, when we now speak of autographs and autograph collec- 
tions, we use such terms in a restricted sense and imply documents 
or signatures written by persons of some degree of eminence or 
notoriety in the various ranks and professions of life; and 
naturally the only early autographs in this sense which could 
be expected to survive are the subscriptions and signatures of 
royal personages and great officials attached to important public 
deeds, which from their nature have been more jealously cared 
for than mere private documents. 

Following the Roman practice, subscriptions and signatures 
were required in legal documents in the early centuries of our 
era. Hence we find them in the few Latin deeds on papyrus 
which have come to light in Egypt; we find them on the well- 
known Dacian waxen tablets of the 2nd century; and we^£nd 
them in the series of papyrus deeds from Ravenna and dther 
places in Italy between the 5th and 10th centuries. The same 
practice obtained in the Frankish empire. The Merovingian 
kings, or at least those of them who knew how to write, sub- 
scribed their diplomas and great charters with their own hands; 
and their great officers of state, chancellors and others, counter- 
signed in autograph. The unlettered Merovingian kings made 
use of monograms composed of the letters of their names; and, 
curiously, the illiterate monogram was destined to supersede 
the literate subscriptions. For the monogram was adopted by 
Charlemagne and his successors as a recognized symbol of their 
subscription. It was their signum manuale, their sign manual. 
In courtly imitation of the royal practice, monograms and other 
marks were adopted by official personages, even though they 
could write. The notarial marks of modern times are a survival 
of the practice. By the illiterate other signs, besides the mono- 
gram, came to be employed, such as the cross, &c, as signs 
manual. The monogram was used by French monarchs from 
the reign of Charlemagne to that of Philip the Fair, who died in 
1314. It is very doubtful, however, whether in any instance this 
sign manual was actually traced by the monarch's own hand. 
At the most, the earlier sovereigns appear to have drawn one 
or two strokes in their monograms, which, so far, may be called 
their autographs. But in the later period not even this was 
done; the monogram was entirely the work of the scribe. 
(See Diplomatic.) 

The employment of marks or signs manual went out of general 
use after the 12 th century, in the course of which the affixing 
or appending of seals became the common method of executing 
deeds. But, as education became more general and the practice 
of writing more widely diffused, the usage grew up in the course 
of the 14th century of signing the name-signature as well as of 
affixing the seal; and by the 15th century it had become estab- 
lished, and it remains to the present time. Thus the signum 
manuale had disappeared, except among notaries; but the term 
survived, and by a natural process it was transferred to the 
signature. In the present day it is used to designate the " sign 
manual " or autograph signature of the sovereign. 
The Anglo-Saxon kings of England did not sign their charters, 



their names being invariably written by the official scribes. 
After the Norman conquest, the sign manual, usually a cross, 
which sometimes accompanied the name of the sovereign, may 
in some instances be autograph; but no royal signature is to be 
found earlier than the reign of Richard II. Of the signatures 
of this king there are two examples, of the years 1386 and 1389, 
in the Public Record Office; and there is one, of 1397, in the 
British Museum. Of his father, the Black Prince, there is in the 
Record Office a motto-signature, De par Homont (high courage), 
Ich dene, subscribed to a writ of privy seal of 1370. The kings 
of the Lancastrian line were apparently ready writers. Of the 
handwriting of both Henry IV. and Henry V. there are specimens 
both in the Record Office and in the British Museum. But by 
their time writing had become an ordinary accomplishment. 

Apart from the autographs of sovereigns, those of famous 
men of the early middle ages can hardly be said to exist, or, if they 
do exist, they are difficult to identify. For example, there is 
a charter at Canterbury bearing the statement that it was written 
by Dunstan; but, as there is a duplicate in the British Museum 
with the same statement, it is probable that both the one and 
the other are copies. The autograph MSS. of the chronicles of 
Ordericus Vitalis, of Robert de Monte, and of Sigebert of 
Gembloux are in existence; and among the Cottonian MSS. 
there are undoubtedly autograph writings of Matthew of Paris, 
the English chronicler of Henry III.'s reign. There are certain 
documents in the British Museum in the hand of William of 
Wykeham; and among French archives there are autograph 
writings of the historian Joinville. These are a few instances: 
When we come to such a collection as the famous Paston Letters, 
the correspondence of the Norfolk family of Paston of the 15th 
century, we find therein numerous autographs of historical 
personages of the time. 

From the 16th century onward, we enter the period of modern 
history, and autograph documents of all kinds become plentiful. 
And yet in the midst of this plenty, by a perverse fate, there is 
in certain instances a remarkable dearth. The instance of 
Shakespeare is the most famous. But for three signatures to 
the three sheets of his will, and two signatures to the conveyances 
of property in Blackfriars, we should be without a vestige of 
his handwriting. For certain other signatures, professing to 
be his, inscribed in books, may be dismissed as imitations,. 
Such forgeries come up from time to time, as might be expected, 
and are placed upon the market. The Shakespearean forgeries, 
however, of W. H. Ireland were perpetrated rather with a 
literary intent than as an autographic venture. 

Had autograph collecting been the fashion in Shakespeare's 
days, we should not have had to deplore the loss of his and of 
other great writers' autographs. But the taste had not then 
come into vogue, at least not in England. The series of auto- 
graph documents which were gathered in such a library as that 
of Sir Robert Cotton, now in the British Museum, found their 
way thither on account of their literary or historic interest, and 
not merely as specimens of the handwriting of distinguished 
men. Such a series also as that formed by Philippe de Bethune, 
Comte de Selles et Charost, and his son, in the reign of Louis XIV., 
consisting for the most part of original letters and papers, now 
in the Bibliotheque Nationale, might have been regarded as the 
result of autograph collecting did we not know that it was 
brought together for historical purposes. It was in Germany 
and the Low Countries that the practice appears to have origi- 
nated, chiefly among students and other members of the 
universities, of collecting autograph inscriptions and signatures 
of one's friends in albums, alba amicorum, little oblong pocket 
volumes of which a considerable number have survived, a very 
fair collection being in the British Museum. The earliest 
album in the latter series is the Egerton MS. n 78, beginning 
with an entry of the year 1554- Once the taste was established, 
the collecting of autographs of living persons was naturally 
extended to those of former times; and many collections, 
famous in their day, have been formed, but in most instances 
only to be dispersed again as the owners tired of their fancy or 
as their heirs failed to inherit their tastes along with their 



AUTOLYCUS— AUTOMATIC WRITING 



47 



possessions. The most celebrated collection formed in England 
in recent years is that of the late Mr Alfred Morrison, which still 
remains intact, and which is well known by means of the 
sumptuous catalogue, with its many facsimiles, compiled by 
the owner. 

The rivalry of collectors and the high prices which rare or 
favourite autographs realize have naturally given encouragement 
to the forger. False letters of popular heroes and of popular 
authors, of Nelson, of Burns, of Thackeray, and of others, 
appear from time to time in the market: in some instances 
clever imitations, but more generally too palpably spurious to 
deceive any one with experience. Like the Shakespearean 
forgeries of Ireland, referred to above, the forgeries of Chatterton 
were literary inventions; and both were poor performances. 
One of the cleverest frauds of this nature in modern times was 
the fabrication, in the middle of the 19th century, of a series 
of letters of Byron and Shelley, with postmarks and seals com- 
plete, which were even published as bona fide documents (Brit. 
Mus., Add. MS. 19,377). 

There are many published collections of facsimiles of autographs 
of different nations. Among those published in England the follow- 
ing may be named: — British Autography, by J. Thane (1788-1793, 
with supplement by Daniell, 1854) ; Autographs of Royal, Noble, 
Learned and Remarkable Personages in English History, by J. G. 
Nichols (1829) ; Facsimiles of Original Documents of Eminent 
Literary Characters, by C. J. Smith (1852) ; Autographs of the Kings 
and Queens and Eminent Men of Great Britain, by J. Netherclift 
(I835); One Hundred Characteristic Autograph Letters, by J. Nether- 
clift and Son (1849) ; The Autograph Miscellany, by F. Netherclift 
(1855); The Autograph Souvenir, by F. G. Netherclift and R. Sims 
(1865); The Autographic Mirror (1864-1866); The Handbook of 
Autographs, by F. G. Netherclift (1862) ; The Autograph Album, 
by L. B. Phillips (1866); Facsimiles of Autographs (British Museum 
publication), five series (1896-1900). Facsimiles of autographs also 
appear in the official publications, Facsimiles of National MSS., 
from William the Conqueror to Queen Anne (Master of the Rolls), 
1865-1868; Facsimiles of National MSS. of Scotland (Lord Clerk 
Register), 1867-1871; and Facsimiles of National MSS. of Ireland 
(Public Record Office, Ireland), 1874-1884. (E. M. T.) 

AUTOLYCUS, in Greek mythology, the son of Hermes and 
father of Anticleia, mother of Odysseus. He lived at the foot 
of Mount Parnassus, and was famous as a thief and swindler. On 
one occasion he met his match. Sisyphus, who had lost some 
cattle, suspected Autolycus of being the thief, but was unable 
to bring it home to him, since he possessed the power of changing 
everything that was touched by his hands. Sisyphus accordingly 
burnt his name into the hoofs of his cattle, and, during a visit 
to Autolycus, recognized his property. It is said that on this 
occasion Sisyphus seduced Autolycus's daughter Anticleia, and 
that Odysseus was really the son of Sisyphus, not of Laertes, 
whom Anticleia afterwards married. The object of the story 
is to establish the close connexion between Hermes, the god of 
theft and cunning, and the three persons — Sisyphus, Odysseus, 
Autolycus — who are the incarnate representations of these 
practices. Autolycus is also said to have instructed Heracles 
in the art of wrestling, and to have taken part in the Argonautic 
expedition. 

Iliad, x. 267; Odyssey, xix. 395; Ovid, Metam. xi. 313; Apollo- 
dorus i. 9; Hyginus, Fab. 201. 

AUTOLYCUS OF PITANE, Greek mathematician and astro- 
nomer, probably flourished in the second half of the 4th century 
B.C., since he is said to have instructed Arcesilaus. His extant 
works consist of two treatises; the one, Uepl Kivovfihrjs acfraipas, 
contains some simple propositions on the motion of the sphere, 
the other, Ilepi tmroXSiv ko.1 Sbaeoiv, in two books, discusses 
the rising and setting of the fixed stars. The former treatise is 
historically interesting for the light it throws on the development 
which the geometry of the sphere had already reached even 
before Autolycus and Euclid (see Theodositis or Tripolis). 

There are several Latin versions of Autolycus, a French translation 
by Forcadel (1572), and an admirable edition of the Greek text with 
Latin translation by F. Hultsch (Leipzig, 1885). 

AUTOMATIC WRITING, the name given by students of 
psychical- research to writing performed without the volition 
of the agent. The writing may also take place without any 
consciousness of the words written ; but some automatists are 



aware of the word which they are actually writing, and perhaps 
of two or three words on either side, though there is rarely any 
clear perception of the meaning of the whole. Automatic writing 
may take place when the agent is in a state of trance, spontaneous 
or induced, in hystero-epilepsy or other morbid states; or in a 
condition not distinguishable from normal wakefulness. Auto- 
matic writing has played an important part in the history of 
modern spiritualism. The phenomenon first appeared on a large 
scale in the early days (c. 1850-1860) of the movement in America. 
Numerous writings are reported at that period, many of con- 
siderable length, which purported for the most part to have been 
produced under spirit guidance. Some of these were written in 
" unknown tongues." Of those which were published the most 
notable are Andrew J. Davis's Great Harmania, Charles Linton's 
The Healing of the Nations, and J. Murray Spear's Messages 
from the Spirit Life. 

In England also the early spiritualist newspapers were filled 
with " inspirational " writing, — Pages of the Paraclete, &c. The 
most notable series of English automatic writings are the Spirit 
Teachings of the Rev. W. Stainton Moses. The phenomenon, of 
course, lends itself to deception, but there seems no reason to 
doubt that in the great majority of the cases recorded the writing 
was in reality produced without deliberate volition. In the 
earlier years of the spiritualist movement, a " planchette," a 
little heart-shaped board running on wheels, was employed to 
facilitate the process of writing. 

Of late years, whilst the theory of external inspiration as the 
cause of the phenomenon has been generally discredited, auto- 
matic writing has been largely employed as a method of experi- 
mentally^investiga ting subconscious mental processes. Knowledge 
which had lapsed from the primary consciousness is frequently 
revealed by this means; e.g. forgotten fragments of poetry or 
foreign languages are occasionally given. An experimental 
parallel to this reproduction of forgotten knowledge was devised 
by Edmund Gurney. '.He showed that information communicated 
to a subject in the hypnotic trance could be subsequently 
reproduced through the handwriting, whilst the attention of the 
subject was fully employed in conversing or reading aloud; or 
an arithmetical problem which had been set during the trance 
could be worked out under similar conditions without the apparent 
consciousness of the subject. 

Automatic writing for the most part, no doubt, brings to the 
surface only the debris of lapsed memories and half-formed 
impressions which have never reached the focus of consciousness 
— the stuff that dreams are made of. But there are indications 
in some cases of something more than this. In some spontaneous 
instances the writing produces anagrams, puns, nonsense verses 
and occasional blasphemies or obscenities; and otherwise 
exhibits characteristics markedly divergent from those of the 
normal consciousness. In the well-known case recorded by Th. 
Flournoy {Des Indes & la planete Mars) the automatist produced 
writing in an unknown character, which purported to be the 
Martian language. The writing generally resembles the ordinary 
handwriting of the agent, but there are sometimes marked 
differences, and the same automatist may employ two or three 
distinct handwritings. Occasionally imitations are produced of 
the handwriting of other persons, living or dead. Not infrequently 
the writing is reversed, so that it can be read only in a looking- 
glass (Spiegelschrift) ; the ability to produce such writing is 
often associated with the liability to spontaneous somnambulism. 
The hand and arm are often insensible in the act of writing. 
There are some cases on record in which the automatist has seemed 
to guide his hand not by sight, but by some special extension of 
the muscular sense (Carpenter, Mental Physiology, § 128; W. 
James, Proceedings American S.P.R. p. 554). 

Automatic writing frequently exhibits indications of telepathy. 
The most remarkable series of automatic writings recorded in this 
connexion are those executed by the American medium, Mrs 
Piper, in a state of trance ( Proceedings S. P. R.). These writings 
appear to exhibit remarkable telepathic powers, and are thought 
by some to indicate communication with the spirits of the 
dead. 



.8 



AUTOMATISM— AUTONOMY 



The opportunities afforded by automatic writing for communi- 
cating with subconscious strata of the personality have been 
made use of by Pierre Janet and others in cases of hystero- 
epilepsy, and other forms of dissociation of consciousness. 
A patient in an attack of hysterical convulsions, to whom oral 
appeals are made in vain, can sometimes be induced to answer in 
writing questions addressed to the hand, and thus to reveal the 
secret of the malady or to accept therapeutic suggestions. 

See Edmonds and Dexter, Spiritualism (New York, 1853); Epes 
Sargent, Planchette, th-e Despair of Science (Boston, U.S.A., 1869) ; 
Mrs de Morgan, From Matter to Spirit (London, 1863) ; W. Stainton 
Moses, Spirit Teachings (London, 1883) ; Proceedings S.P R. passim; 
Th. Flournoy, Des Ind.es & la planete Mars (Geneva, 1900) ; F. Pod- 
more, Modern Spiritualism (London, 1902) ; F. W. H. Myers, 
Human Personality (London, 1903) ; Pierre Janet, L'Automalisme 
psychologique (2nd ed., Paris, 1894) ; Morton Prince, The Dissocia- 
tion of a Personality (London, 1906). (F. P.) 

AUTOMATISM. In philosophical terminology this word is 
used in two main senses: (1) in ethics, for the view that man 
is not responsible for his actions, which have, therefore, no moral 
value; (2) in psychology, for all actions which are not the result 
of conation or conscious endeavour. Certain actions being 
admittedly automatic, Descartes maintained that, in regard of 
the lower animals, all action is purely mechanical. The same 
theory has since been applied to man, with this difference that, 
accompanying the mechanical phenomena of- action, and entirely 
disconnected with it, are the phenomena of consciousness. Thus 
certain physical changes in the brain result in a given action; 
the concomitant mental desire or volition is in no sense causally 
connected with, or prior to, the physical change. This theory, 
which has been maintained by T. Huxley (Science and Culture) 
and Shadworth Hodgson (Metaphysic of Experience and Theory 
of Practice) , must be distinguished from that of the psychophysical 
parallelism, or the " double aspect theory " according to which 
both the mental state and the physical phenomena result from a 
so-called " mind stuff," or single substance, the material or cause 
of both. 

Automatic acts are of two main kinds. Where the action 
goes on while the attention is focused on entirely different 
subjects (e.g. in cycling), it is purely automatic. On the other 
hand, if the attention is fixed on the end or on any particular 
part of a given action, and the other component parts of the action 
are performed unconsciously, the automatism may be called 
relative. 

See G. F. Stout, Anal. Psych, i. 258 foil.; Wm. James, Princ. 
of Psych, i. chap. 5; also the articles Psychology, Suggestion, 
&c. 

Sensory Automatism is the term given by students of psychical 
research to a centrally initiated hallucination. Such hallucina- 
tions are commonly provoked by crystal-gazing (q.v.), but 
auditory hallucinations may be caused by the use of a shell 
(shell-hearing), and the other senses are occasionally affected. 

Motor Automatism, on the other hand, is a non-reflex move- 
ment of a voluntary muscle, executed in the waking state but not 
controlled by the ordinary waking consciousness. Phenomena 
of this kind play a large part in primitive ceremonies of divina- 
tion (q.v.) and in our own day furnish muck of the material of 
Psychical Research. At the lowest level we have vague move- 
ments of large groups of muscles, as in " bier-divination," where 
the murderer or his residence is inferred from the actions of the 
bearers; of a similar character but combined with more specialized 
action are many kinds of witch seeking. These more specialized 
actions are most typically seen in the Divining Rod (q.v.; see 
also T able-Turning), which indicates the presence of water 
and is used among the uncivilized to trace criminals. At a 
higher stage still we have the delicate movements necessary for 
Automatic Writing (q.v.) or Drawing. A parallel case to 
Automatic Writing is the action of the speech centres, resulting 
in the production of all kinds of utterances from trance speeches 
in the ordinary language of the speaker to mere unintelligible 
babblings. An interesting form of speech automatism is known 
as Glossolalia; in the typical case of Helene Smith, Th. Flournoy 
has shown that these utterances may reach a higher plane and 



form a real language, which is, however, based on one already 
known to the speaker. 

See Man (1904), No. 68; Folklore, xiii. 134; Myers in Proc. 
S.P.R. ix. 26, xii. 277, xv. 403 ; Flournoy, Des Indes a la planete 
Mars and in Arch, de Psychologie; Myers, Human Personality. 

(N. W. T.) 

AUTOMATON (from avTos, self, and fiaw, to seize), a self-moving 
machine, or one in which the principle of motion is contained 
within the mechanism itself. According to this description, 
clocks, watches and all machines of a similar kind, are automata, 
but the word is generally applied to contrivances which simulate 
for a time the motions of animal life. If the human figure and 
actions be represented, the automaton has sometimes been called 
specially an androides. We have very early notices of the con- 
struction of automata, e.g. the tripods of Vulcan, and the moving 
figures of Daedalus. In 400 B.C., Archytas of Tarentum is said 
to have made a wooden pigeon that could fly, and during the 
middle ages numerous instances of the construction of automata 
are recorded. Regiomontanus is said to have made of iron a fly, 
which would flutter round the room and return to his hand, 
and also an eagle, which flew before the emperor Maximilian 
when he was entering Nuremberg. Roger Bacon is said to have 
forged a brazen head which spoke, and Albertus Magnus to have 
had an androides, which acted as doorkeeper, and was broken 
to pieces by Aquinas. Of these, as of some later instances, e.g. 
the figure constructed by Descartes and the automata exhibited 
by Dr Camus, not much is accurately known. But in the 
18th century, Jacques de Vaucanson, the celebrated mechanician, 
exhibited three admirable figures, — the flute-player, the tam- 
bourine-player, and the duck, which was capable of eating, 
drinking, and imitating exactly the natural voice of that fowl. 
The means by which these results had been produced were 
clearly seen, and a great impulse was given to the construction 
of similar figures. Knauss exhibited at Vienna an automaton 
which wrote; a father and son named Droz constructed several 
ingenious mechanical figures which wrote and played music; 
Frederick Kaufmann and Leonard Maelzel made automatic 
trumpeters who could play several marches. The Swiss have 
always been celebrated for their mechanical ingenuity, and they 
construct most of the curious toys, such as flying and singing 
birds, which are frequently met with in industrial exhibitions. 
The greatest difficulty has generally been experienced in devising 
any mechanism which shall successfully simulate the human 
voice (not to be compared with the gramophone, which repro- 
duces mechanically a real voice). No attempt has been 
thoroughly successful, though many have been made. A figure 
exhibited by Fabermann of Vienna remains the best. Kempelen's 
famous chess-player for many years astonished and puzzled 
Europe. This figure, however, was no true automaton, although 
the mechanical contrivances for concealing the real performer 
and giving effect to his desired movements were exceedingly 
ingenious. J. N. Maskelyne, in more recent times (1875-1880), 
has been prominent in exhibiting his automata, Psycho (who 
played cards) and Zoe (who drew pictures), at the Egyptian 
Hall, London, but the secret of these contrivances was well kept. 
(See Conjuring.) 

AUTOMORPHISM (from Gr. avros, self, and juop<^, form), the 
conception and interpretation of other people's habits and ideas 
on the analogy of one's own. 

AUTONOMY (Gr. airos, self, and vo/mk, law), in general, 
freedom from external restraint, self-government. The term is 
usually coupled with a qualifying adjective. Thus, political 
autonomy is self-government in its widest sense, independence 
of all control from without. Local autonomy is a freedom of 
self-government within a sphere marked out by some superior 
authority; e.g. municipal corporations in England have their 
administrative powers marked out for them by acts of parliament, 
and in so far as they govern themselves within these limits 
exercise local autonomy. Administrative or constitutional 
autonomy, such as exists in the British colonies, implies an 
extent of self-government which falls short only of complete 
independence. The term is used loosely even in the case of e.g. 
religious bodies, individual churches and other communities 



AUTOPSY— AUVERGNE 



49 



which ; enjoy a measure of self-government in certain specified 
respects. 

In philosophy, the term (with its antithesis " heteronomy ") 
was applied by Kant to that aspect of the rational will in which, 
qua rational, it is a law to itself, independently alike of any 
external authority, of the results of experience and of the im- 
pulses of pleasure and pain. In the sphere of morals, the ultimate 
and only authority which the mind can recognize is the law 
which emerges from the pure moral consciousness. This is the 
only sense in which moral freedom can be understood. (See 
Ethics; Kant.) Though the term "autonomy" in its fullest 
sense implies entire freedom from causal necessity, it can also 
be used even in determinist theories for relative independence 
Of particular conditions, theological or conventional. 

AUTOPSY (Gr. avros, self, and <tyis, sight, investigation), 
a personal examination, specifically a post-mortem ("after 
death ") examination of a dead body, to ascertain the cause of 
death, &c. The term " necropsy " (Gr. vtKpos, corpse) is 
sometimes used in this sense. (See Coroner and Medical 
Jurisprudence.) 

' AUTRAN, JOSEPH (1813-1877), French po«t, was born at 
Marseilles on the 20th of June 1813. In 1832 he addressed an 
ode to Lamartine, who was then at Marseilles on his way to the 
East. The elder poet persuaded the young man's father to 
allow him to follow his poetic bent, and Autran remained from 
that time a faithful disciple of Lamartine. His best known 
work is La Mer (1835), remodelled in 1852 as Les Poemes de la 
mer. Ludibria ventis (1838) followed, and the success of these 
two volumes gained for Autran the librarianship of his native 
town. His other most important work is his Vie rurale (1856), 
a series of pictures of peasant life. The Algerian campaigns 
inspired him with verses in honour of the common soldier. 
Milianah (1842) describes the heroic defence of that town, and 
in the same vein is his Laboureurs et soldats (1854). Among his 
other works are the Paroles de Salomon (1868), Epitres rustiques 
(1861), Sonnets capricieux, and a tragedy played with great 
success at the Odeon in 1848, La Fille d'Eschyle. A definitive 
edition of his works was brought out between 1875 and 1881. 
He became a member of the French Academy in 1868, and died 
at Marseilles on the 6th of March 1877. 

• AUTUN, a town of east-central France, capital of an arrondisse- 
ment in the department of Saone-et-Loire, 62 m. S.W. of Dijon 
on the Paris-Lyon railway to Nevers. Pop. (1906) 11,927. 
Autun is pleasantly situated on the slope of a hill at the foot of 
which runs the Arroux. Its former greatness is attested by 
many Roman remains, the chief of which are two well-preserved 
stone gateways, the Porte d' Arroux and the Porte St Andr6, 
both pierced with four archways and surmounted by arcades. 
There are also remains of the old ramparts and aqueducts, of a 
square tower called the Temple of Janus, of a theatre and of an 
amphitheatre. A pyramid in the neighbouring village of 
Couhard was probably a sepulchral monument. The chapel 
of St Nicolas (12th century) contains many of the remains 
discovered at Autun. The cathedral of St Lazare, once the 
chapel attached to the residence of the dukes of Burgundy, is 
in the highest part of the town. It belongs mainly to the 12th 
century, but the Gothic central tower and the chapels were 
added in the 15 th century by Nicolas Rolin, chancellor of 
Burgundy, born at Autun. The chief artistic features of the 
church are the group of the Last Judgment sculptured on the 
tympanum above the west door, and the painting by Ingres 
representing the martyrdom of St Symphorien, which took 
place at Autun in 179. In the cathedral square stands the 
fountain of St Lazare, a work of the Renaissance. The hotel 
Rolin, a house of the 15th century, contains the collections of 
the " Aeduan literary and scientific society." The hotel de 
ville, containing a museum of paintings; the law-court and the 
theatre are modern buildings. Autun is the seat of a bishopric, 
of tribunals of first instance and of commerce, and has an 
ecclesiastical seminary, a communal college and a cavalry school. 
Among the industries of the town are the extraction of oil from 
the bituminous schist obtained in the neighbourhood, leather 



manufacture, metal-founding, marble-working, and the manu- 
facture of machinery and furniture. Autun is the commercial 
centre for a large part of the Morvan, and has considerable 
trade in timber and cattle. 

Autun (Augustodunum) succeeded Bibracte as capital of the 
Aedui when Gaul was reorganized by Augustus. Under the 
Romans, it was a flourishing town, covering double its present 
extent and renowned for its schools of rhetoric. In the succeed- 
ing centuries its prosperity drew upon it the attacks of the 
barbarians, the Saracens and the Normans. The counts of 
Autun in 880 became dukes of Burgundy, and the town was 
the residence of the latter till 1276. It was ravaged by the 
English in 1379, and, in 1591, owing to its support of the League, 
had to sustain a siege conducted by Marshal Jean d'Aumont, 
general of Henry IV. 

See H. de Fontenay, Autun et ses monuments (Autun, 1889). 

AUTUNITE, or Calco-uranite, a mineral which is one of the 
" uranium micas," differing from the more commonly occurring 
torbernite (q.v.) or cupro-uranite in containing calcium in place of 
copper. It is a hydrous uranium and calcium phosphate, 
Ca (U0 2 ) 2 (P0 4 )2+8(or 12)H 2 0. Though closely resembling the 
tetragonal torbernite in form, it crystallizes in the orthorhombic 
system and is optically biaxial. The crystals have the shape 
of thin plates with very nearly square outline (89 17' instead 
of 90 ). An important character is the perfect micaceous 
cleavage parallel to the basal plane, on which plane the lustre 
is pearly. The colour is sulphur-yellow, and this enables the 
mineral to be distinguished at a glance from the emerald-green 
torbernite. Hardness 2-25; specific gravity 3 -05-3 -19. Autunite 
is usually found with pitchblende and other uranium minerals, 
or with ores of silver, tin and iron; it sometimes coats 
joint-planes in gneiss and pegmatite. Falkenstein in Saxony, 
St Symphorien near Autun (hence the name of the species), 
and St Day in Cornwall are well-known localities for this 
mineral. (L. J. S.) 

AUVERGNE, formerly a province of France, corresponding 
to the departments of Cantal and Puy-de-D6me, with the 
arrondissement of Brioude in Haute-Loire. It contains many 
mountains volcanic in origin (Plomb du Cantal, Puy de Dome, 
Mont Dore), fertile valleys such as that of Limagne, vast pasture- 
lands, and numerous medicinal springs. Up to the present 
day the population retains strongly-marked Celtic characteristics. 
In the time of Caesar the Arverni were a powerful confederation, 
the Arvernian Vercingetorix being the most famous of the Gallic 
chieftains who fought against the Romans. Under the empire 
Arvernia formed part of Prima Aquitania, and the district shared 
in the fortunes of Aquitaine during the Merovingian and Caro- 
lingian periods. Auvergne was the seat of a separate countship 
before the end of the 8th century; the first hereditary count 
was William the Pious (886). By the marriage of Eleanor of 
Aquitaine with Henry Plantagenet, the countship passed under 
the suzerainty of the kings of England, but at the same time it 
was divided, William VII., called the Young (1145-1168), having 
been despoiled of a portion of his domain by his uncle William 
VIII., called the Old, who was supported by Henry II. of England, 
so that he only retained the region bounded by the Allier and the 
Coux. It is this district that from the end of the 13 th century 
was called the Dauphine d' Auvergne. This family quarrel 
occasioned the intervention of Philip Augustus, king of France, 
who succeeded in possessing himself of a large part of the country, 
which was annexed to the royal domains under the name of 
Terre d' Auvergne. As the price of his concurrence with the king 
in this matter, the bishop of Clermont, Robert I. (1195-1227), 
was granted the lordship of the town of Clermont, which subse- 
quently became a countship. Such was the origin of the four 
great historic lordships of Auvergne. The Terre d' Auvergne 
was first an appanage of Count Alphonse of Poitiers (1241-1271), 
and in 1360 was erected into a duchy in the peerage of France 
(duche-pairie) by King John II. in favour of his son John, through 
whose daughter the new title passed in 1416 to the house of 
Bourbon. The last duke, the celebrated constable Charles of 
Bourbon, united the domains of the Dauphine to those of the 



50 



AUXANOMETER— AVA 



duchy, but all were confiscated by the crown in consequence 
of the sentence which punished the constable's treason in 1527. 
The countship, however, had passed in 1422 to the house of 
La Tour, and was not annexed to the domain until 1615. The 
administration of the royal province of Auvergne was organized 
under Louis XIV. At the time of the revolution it formed what 
was called a "government," with two divisions: Upper Auvergne 
(Aurillac), and Lower Auvergne (Clermont). 

Bibliography. — Baluze, Histoire genealogique de la maison 
d' 'Auvergne (1708); Andre Imberdis, Histoire generate de V Auvergne 
(1,867); J- B. M. Bielawski, Histoire de la comte d' "Auvergne 'et de 
sa capitate Vic-le-Comte (1868); B. Gonot, Catalogue des ouvrages 
imprimes et manuscrits concernant I 'Auvergne (1849). See further 
Chevalier, Repertoire des sources hist., Topobibliographie, s.v. 

AUXANOMETER (Gr. av^aveLV, to increase, yJtrpov, measure), 
an apparatus for measuring increase or rate of growth in plants. 

AUXENTIUS (fl. c. 370), of Cappadocia, an Arian theologian 
of some eminence (see Arius). When Constantine deposed the 
orthodox bishops who resisted, Auxentius was installed into 
the seat of Dionysius, bishop of Milan, and came to be regarded 
as the great opponent of the Nicene doctrine in the West. So 
prominent did he become, that he was specially mentioned by 
name in the condemnatory decree of the synod which Damasus, 
bishop of Rome, urged by Athanasius, convened in defence 
of the Nicene doctrine (a.d. 369). When the orthodox emperor 
Valentinian ascended the throne, Auxentius was left undisturbed 
in his diocese, but his theological doctrines were publicly attacked 
by Hilary of Poitiers. 

The chief source of information about him is the Liber contra 
Auxentium in the Benedictine edition of the works of Hilary. 

AUXERRE, a town of central France, capital of the department 
of Yonne, 38 m. S.S.E. of Sens on the Paris-Lyon railway, 
between Laroche and Nevers. Pop. (1906) 16,971. Itissituated 
on the slopes and the summit of an eminence on the left bank 
of the Yonne, which is crossed by two bridges leading to suburbs 
on the right bank. The town is irregularly built and its streets 
are steep and narrow, but it is surrounded by wide tree-lined 
boulevards, which have replaced the ancient fortifications, and 
has some fine churches. That of St fitienne, formerly the 
cathedral, is a majestic Gothic building of the 13th to the 16th 
centuries. It is entered by three richly sculptured portals, 
over the middle and largest of which is a rose window; over the 
north portal rises a massive tower, but that which should sur- 
mount the south portal is unfinished. The lateral entrances 
are sheltered by tympana and arches profusely decorated with 
statuettes. The plan consists of a nave, with aisles and lateral 
chapels, transept and choir, with a deambulatory at a slightly 
lower level. Beneath the choir, which is a fine example of early 
Gothic architecture, extends a crypt of the nth century with 
mural paintings of the 12th century. The church has some fine 
stained glass and many pictures and other works of art. The 
ancient episcopal palace, now used as prefecture, stands behind 
the cathedral; it preserves a Romanesque gallery of the 12th 
cen fury.- The church of St Eusebe belongs to the 1 2th, 13th and 
1 6th centuries- O 1 the abbey church of St Germain, built in 
the 13th and 141J 1 centuries, most of the nave has disappeared, 
so that its imposing Romanesque tower stands apart from it; 
crypts of the 9th centm* v contain the tombs of bishops of Auxerre. 
The abbey was once fortified an d a high wall and cylindrical 
tower remain. The buil; din g s ( l8th century) are partly occupied 
by a hospital and a trai; nin g- colle S e - The church of St Pierre, 
in the Renaissance style .§ f the l6tn and *7 th centuries, is con- 
spicuous for the elaborate" "ornamentation of its west facade. 
The old law-court contains -; the museum, with a collection of 
antiquities and paintings, a- nd a library. I n the middle of the 
town is a gateway surmount r ed ^ a be l frv > dating from the 15 th 
century. Auxerre has statue s of Marshal Davout, J. B . J. Fourier 
and Paul Bert, the two latt c er nat ives 0I the town. The town 
is the seat of a court of assiz t es > and has tribunals of first instance 
and of commerce, and a bra, nch of the Bank of France. A lycee 
for girls, a communal collef.° e and training colleges are among its 
educational establishment' s - Manufactures of ochre, of which there 
are quarries in the vicinit v > ar,d of iron goods are carried on. The 



canal of Nivernais reaches as far as Auxerre, which has a busy 
port and carries on boat-building. Trade is principally in the 
choice wine of the surrounding vineyards, and in timber and 
coal. 

Auxerre (Autessiodurum) became the seat of a bishop and a 
civitas in the 3rd century. Under the Merovingian kings the 
abbey of St Germain, named after the 6th bishop, was founded, 
and in the 9th century its schools had made the town a seat of 
learning. The bishopric was suppressed in 1790. 

The countship of Auxerre was granted by King Robert I. 
to his son-in-law Renaud, count of Nevers. It remained in the 
house of Nevers until 1 184, when it passed by marriage to that of 
Courtenay. Other alliances transferred it successively to the 
families of Donzy, Chatillon, Bourbon and Burgundy. Alice 
of Burgundy, countess of Auxerre, married John of Chalons 
(d. 1309), and several counts of Auxerre belonging to the house 
of Chalons distinguished themselves in the wars against the 
English during the 14th century. John II., count of Auxerre, 
was killed at the battle of Crecy (1346), and his grandson, John 
IV., sold his countship to King Charles V. in 1370. 

AUXILIARY (from Lat. auxilium, help), that which gives aid 
or support; the term is used in grammar of a verb which 
completes the tense, mood or voice of another verb; in engineer- 
ing, e.g. of the low steam power used to supplement the sail- 
power in sailing ships, still occasionally used in yachts, sealers 
or whalers; and in military use, of foreign or allied troops, 
more properly of any troops not permanently maintained 
under arms. In the British army the term " Auxiliary Forces " 
was employed formerly to include the Militia, the Imperial 
Yeomanry and the Volunteers. 

AUXIMUM (mod. Osimo) , an ancient town in Picenum, situated 
on an isolated hill 8 m. from the Adriatic, on the road from 
Ancona to Nuceria. It was selected by the Romans as a fortress 
to protect their settlements in northern Picenum, and strongly 
fortified in 174 B.C. The walls erected at that period, of large 
rectangular blocks of stone, still exist in great part. Auximum 
became a colony at latest in 157 B.C. It often appears in the 
history of the civil wars, owing to its strong position. Pompey 
was its patron, and intended that Caesar should find resistance 
here in 49 B.C. It appears to have been a place of some im- 
portance in imperial times', as inscriptions and the monuments 
of its forum (the present piazza) show. In the 6th century it is 
called by Procopius the chief town of Picenum, Ancona being 
spoken of as its harbour. (T. As.) 

AUXONNE, a town of eastern France, in the department 
of Cote d'Or, 19 m. E.S.E. of Dijon on the Paris-Lyon rail- 
way to Belfort. Pop. (1906) 2766 (town); 6307 (commune). 
Auxonne is a quiet town situated in a wide plain on the left bank 
of the Saone. It preserves remains of ramparts, a stronghold of 
the 16th century flanked by cylindrical towers, and a sculptured 
gateway of the 15th century. Vauban restored these works in 
the latter half of the 17th century, and built the arsenal now used 
as a market. The church of Notre-Dame dates from the 14th 
century. Of the two towers surmounting its triple porch only 
that to the south is finished. A lofty spire rises above a third 
tower over the crossing. The hotel de ville (15 th century) and 
some houses of the Renaissance period are also of architectural 
interest. A statue of Napoleon I. as a sub-lieutenant com- 
memorates his sojourns in the town from 1788 to 1791. Auxonne 
has a tribunal of commerce and a communal college. Its 
industries are unimportant, but it has a large trade in the vege- 
tables produced by the numerous market gardens in the vicinity. 

Auxonne, the name of which is derived from its position on 
the Sa6ne (ad Sonam), was in the middle ages chief place of a 
countship, which in the first half of the 13th century passed to 
the dukes of Burgundy. The town received a charter in 1229 
and derived some importance from the mint which the dukes of 
Burgundy founded in it. It was invested by the allies in 1814, 
and surrendered to an Austrian force in the following year. 

AVA, the ancient capital of the Burman empire, now a 
subdivision of the Sagaing district in the Sagaing division of 
Upper Burma. It is situated on the Irrawaddy on the opposite 



AVADANA— AVEBURY 



5i 



bank to Sagaing, with which it was amalgamated in 1889. 
Amarapura, another ancient capital, lies 5 m. to the north-east 
of Ava, and Mandalay, the present capital, 6 m. to the north. 
The classical name of Ava is Yadanapura, " the city of precious 
gems." It was founded by Thadomin Paya in a.d. 1364 as 
successor to Pagan, and the religious buildings of Pagan were to 
a certain extent reproduced here, although on nothing like the 
same scale as regards either size or splendour. It remained the 
seat of government for about four centuries with a succession of 
thirty kings. In 1782 a new capital, Amarapura, was founded 
by Bodaw Paya, but was deserted again in favour of Ava by King 
Baggidaw in 1823. On his deposition by King Tharawaddi 
in 1837, the capital reverted to Amarapura; but finally in i860 
the last capital of Mandalay was occupied by King Mindon. 
For picturesque beauty Ava is unequalled in Burma, but it is 
now more like a park than the site of an old capital. Traces of 
the great council chamber and various portions of the royal palace 
are still visible, but otherwise the secular buildings are completely 
destroyed; and most of the religious edifices are also dilapidated. 

AVADANA, the name given to a type of Buddhist romance 
literature represented by a large number of Sanskrit (Nepalese) 
collections, of which the chief are the Avadanasataka (Century 
of Legends), and the Divyavadana (The Heavenly Legend). 
Though of later date than most of the canonical Buddhist books, 
they are held in veneration by the orthodox, and occupy much 
the same position with regard to Buddhism that the Puranas 
do towards Brahminism. 

AVAHI, the native name of a Malagasy lemur (Avakis laniger) 
nearly allied to the indri (q.v.), and the smallest representative 
of the subfamily Indrisinae, characterized by its woolly coat, and 
measuring about 28 in. in length, of which rather more than half 
is accounted for by the tail. Unlike the other members of the 
group, the avahi is nocturnal, and does not associate in small 
troops, but is met with either alone or in pairs. Very slow in 
its movements, it rarely descends to the ground, but, when it does, 
walks upright like the other members of the group. It is found 
throughout the forests which clothe the mountains on the east 
coast of Madagascar, and also in a limited district on the north- 
west coast, the specimens from the latter locality being of smaller 
size and rather different in colour. The eastern phase is generally 
rusty red above, with the inner sides of the limbs white; while 
the predominant hue in the western form is usually yellowish 
brown. (See Primates.) (R. L.*) 

AVALANCHE (adopted from a French dialectic form, avalance, 
descent), a mass of snow and ice mingled with earth and stones, 
which rushes down a mountain side, carrying everything before 
it, and producing a strong wind which uproots trees on each side 
of its course. Where the supply of snow exceeds the loss by 
evaporation the surplus descends the mountain sides, slowly 
in the form of glaciers, or suddenly in ice-falls or in avalanches. 
A mass of snow may accumulate upon a steep slope and become 
compacted into ice by pressure, or remain loosely aggregated. 
When the foundation gives way, owing to the loosening effect 
of spring rains or from any other cause, the whole mass slides 
downward. A very small cause will sometimes set a mass of 
overloaded snow in motion. Thunder or even a loud shout is 
said to produce this effect when the mass is just poised, and 
Swiss guides often enjoin absolute silence when crossing dangerous 
spots. 

AVALLON, a town of central France, capital of an arrondisse- 
ment in the department of Yonne, 34 m. S.S.E. of Auxerre on a 
branch of the Paris-Lyon railway. Pop. (1906) 5197. The 
town, with wide streets and picturesque promenades, is finely 
situated on a promontory, the base of which is washed on the 
south by the Cousin, on the east and west by small streams. 
Its chief building, the church of St Lazare, dates from the 12th 
century. The two western portals are adorned with sculpture 
in the ornate Romanesque style; the tower on the left of the 
facade was rebuilt in the 17th century. The Tour de L'Horloge, 
pierced by a gateway through which passes the Grande Rue, is 
a 15th century structure containing a museum on its second 
floor. Remains of the ancient fortifications, including seven of 



the flanking towers, are still to be seen. Avallon has a statue of 
Vauban, the military engineer. The public institutions include 
the subprefecture, a tribunal of first instance, and a communal 
college. The manufacture of biscuits and gingerbread, and of 
leather and farm implements is carried on, and there is consider- 
able traffic in wood, wine, and the live-stock and agricultural 
produce of the surrounding country. 

Avallon (Aballo) was in the middle ages the seat of a viscounty 
dependent on the duchy of Burgundy, and on the death of 
Charles the Bold passed under the royal authority. 

AVALON (also written Avallon, Avollon, Avilion and 
Avelion), in Welsh mythology the kingdom of the dead, after- 
wards an earthly paradise in the western seas, and finally, in the 
Arthurian romances, the abode of heroes to which King Arthur 
was conveyed after his last battle. In Welsh the name is Ynys 
yr Afallon, usually interpreted " Isle of Apples," but possibly 
connected with the Celtic tradition of a king over the dead named 
Avalloc (in Welsh Afallach). If the traditional derivation is 
correct, the name is derived from the Welsh afal, an apple, and, 
as no other large fruit was well known to the races of northern 
Europe, is probably intended to symbolize the feasting and 
enjoyments of elysium. Other forms of the name are Ynysvitrin 
and Ynysgutrin, " Isle of Glass " — which appear to be identical 
with Glasberg, the Teutonic kingdom of the dead. Perhaps 
owing to a confusion between Glasberg or Ynysvitrin and the 
Anglo-Saxon Glaestinga-burh, Glastonbury, the name " Isle of 
Avalon " was given to the low ridge in central Somersetshire 
which culminates in Glastonbury Tor, while Glastonbury itself 
came to be called Avalon. Attempts have also been made to 
identify Avalon with other places in England and Wales. 

See Studies in the Arthurian Legend, by J. Rhys (Oxford, 1891) ; 
also Arthur (King) ; Atlantis. 

AVARAY, a French territorial title belonging to a family 
some of whose members have been conspicuous in history. The 
Bearnaise family named Besiade moved into the province of 
Orleanais in the 17 th century, and there acquired the estate of 
Avaray. In 1667 Theophile de Besiade, marquis d'Avaray, 
obtained the office of grand bailiff of Orleans, which was held by 
several of his descendants after him. Claude Antoine de Besiade, 
marquis d'Avaray, was deputy for the bailliage of Orleans in 
the states-general of 1789, and proposed a Declaration of the 
Duties of Man as a pendant to the Declaration of the Rights of 
Man; he subsequently became a lieutenant-general in 1814, 
a peer of France in 1815, and due d'Avaray in 1818. Antoine 
Louis Frangois, comte d'Avaray, son of the above, distinguished 
himself during the Revolution by his devotion to the comte de 
Provence, afterwards Louis XVIII. , whose emigration he 
assisted. Having nominally become king in 1799, that prince ' 
created the estate of Ile-Jourdain a duchy, under the title of 
Avaray, in favour of the comte d'Avaray, whom he termed his 
"liberator." ' (M. P.*) 

AVARS, or Avari, an East Caucasian people, the most renowned 
of the Lesghian tribes, inhabiting central Daghestan (see 
Lesghians). They are the only Lesghian tribe who possess a 
written language, for which they make use of the Arabic char- 
acters. They are often confused with the Avars whose empire 
on the Danube was broken by Charlemagne; but Komarov 
asserts that they are of more recent origin as a tribe, their name 
being Lowland Turki for " vagrant " or " refugee." 

AVATAR, a Sanskrit word meaning " descent," specially 
used in Hindu mythology (and so in English) to express the 
incarnation of a deity visiting the earth for any purpose. The 
ten Avatars of Vishnu are the most famous. The Hindus 
believe he has appeared (1) as a fish, (2) as a tortoise, (3) as a 
hog, (4) as a monster, half man half lion, to destroy the giant 
Iranian, (5) as a dwarf, (6) as Rama, (7) again as Rama for the 
purpose of killing the thousand-armed giant Cartasuciriargunan, 
(8) as Krishna, (9) as Buddha. They allege that the tenth 
Avatar has yet to occur and will be in the form of a white- winged 
horse (Kalki) who will destroy the earth. 

AVEBURY, JOHN LUBBOCK, ist Baron (1834- ), 
English banker, politician and naturalist, was born in London 



52 



AVEBURY— AVELLA 



on the 30th of April 1834, the son of Sir John William Lubbock, 
3rd baronet, himself a highly distinguished man of science. 
John Lubbock was sent to Eton in 1845; but three years later 
was taken into his father's bank, and became a partner at 
twenty-two. In 1865 he succeeded to the baronetcy. His love 
of science kept pace with his increasing participation in public 
affairs. He served on commissions upon coinage and other 
financial questions; and at the same time acted as president 
of the Entomological Society and of the Anthropological 
Institute. Early in his career several banking reforms of great 
importance were due to his initiative, while such works as 
Prehistoric Times (1865) and The Origin of Civilization (1870) 
were proceeding from his pen. In 1870, and again in 1874, he was 
elected a member of parliament for Maidstone. He lost the 
seat at the election of 1880; but was at once elected member 
for London University, of which he had been vice-chancellor 
since 1872. He carried numerous enactments in parliament, 
including the Bank Holidays Act 1871, and bills dealing with 
absconding debtors, shop hours regulations, public libraries, 
open spaces, and the preservation of ancient monuments, and 
he proved himself an indefatigable and influential member of 
the Unionist party. A prominent supporter of the Statistical 
Society, he took an active part in criticizing the encroachment 
of municipal trading and the increase of the municipal debt. 
He was elected the first president of the Institute of Bankers in 
1879; in 1881 he was president of the British Association, and 
from 1881 to 1886 president of the Linnaean Society. He 
received honorary degrees from the universities of Oxford, 
Cambridge (where he was Rede lecturer in 1886), Edinburgh, 
Dublin and Wiirzburg; and in 1878 was appointed a trustee 
of the British Museum. From 1888 to 1892 he was president 
of the London Chamber of Commerce; from 1889 to 1890 vice- 
chairman and from 1890 to 1892 chairman of the London County 
Council. During the same period he served on royal commissions 
on education and on gold and silver. In 1890 he was appointed 
a privy councillor; and was chairman of the committee of 
design on the new coinage in 1891. In 1900 he was raised to 
the peerage, under the title of Baron Avebury, and he continued 
to play a leading part in public life, not only by the weight of 
his authority on many subjects, but by the readiness with which 
he lent his support to movements for the public benefit. Among 
other matters he was a prominent advocate of proportional 
representation. As an original author and a thoughtful 
popularizer of natural history and philosophy he had few rivals 
in his day, as is evidenced by the number of editions issued of 
many of his writings, among which the most widely-read have 
been: The Origin and Metamorphoses of Insects (1873), British 
Wild Flowers (1875), Ants, Bees and Wasps (1882), Flowers, 
Fruit and Leaves (1886), The Pleasures of Life (1887), The Senses, 
Instincts and Intelligence of Animals (1888), The Beauties of 
Nature (1892), The Use of Life (1894). 

AVEBURY, a village in the Devizes parliamentary division 
of Wiltshire, England, on the river Kennet, 8 m. by road from 
Marlborough. The fine church of St James contains an early 
font with Norman carving, a rich Norman doorway, a painted 
reredos, and a beautiful old roodstone in good preservation. 
Avebury House is Elizabethan, with a curious stone dovecot. 
The village has encroached upon the remains of a huge stone 
circle (not quite circular), surrounded by a ditch and rampart 
of earth, and once approached by two avenues of monoliths. 
Within the larger circle were two smaller ones, placed not in the 
axis of the great one but on its north-eastern side, each of which 
consisted of a double concentric ring of stones; the centre being 
in one case a menhir or pillar, in the other a dolmen or tablestone 
resting on two uprights. Few traces remain, as the monoliths 
have been largely broken up for building purposes. The circle 
is the largest specimen of primitive stone monuments in Britain, 
measuring on the average 1 200 ft. in diameter. The stones are 
all the native Sarsens which occur everywhere in the district, 
and show no evidence of having been hewn. Those still re- 
maining vary in size from 5 to 20 ft. in height above ground, 
and from 3 to 12 ft. in breadth. As in the case of Stonehenge, 



the purpose for which the Avebury monument was erected 
has been the source of much difference of opinion among anti- 
quaries, Dr Stukely (Stonehenge a Temple restored to the British 
Druids, 1740) regarding it as a Druidical temple, while Fergusson 
(Rude Stone Monuments, 1872) believed that it, as well as Silbury 
Hill, marks the site of the graves of those who fell in the last 
Arthurian battle at Badon Hill (a.d. 520). The majority of anti- 
quaries, however, see no reason for dissociating its chronological 
horizon from that of the numerous other analogous monuments 
found in Great Britain, many of which have been shown to be 
burial places of the Bronze Age. Excavations were carried out 
here in 1908, but without throwing any important new light on 
the monument. 

There are many barrows on the neighbouring downs, besides 
traces of a double oval of monoliths on Hackpen hill, and the 
huge mound of Silbury Hill. Waden Hill, to the south, has been, 
like Badbury, identified with Badon Hill, which was the tradi- 
tional scene of the twelfth and last great battle of King Arthur 
in 520. The Roman road from Winchester to Bath skirts the 
south side of Silbury Hill. 

At the time of the Domesday Survey, the church of Avebury 
(Avreberie, Abury), with two hides attached, was held in chief 
by Rainbold, a priest, and was bestowed by Henry III. on the 
abbot and monks of Cirencester, who continued to hold it until 
the reign of Henry VIII. The manor of Avebury was granted 
in the reign of Henry I. to the Benedictine monks of St George 
of Boucherville in Normandy, and a cell from that abbey was 
subsequently established here. In consequence of the war 
with France in the reign of Edward III., this manor was annexed 
by the crown, and was conferred on the newly founded college 
of New College, Oxford, together with all the possessions, 
spiritual and temporal, of the priory. 

AVEIA, an ancient town of the Vestini, on the Via Claudia 
Nova, 6 m. S.E. of Aquila, N.E. of the modern village of Fossa. 
Some remains of ancient buildings still exist, and the name 
Aveia still clings to the place. The identification was first 
made by V. M. Giovenazzi, Delia Citta di Aveia ne' Vestini 
(Rome, 1773). Paintings in the church of S. Maria ad Cryptas, 
of the 12th to 15th centuries, are important in the history of art. 
An inscription of a stationarius of the 3rd century, sent here on 
special duty (no doubt for the suppression of brigandage) , was 
found here in 1902 (A. von Domaszewski, Rom. Mitt., 1902, 330). 

AVEIRO, a seaport, episcopal see, and the capital of an 
administrative district, formerly included in the province of Beira, 
Portugal; on the river Vouga, and the Lisbon-Oporto railway. 
Pop. (1900) 9979. Aveiro is built on the southern shore of a 
marshy lagoon, containing many small islands, and measuring 
about 15 m. from north to south, with an average breadth of 
about 1 m. The Barra Nova, an artificial canal about 33 ft. 
deep, was constructed between 1801 and 1808, and gives access to 
the Atlantic ocean. The local industries include the preparation 
of sea-salt, the catching and curing of fish, especially sardines 
and oysters, and the gathering of aquatic plants (moliqo) . There 
is also a brisk trade in wine, oil and fruit; while the Aveiro 
district contains copper and lead mines, besides much good 
pasture-land. 

Aveiro is probably the Roman Talabriga. In the 1 6th century 
it was the birthplace of Joao Affonso, one of the first navigators 
to visit the fishing-grounds of Newfoundland; and it soon 
became famous for its fleet of more than sixty vessels, which 
sailed yearly to that country, and returned laden with dried 
codfish. During the same century the cathedral was built, and 
the city was made a duchy. The title " duke of Aveiro " became 
extinct when its last holder, Dom Jose Mascarenhas e Lancaster, 
was burned alive for high treason, in 1759. The administrative 
district of Aveiro coincides with the north-western part of the 
province of Beira; pop. (1900)303,169; area, 1065 sq. m. '':'■- 

AVELLA (anc. Abella), a city of Campania, Italy, in the 
province of Avellino, 23 m. N.E. of Naples by rail. Pop. (i9or) 
4107. It is finely situated in fertile territory and its nuts (nuces 
A bellanae) and fruit were renowned in Roman days. About 2 m. 
to the north-east lies Avella Vecchia, the ancient Abella, regarded 



AVELLINO— AVENTINUS 



53 



by the ancients as a Chalcidian colony. An important Oscan 
inscription relates to a treaty with Nola, regarding a joint temple 
of Hercules, attributable to the 2nd century B.C. Under the 
early empire it had already become a colony and had perhaps 
been one since the time of Sulla. It has remains of the walls of 
the citadel and of an amphitheatre, and lay on the road from 
Nola to Abellinum, which was here perhaps joined by a branch 
from Suessula. 
See J. Beloch, Campanien (2nd ed., Breslau, 1890), 411 seq. 

(T.As.) 

AVELLINO, a city and episcopal see of Campania, Italy, the 
capital of the province of Avellino,n5o ft. above sea-level, 28 m. 
direct and 59 m. by rail E.N.E. of Naples, at the foot of Monte 
Vergine. Pop. (1901) 23,760. There are ruins of the castle 
constructed in the 9th or 10th century, in which the antipope 
Anacletus II. crowned Count Roger II. king of Sicily and Apulia. 
Avellino is the junction of lines to Benevento and Rocchetta S. 
Antonio. The name is derived from the ancient Abellinum, the 
ruins of which lie 2§ m. north-east, close to the village of Atri- 
palda, and consist of remains of city walls and an amphitheatre in 
opus reticulatum, i.e. of the early imperial period, when Abellinum 
appears to have been the chief place of a tribe, to which belonged 
also the independent communities of the A bellinates cognomine 
Protropi among the Hirpini, and the Abellinates cognominati 
Marsi among the Apulians (Nissen, Italische Landeskunde, ii.822). 
It lay on the boundary of Campania and the territory of the 
Hirpini, at the junction of the roads from Nola (and perhaps 
also from Suessula) and Salernum to Beneventum. 

The Monte Vergine (4165 ft.) lies 4 m. to the N.W. of Avellino; 
upon the summit is a sanctuary of the Virgin, founded in 11 19, 
which contains a miraculous picture attributed to S. Luke 
(the greatest festival is on the 8th of September). The present 
church is baroque in style, but contains some works of art of 
earlier periods. The important archives have been transported 
to Naples. (T. As.) 

AVEMPACE [Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Yahya, known as 
Ibn Bajja or Ibn Sa'igh, i.e. son of the goldsmith, the name 
being corrupted by the Latins into Avempace, Avenpace or 
Aben Pace], the earliest and one of the most distinguished of 
the Arab philosophers of Spain. Little is known of the details 
of his life. He was born probably at Saragossa towards the close 
of the nth century. According to Ibn Khaqan, a contemporary 
writer, he became a student of the exact sciences and was also a 
musician and a poet. But he was a philosopher as well, and 
apparently a sceptic. He is said to have rejected the Koran, to 
have denied the return to God, and to have regarded death as the 
end of existence. But even in that orthodox age he became 
vizier to the amir of Murcia. Afterwards he went to Valencia, 
then to Saragossa. After the fall of Saragossa (1 1 19) he went to 
Seville, then to Xativa, where he is said to have returned to Islam 
to save his life. Finally he retired to the Almoravid court at 
Fez, where he was poisoned in 1138. Ibn 'Usaibi ' a gives a list 
of twenty-five of his works, but few of these remain. He had 
a distinct influence upon Averroes (see Arabian Philosophy). 
■ For his life see M'G. de Slane's trans, of Ibn Khallikan's Bio- 
graphical Dictionary (Paris and London, 1842), vol. iii. pp. 130 ff., 
and Ibn 'Usaibi'a's biography translated in P. de Gayangos' edition 
of the History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain, by al-Maqqari 
(London, 1840), vol. ii., appendix, p. xii. List of extant works in 
C. Brockelmann's Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur, vol. i. p. 460. 
For his philosophy cf. T. J. de Boer's The History of Philosophy in 
Islam (London, 1903), ch. vi. (G. W. T.) 

AVENARIUS, RICHARD HEINRICH LUDWIG (1843-1896), 
German philosopher, was born in Paris on the 19th of November 
1843. His education, begun in Zurich and Berlin, was completed 
at the university of Leipzig, where he -graduated in 1876. In 
1877 he became professor of philosophy in Zurich, where he 
died on the 18th of August 1896. At Leipzig he was one of the 
founders of the Akademisch-philosophische Verein, and was the 
first editor of the Vierteljahrsschrift fur wissenschajtliche Philo- 
sophie. In 1868 he published an essay on the Pantheism of 
Spinoza. His chief works are Philosophie als Denken der Welt 
gemass dent Princip des Heinsten Kraftmasses (1876) and the 



Kritik der reinen Erfahrung (1888-1890). In these works he 
made an attempt to co-ordinate thought and action. Like 
Mach, he started from the principle of economy of thinking, and 
in the Kritik endeavoured to explain pure experience in relation 
to knowledge and environment. He discovers that statements 
dependent upon environment constitute pure experience. This 
philosophy, called Empirio-criticism, is not, however, a realistic 
but an idealistic dualism, nor can it be called materialism. ^ 

See Wundt, Philos. Stud. xiii. (1897) ; Carstanjen and Willy 
in Zeitsch. f. wiss. Philos. xx. (1896), 361I ff. ; xx. 57 ff. ; xxh. 
53 ff.; J- Petzoldt's Einfiihrung in d. Philos, d. reinen Erfahrung 
(1900). jMJdl^ 

AVENGER OF BLOOD, the person, usually the nearest 
kinsman of the murdered man, whose duty it was to avenge his 
death by killing the murderer. In primitive societies, before 
the evolution of settled government, or the uprise of a 
systematized criminal law, crimes of violence were regarded as 
injuries of a personal character to be punished by the sufferer or 
his kinsfolk. This right of vengeance was common to most 
countries, and in many was the subject of strict regulations and 
limitations. It was prevented from running into excesses by 
the law of sanctuary (q.v.) and in many lands the institution of 
blood-money, and the wergild offered the wrong-doer a mode of 
escaping from his enemies' revenge. The Mosaic law recognized 
the right of vengeance, but not the money-compensation. The 
Koran, on the contrary, while sanctioning the vengeance, also 
permits pecuniary commutation for murder. 

AVENGERS, or Vendicatori, a secret society formed about 
1 186 in Sicily to avenge popular wrongs. The society was 
finally suppressed by King William II., the Norman, who hanged 
the grand master and branded the members with hot irons. 

AVENTAIL, or Avantaille (O. Fr. esventail, presumably from 
a Latin word exventaculum, air-hole), the mouthpiece of an old- 
fashioned helmet, movable to admit the air. 

AVENTINUS (1477-1534), the name taken by Johann Ttjr- 
mair, author of the Annales Boiorum, or Annals of Bavaria, 
from Aventinum, the Latin name of the town of Abensberg, 
where he was born on the 4th of July 1477. Having studied at 
Ingolstadt, Vienna, Cracow and Paris, he returned to Ingolstadt 
in 1507, and in 1509 was appointed tutor to Louis and Ernest, 
the two younger sons of Albert the Wise, the late duke of B avaria- 
Munich. He retained this position until 15 17, wrote a Latin 
grammar, and other manuals for the use of his pupils, and in 
1515 travelled in Italy with Ernest. Encouraged by William IV. , 
duke of Bavaria, he began to write the Annales Boiorum, about 
1517, and finishing this book in 1521, undertook a German 
version of it, entitled Bayersche Chronih, which he completed 
some years later. He assisted to found the Sodalitas litteraria 
Angilostadensis, under the auspices of which several old manu- 
scripts were brought to light. Although Aventinus did not 
definitely adopt the reformed faith, he sympathized with the 
reformers and their teaching, and showed a strong dislike for 
the monks. On this account he.was imprisoned in 1528, but his 
friends soon effected his release. The remainder of his life was 
somewhat unsettled, and he died at Regensburg on the 9th of 
January 1534. The Annales, which are in seven books, deal 
with the history of Bavaria in conjunction with general history 
from the earliest times to 1460, and the author shows a strong 
sympathy for the Empire in its struggle with the Papacy. He 
took immense pains with his work, and to some degree anticipated 
the modern scientific method of writing history. The Annales 
were first published in 1554, but many important passages were 
omitted in this edition, as they reflected on the Roman Catholics. 
A more complete edition was published at Basel in 1580 by 
Nicholas Cisner. Aventinus, who has been called the " Bavarian 
Herodotus," wrote other books of minor importance, and a 
complete edition of his works was published at Munich (1881- 
1886). More recently a new edition (six vols.) has appeared. 

See T. Wiedemann, Johann Turmair gen. Aventinus (Freising, 
1858) ; W. Dittmar, Aventin (Nordlingen, 1862) ; J. von D611inger, 
Aventin und seine Zeit (Munich, 1877) ; S. Riezler, Zum Schutze der 
neuesten Edition von Aventins Annalen±(Mumch, 1886); F. X. von 
Wegele, Aventin (Bamberg, 1890). 



54 



AVENTURINE— AVERAGE 



AVENTURINE, or Avanturine, a variety of quartz containing 
spangles of mica or scales of iron-oxide, which confer brilliancy 
on the stone. It is found chiefly in the Ural Mountains, and 
is cut for ornamental purposes at Ekaterinburg. Some of the 
Siberian aventurine, like that of the vase given by Nicholas I. 
to Sir R. Murchison, in 1843, is a micaceous iron-stained quartz, 
of but little beauty. Most aventurine is of reddish brown or 
yellow colour, but a green variety, containing scales of fuchsite or 
chrome-mica, is also known. This green aventurine, highly valued 
by the Chinese, is said to occur in the Bellary district in India. 

Aventurine felspar, known also as Sun-stone (q.v.) is found 
principally at Tvedestrand in south Norway, and is a variety 
of oligoclase enclosing micaceous scales of haematite. Other 
kinds of felspar, even orthoclase, may however also show the 
aventurine appearance. Both plagioclastic and orthoclastic 
aventurine occur at several localities in the United States. 

The mineral aventurine takes its name from the well-known 
aventurine-glass of Venice. This is a reddish brown glass 
with gold-like spangles, more brilliant than most of the 
natural stone. The story runs that this kind of glass was 
originally made accidentally at Murano by a workman, who 
let some copper filings fall into the molten " metal," whence 
the product was called avventurino. From the Murano glass 
the name passed to the mineral, which displayed a rather 
similar appearance. (F. W. R.*) 

AVENUE (the past participle feminine of Fr. avenir, to come 
to), a way of approach; more particularly, the chief entrance- 
road to a country house, with rows of trees on each side; the 
trees themselves are said to form the avenue. In modern times 
the word has been much used as a name for streets in towns, 
whether with or without trees, such as Fifth Avenue in New York, 
or Shaftesbury Avenue in London. 

AVENZOAR, or Abumeron [Abu Merwan 'Abdal-Malik ibn 
Zuhr], Arabian physician, who flourished at the beginning of the 
12 th century, was born at Seville, where he exercised his pro- 
fession with great reputation. His ancestors had been celebrated 
as physicians for several generations, and his son was afterwards 
held by the Arabians to be even more eminent in his profession 
than Avenzoar himself. He was a contemporary of Averroes, 
who, according to Leo Africanus, heard his lectures, and learned 
physic of him. He belonged, in many respects, to the Dog- 
matists or Rational School, rather than to the Empirics. He was 
a great admirer of Galen; and in his writings he protests 
emphatically against quackery and the superstitious remedies 
of the astrologers. He shows no inconsiderable knowledge of 
anatomy in his remarkable description of inflammation and 
abscess of the mediastinum in his own person, and its diagnosis 
from common pleuritis as well as from abscess and dropsy of 
the pericardium. In cases of obstruction or of palsy of the gullet, 
his three modes of treatment are ingenious. He proposes to 
support the strength by placing the patient in a tepid bath of 
nutritious liquids, that might enter by cutaneous imbibition, 
but does not recommend this. He speaks more favourably of the 
introduction of food into the stomach by a silver tube; and 
he strongly recommends the use of nutritive enemata. From 
his writings it would appear that the offices of physician, surgeon 
and apothecary were already considered as distinct professions. 
He wrote a book entitled The Method of Preparing Medicines : 
and Diet, which was translated into Hebrew in the year 1280, ; 
and thence into Latin by Paravicius, whose version, first printed 
at Venice, 1490, has passed through several editions. 

AVERAGE, a term found in two main senses. (1) The first, 
which occurs in old law, is from a Law-Latin averagium, and is 
connected with the Domesday Book avera, the " day's work 
which the king's tenants gave to the sheriff"; it is supposed 
to be a form of the O. Fr. ovre (ceuvre), work, affected by aver, 
the O. Eng. word for cattle or property, but the etymology is 
uncertain. As meaning some form of feudal service rendered 
by tenants to their superiors, it survived for a long time in the 
Scottish phrase " arria,ge and carriage," this form of the word 
being due to a contraction into " arage." (2) The second word, 
which represents the modern usages, is also uncertain in its 



derivation, but corresponded with the Fr. avarie, and was early 
spelt " averays," recurring also as " avaria," " averia," and 
meaning a certain tax on goods, and then more precisely in mari- 
time law any charge additional to " freight " (see Affreight- 
ment), payable by the owner of goods sent by ship. Hence the 
modern employment of the term for particular and general 
average (see below) in marine insurance. The essential of 
equitable distribution, involved in this sense, was transferred 
to give the word " average " its more colloquial meaning of an 
equalization of amount, or medium among various quantities, 
or nearest common rate or figure. (For a discussion of the ety- 
mology, see the New English Dictionary, especially the concluding 
note with reference to authorities.) 

In Shipping. — Average, in modern law, is the term used in 
maritime commerce to signify damages or expenses resulting 
from the accidents of navigation. Average is either general or 
particular. General average arises when sacrifices have been 
made, or expenditures incurred, for the preservation of the ship, 
cargo and freight, from some peril of the sea or from its effects. 
It implies a subsequent contribution, from all the parties con- 
cerned, rateably to the values of their respective interests, to 
make good the loss thus occasioned. Particular average signifies 
the damage or partial loss happening to the ship, goods, or 
freight by some fortuitous or unavoidable accident. It is borne 
by the parties to whose property the misfortune happens or 
by their insurers. The term average originally meant what is 
now distinguished as general average; and the expression 
" particular average," although not strictly accurate, came to 
be afterwards used for the convenience of distinguishing those 
damages or partial losses for which no general contribution could 
be claimed. 

Although nothing can be more simple than the fundamental 
principle of general average, that a loss incurred for the advantage 
of all the coadventurers should be made good by them all in 
equitable proportion to their stakes in the adventure, the applica- 
tion of this principle to the varied and complicated cases which 
occur in the course of maritime commerce has given rise to many 
diversities of usage at different periods and in different countries. 
It is soon discovered that the principle cannot be applied in any 
settled or consistent manner unless by the aid of rules of a 
technical and sometimes of a seemingly arbitrary character. 
The difficulty, which at one time seemed nearly insuperable, 
of bringing together the rules in force in the several maritime 
countries, has been to a large extent overcome — not by legislation 
but by framing a set of rules covering the principal points of 
difference in such a manner as to satisfy, on the whole, those 
who are practically concerned, and to lead them to adopt these 
rules in their contracts of affreightment and contracts of insur- 
ance (see Insurance: Marine). The honour of the achievement 
belongs to a small number of men who recognized the History of 
need of uniformity. The work began in May i860 at the York- 
a congress held at Glasgow, under the presidency of An ^ wer P 
Lord Brougham, assisted by Lord Neaves. Further 
congresses were held in London (1862), and at York (1864), 
when a body of rules known as the " York Rules " was agreed 
to. There the matter stood, until it was taken up by the 
" Association for the Reform and Codification of the Law of 
Nations " at conferences held at the Hague (1875), Bremen 
(1876) and Antwerp (1877). Some changes were made in 
the "York Rules"; and so altered, the body of rules was 
adopted at the last-named conference, and was styled the 
'' York and Antwerp (or York- An twerp) Rules." The value 
of these rules was quickly perceived, and practical use of them 
followed. But they proved to be insufficient, or unsatisfactory, 
on some points; and again, in the autumn of 1890, a conference 
on the subject was held, this time at Liverpool, by the same 
Association, under the able presidency of Dr F. Sieveking, 
president of the Hanseatic High Court of Appeal at Hamburg. 
Important changes were then made, carrying further certain 
departures from English law, already apparent in the earlier 
rules, in favour of views prevailing upon the continent of Europe 
and in the United States. The newjules were styled the York- 



AVERAGE 



55 



Antwerp Rules 1890. In practice they quickly displaced those 
oi 1877; and in 1892, at a conference of the same Association 
held at Genoa, it was formally declared that the only international 
rules of general average having the sanction and authority of the 
association were the York- An twerp Rules as revised in 1890, 
and that the original rules were rescinded. It is this later 
body of rules which is now known as the York-Antwerp Rules. 
Reference is now to be found in most English contracts of carriage 
and contracts of insurance, to these rules, as intended to govern 
the adjustment of G.A. between the parties; with the result that 
(so far as the rules cover the ground) adjustments do not depend 
upon the law of the place of destination, and so do not vary 
according to the destination, or the place at which the voyage 
may happen to be broken up, as used formerly to be the case. 
The rules are as follows : — 

Rule I. — Jettison of Deck Cargo 
No jettison of deck cargo shall be made good as G.A. 
Every structure not built in with the frame of the vessel shall be 
considered to be a part of the deck of the vessel. 

Rule II. — Damage by Jettison and Sacrifice for the 
Common Safety 

Damage done to a ship and cargo, or either of them, by or in 
consequence of a sacrifice made for the common safety, and by 
water which goes down a ship's hatches opened, or other ppening 
made for the purpose of making a jettison for the common safety, 
shall be made good as G.A. 

Rule III. — Extinguishing Fire on Shipboard 

Damage done to a ship and cargo, or either of them, by water or 
otherwise, including damage by beaching or scuttling a burning 
ship, in extinguishing a fire on board the ship, shall be made good 
as G.A. ; except that no compensation shall be made for damage 
to such portions of the ship and bulk cargo, or to such separate 
packages of cargo, as have been on fire. 

Rule IV. — Cutting away Wreck 

Loss or damage caused by cutting away the wreck or remains of 
spars, or of other things which have previously been carried away 
by sea-peril, shall not be made good as G.A. 

Rule V. — Voluntary Stranding 

When a ship is intentionally run on shore, and the circumstances 
are such that if that course were not adopted she would inevitably 
sink, or drive on shore or on rocks, no loss or damage caused to 
the ship, cargo and freight, or any of them, by such intentional 
running on snore, shall be made good as G.A. But in all other 
cases where a ship is intentionally run on shore for the common 
safety, the consequent loss or damage shall be allowed as G.A. 

Rule VI. — Carrying Press of Sail — Damage to or Loss 
of Sails 

Damage to or loss of sails and spars, or either of them, caused by 
forcing a ship off the ground or by driving her higher up the ground, 
for the common safety, shall be made good as G.A. ; but where a 
ship is afloat, no loss or damage caused to the ship, cargo and freight, 
or any of them, by carrying a press of sail, shall be made good as 
G.A. 

Rule VII. — Damage to Engines in Refloating a Ship 

Damage caused to machinery and boilers of a ship which is 
ashore and in a position of peril, in endeavouring to refloat, shall 
be allowed in G.A., when shown to have arisen from an actual 
intention to float the ship for the common safety at the risk of 
such damage. 

Rule VIII. — Expenses of Lightening a Ship when Ashore, 
and Consequent Damage 

When a ship is ashore, and, in order to float her, cargo, bunker 
coals and ship's stores, or any of them, are discharged, the extra 
cost of lightening, lighter hire, and reshipping (if incurred), and 
the loss or damage sustained thereby, shall be admitted as G.A. 

Rule IX. — Cargo, Ship's Materials, and Stores Burnt 
for Fuel 

Cargo, ship's materials and stores, or any of them, necessarily 
burnt for fuel for the common safety at a time of peril, shall be 
admitted as G.A., when and only when an ample supply of fuel 
had been provided ; but the estimated quantity of coals that would 
have been consumed, calculated at the price current at the ship's 
last port of departure at the date of her leaving, shall be charged 
to the shipowner and credited to the G.A. 

Rule X. — Expenses at Port of Refuge, &c. 
(a) When a ship shall have entered a port or place of refuge, or 
shall have returned to her port or place of loading, in consequence 
of accident, sacrifice, or other extraordinary circumstances, which 
render that necessary for the common safety, the expenses of 
entering such port or place shall be admitted as G.A. ; and when 



she shall have sailed thence with her original cargo, or a part of it, 
the corresponding expenses of leaving such port or place, consequent 
upon such entry or return, shall likewise be admitted as G.A. 

(b) The cost of discharging cargo from a ship, whether at a port 
or place of loading, call or refuge, shall be admitted as G.A., when 
the discharge was necessary for the common safety or to enable 
damage to the ship, caused by sacrifice or accident during the voyage, 
to be repaired, if the repairs were necessary for the safe prosecution 
of the voyage. 

(c) Whenever the cost of discharging cargo from a ship is ad- 
missible as G.A., the cost of reloading and storing such cargo on 
board the said ship, together with all storage charges on such cargo, 
shall likewise be so admitted. But when the ship is condemned 
or does not proceed on her original voyage, no storage expenses 
incurred after the date of the ship's condemnation or of the abandon- 
ment of the voyage shall be admitted as G.A. 

(</) If a ship under average be in a port or place at which it is 
practicable to repair her, so as to enable her to carry on the whole 
cargo, and if, in order to save expenses, either she is towed thence / 
to some other port or place of repair or to her destination, or the 
cargo or a portion of it is transhipped by another ship, or otherwise 
forwarded, then the extra cost of such towage, transhipment and 
forwarding, or any of them (up to the amount of the extra expense 
saved), shall be payable by the several parties to the adventure in 
proportion to the extraordinary expense saved. 

Rule XI. — Wages and Maintenance of Crew in Port of 
Refuge, &c. 

When a ship shall have entered or shall have been detained in any 
port or place under the circumstances, or for the purposes of the 
repairs, mentioned in Rule X., the wages payable to the master, 
officers and crew, together with the cost of maintenance of the same, 
during the extra period of detention in such port or place until the 
ship shall or should have been made ready to proceed upon her 
voyage, shall be admitted as G.A. But when this ship is condemned 
or does not proceed on her original voyage, the wages and mainten- 
ance of the master, officers and crew, incurred after the date of the 
ship's condemnation or of the abandonment of the voyage, shall not 
be admitted as G.A. 

Rule XII. — Damage to Cargo in Discharging, &c. 
Damage done to or loss of cargo necessarily caused in the act of 
discharging, storing, reloading and stowing shall be made good as 
G.A. when and only when the cost of those measures respectively 
is admitted as G.A. 

Rule XIII. — Deductions from Cost of Repairs 
In adjusting claims for G.A., repairs to be allowed in G.A. shall 
be subject tothe following deductions in respect of " new for old," 
viz. : — ■ 

In the case of iron or steel ships, from date of original register to 
the date of accident : — 



Up to 
year old 
(A.) 



Between 

1 and 3 years 

(B.) 



Between 

3 and 6 years 

(C.) 



All repairs to be allowed in full, except painting 
or coating of bottom, from which one-third is to be 
deducted. 

One-third to be deducted off repairs to and re- 
newal of woodwork of hull, masts and spars, furni- 
ture, upholstery, crockery, metal and glassware, also 
sails, rigging,_ ropes, sheets and hawsers (other than 
wire and chain), awnings, covers and painting. 

One-sixth to be deducted off wire rigging, wire 
ropes and wire hawsers, chain cables and chains, 
donkey engines, steam _ winches and connexions, 
steam cranes and connexions ; other repairs in full. 

Deductions as above under clause B, except that 
one-sixth be deducted off ironwork of masts and 
spars, and machinery (inclusive of boilers and their 
mountings) . 

(Deductions as above under clause C, except that 
one-third be deducted off ironwork of masts and 
spars, repairs to and renewal of all machinery (in- 
clusive of boilers and their mountings), and all 
hawsers, ropes, sheets and rigging. 
Between f One-third to be deducted off all repairs and re- 
10 Sf 15 years} newals, except ironwork of hull and cementing and 
chain cables, from which one-sixth to be deducted. 
Anchors to be allowed in full. 

One-third to be deducted off all repairs and re- 
newals. Anchors to be allowed in full. One-sixth 
to be deducted off chain cables. 



CE-) 



Over 
15 years 



Generally 
(G.) 



The deductions (except as to provisions and stores, 
machinery and boilers) to be regulated by the age of 
the ship, and not the age of the particular part of 
her to which they apply. No painting bottom to be 
allowed if the bottom has not been painted within six 
months previous to the date of accident. No deduc- 
tion to be made in respect of old material which is 
repaired without being replaced by new, and pro- 
visions and stores which have not been in use. 



5& 



AVERAGE 



lit the case of wooden or composite ships: — 

When a ship is under one year old from date of original register, 
at the time of accident, no deduction " new for old " shall be 
made. After that period a deduction of one-third shall be 
made, with the following exceptions : — 

Anchors shall be allowed in full. Chain cables shall be 
subject to a deduction of one-sixth only. 

No deduction shall be made in respect of provisions and 
stores which had not been in use. 

Metal sheathing shall be dealt with, by allowing in full 
the cost of a weight equal to the gross weight of metal sheath- 
ing stripped off, minus the proceeds of the old metal. Nails, 
felt and labour metalling are subject to a deduction of one- 
third. 
In the case of ships generally: — 

In. the case of all ships, the expense of straightening bent iron- 
work, including labour of taking out and replacing it, shall 
be allowed in full. 

Graving dock dues, including expenses of removals, cart- 
ages, use Of shears, stages and graving dock materials, shall 
be allowed in full. 

Rule XIV. — Temporary Repairs 
No deductions "new for old" shall be made from the cost of 
temporary repairs of damage allowable as G.A. 

Rule XV. — Loss of Freight 
Loss of freight arising from damage to or loss of cargo shall be 
made good as G.A., either when caused by a G.A. act or when 
the damage to or loss of cargo is so made good. 

Rule XVI. — Amount to be made good for Cargo Lost or 

Damaged by Sacrifice 
The amount to be made good as G.A. for damage or loss of goods 
sacrificed shall be the loss which the owner of the goods has sustained 
thereby, based on the market values at the date of the arrival of the 
vessel or at the termination of the adventure. 

Rule XVII. — Contributory Values 
The contribution to a G.A. shall be made upon the actual values 
of the property at the termination of the adventure, to which shall 
be added the amount made good as G.A. for property sacrificed; 
deduction being made from the shipowner's freight and passage- 
money at risk, of such port charges and crew's wages as would not 
have been incurred had the ship and cargo been totally lost at the 
date of the G.A. act or sacrifice, and have not been allowed as G.A. ; 
deduction being also made from the value of the property of all 
charges incurred in respect thereof subsequently to the G.A. act, 
except such charges as are allowed in G.A. 

Passengers' luggage and personal effects, not shipped under bill 
of lading, shall not contribute to G.A. 

Rule XVIII. — Adjustment 
Except as provided in the foregoing rules, the adjustment shall 
be drawn up in accordance with the law and practice that would 
have governed the adjustment had the contract of affreightment 
not contained a clause to pay G.A. according to these rules. 

The above rules differ in some important respects from 
English common law, and from former English practice. They 
follow ideas upon the subject of G.A. which have prevailed in 
practice in foreign countries (though often in apparent opposition 
to the language of the codes), in preference to the more strict 
principle of the common law applied by English courts. That 
principle requires that, in order to have the character of G.A. 
a sacrifice or expenditure must be made for the common safety 
of the several interests in the adventure and under the pressure 
of a common risk. It is not enough that the sacrifice or expendi- 
ture is prudent, or even necessary to enable the common adven- 
ture to be completed. G.A., on the English view, only arises 
where the safety of the several interests is at stake. " The idea 
of a common commercial adventure, as distinguished from the 
common safety from the sea," is not recognized. It is not 
sufficient " that an expenditure should have been made to 
benefit both cargo owner and shipowner." 1 

Thus expenses incurred after ship and cargo are in safety, say at 
a port of refuge, are not generally, by English law, to be treated 
Port of as G.A. ; although the putting into port may have 
refuge ex- ^ een ^ or sa f et y> an d therefore a G.A. act. If the put- 
peases. tm S mto P ort nas Deen necessitated by a G.A. sacrifice, 
as by cutting away the ship's masts, the case is different ; 
the port expenses, the expenses of repairing the G.A. damage, and 
the incidental expenses of unloading, storing and reloading the 
cargo are, in such a case, treated as consequences of the original 
sacrifice, and therefore subjects for contribution. But where the 
reason for putting in is to avoid some danger, such as a storm or 

1 Per Bowen, L.J., in Svensden v. Wallace, 1883, 13 Q.B.D. at p. 84. 



hostile cruiser, or to effect repairs necessitated by some accidental 
damage to the ship, the G.A. sacrifice is considered to be at an end 
when the port has been reached, if the ship and cargo are then in 
physical safety. The subsequent expenditure in the port is said not 
tb flow from that sacrifice, but from the necessity of completing the 
voyage, and is incurred in performance of the shipowner's obligation 
under his contract. The practice of English average adjusters has 
indeed modified this strict view by treating the expense of unloading 
as G.A. ; but it may well be doubted whether that practice can be 
legally supported. Moreover, expenditure in the port which is in- 
curred in protecting the cargo as in warehousing it, is by English 
practice treated as a charge to be borne by the cargo for whose 
benefit it was incurred. 

If we turn now to York-Antwerp Rule X., it will be seen that a 
much broader view is adopted. Whatever the reason for putting 
into the port of refuge, provided it was necessary for the common 
safety, the expenses of going in, and the consequent expenses of 
getting out (if she sails again with all or part of her original cargo), 
are allowed as G.A., Rule X. (a). Further, the cost of discharging 
the cargo to enable damage to the ship to be repaired, whether 
caused by sacrifice or by accident during the voyage, is to be allowed 
as G.A., " if the repairs were necessary for the safe prosecution of 
the voyage," Rule X. (6); And that is to be so even where such re- 
pairs are done at a port of call, as well as where done at a port of 
refuge. ,Again, when the cost of discharging is treated as G.A-', so 
also are to be the expenses of storing the cargo on shore, and of re- 
loading and stowing it on board, after the repairs have been done 
(Rule X. (c) ), together with any damage or loss incidental to those 
operations (Rule XII.). 

Further, by Rule XI. the wages of the master, officers and crew, 
and the cost of their maintenance, during the detention of a ship 
under the circumstances, or for the purpose of the repairs'mentioned 
in Rule X., are to be allowed in G.A. It is questionable whether 
English law allows the wages and maintenance of the crew at a port 
of refuge in any case. Where the detention is to repair accidental 
damage it seems clear that they are not allowed* And in practice 
under common law, the allowance is never made; so that Rule XL 
is an important concession to the shipowner. Like the changes 
introduced by Rule X., it is a change towards the practice in foreign 
countries. 

It may be noted that the rules do not afford equal protection to 
a shipper in the comparatively infrequent case of his being put to 
expense by the delay at a port of refuge. Thus a shipper of cattle 
is not entitled to have the extra wages and provisions of his cattle- 
men on board, nor the extra fodder consumed by the cattle during 
the stay at a repairing port, made as good as G.A. under Rules XI. 
and X. {Anglo-Argentine &c. Agency v. Temperley Shipping Co., 
1899, 2 Q.B. 403). ',..'... 

As to the acts which amount to G.A. sacrifices, as distinguisned 
from expenditures, the York-Antwerp Rules do not much alter 
English common law. They do, however, make definite General 
provisions upon some points on which authority was ave rage 
scanty or doubtful. (See Rules I. -IX.) And in Rule I., sacrifices. 
as to jettison of deck cargo, a change is made from the 
common law rule, for the jettison is not allowed as G.A. even though 
the cargo be carried on deck in accordance with an established 
custom of the particular trade. ' 

Rule III. deals with damage done in extinguishing fire on board 
a ship. Modern decisions have cleared away the old doubts whether 
such damage to ship or cargo should, at law, be allowed in G.A. 
But recent cases in the United States have raised the question 
whether the allowance should be made where the fire occurs in port, 
and is extinguished, not by the master, but by a public authority 
acting in the interests of the public. Tie Supreme Court of the 
United States decided against the allowance in 1894 in a case of 
Ralli v. Troup (157 U.S. 386). The ship had there been scuttled 
to put out a fire on board, by the port authority, acting upon their 
own judgment, but with the assent of the master. It was held that 
the damage suffered by ship and cargo ought not to be made good 
by G.A. contributions; for the sacrifice had not been made "by 
some one specially charged with the control and safety of that ad- 
venture," but was the compulsory act of a public authority. On 
the other hand, in the English case of Papayanni v. Grampian S.S. 
Co. (i. Com. Ca. 448), Mathew, J., held that the scuttling of a ship 
at a port of refuge in Algeria, by orders of the captain of the port, 
was a G.A. act. It had been done in the interest of ship and cargo, 
and there was no evidence of any other motive. 

Rule V. deals with the question whether, and under what con- 
ditions, a voluntary stranding of the ship is a G.A. act, in a manner 
which will probably be held to express the law in England when 
the matter comes up for decision. 

Rules VI. and VII. deal with the damage sustained by the. ship, 
or her appliances, in efforts to force her off the ground when she 
has stranded. Such efforts involve an abnormal use which is likely 
to cause damage to sails and spars, or to engines and boilersj and 
they are treated as acts of sacrifice. The case of " The Bona," 1895 
(P. 125) shows that the rules are in accord with English law upon 
the point. The court of appeal held that both the damage sustained 
by the engines while worked to get the ship off, and the coal and 
stores consumed, were subjects for G.A. contribution at common law. 



AVERAGE 



$7 



Rule VIII. allows as G.A. any damage sustained by cargo when 
discharged and, say, lightered for the purpose of getting the ship off 
a strand. And the corresponding damage in the case of cargo dis- 
charged at a port of refuge to enable repairs to be done to the ship 
is allowed by Rule XII. But in the latter case the allowance does 
not expressly, extend to damage sustained while stored on land. 
Whether the law would require contribution to a loss of goods, say, 
by thieves or by fire, while landed for repairs, is not clear. Where 
the landing has been necessitated by a G.A. act, as cutting away 
masts, it would seem that the loss ought to be made good, as being 
a result of the special risks to which those goods have thereby been 
exposed. The risks which they would have run if they had remained 
on board throughout are taken into account, as will presently 
appear, in estimating how much of the damage is to be made good. 

Where cattle were taken into a port of refuge in Brazil, owing to 
accidental damage to the ship, with the result that they could not 
legally be landed at their destination (Deptford), and had to be 
taken to another port (Antwerp), at which they were of much less 
value, this loss of value was allowed in G.A. (Anglo-Argentine &c. 
Agency, v. Temperley Shipping Co., 1899, 2 Q.B. 403). 

The case of a stranded ship and cargo often gives rise to difficulty 
as to whether the cost of operations to lighten the ship, and after- 
Wards to get her floated, should be treated as G.A. expenditure, or 
as expenses separately incurred in saving the separate interests. 
The true conclusion seems to be that either the whole operation 
should be treated as one for the common safety, and the whole 
expense be contributed to by all the interests saved, or else the 
several parts of the operation should be kept distinct, debiting the 
cost of each to the interests thereby saved. Which of these two 
views should be adopted in any case seems to depend upon the 
motives with which the earlier operations (usually the discharge of 
the cargo) were presumably undertaken. It may, however, happen 
that this test cannot be applied once for all. Take the case of a 
stranded ship carrying a bulky cargo of hemp and grain, but carrying 
also some bullion. Suppose this last to be rescued and taken to a 
place of safety at small expense in comparison with its value. It 
may well be that that operation must be regarded as done in the 
interest simply of the bullion itself, but that the subsequent opera- 
tions of lightening the ship and floating her can only be properly 
regarded as undertaken in the common interest of ship, hemp, grain 
and freight. In such a case there will be a G.A. contribution towards 
those later operations by those interests. But the bullion will not con- 
tribute; it will merely bear the expense of its own rescue [Royal Mail 
S. P. Co. v. English Bank of Rio de Janeiro, 1887, 19 Q.B.D. 362). 

The York-Antwerp Rules have not only had the valuable result 
of introducing uniformity where there had been great variety, and 
corresponding certainty as to the principles which will be acted 
Upon in adjusting any G.A. loss, but also they have introduced 
greater clearness and definiteness on points where there had been 
a want of definition. Thus Rule XIII. has laid down a careful and 
definite scale to regulate the deductions from the cost of repairs, in 
respect of " new for old," in place of the former somewhat uncertain 
customary rules which varied according to the place of adjustment; 
while at the same time the opportunity has been taken of adapting 
the, scale of deductions to modern conditions of shipbuilding. And 
Rule XVII. lays down a rule as to contributory values in place of the 
widely varying rulesof different countries as to the amounts upon which 
ship and freight shall contribute (cf. Gow, Marine Insurance, 305). 

It may be of interest to refer briefly to one or two main 
principles which govern the adjustment (q.v.) of general average, 
i.e. the calculation of thefamounts to be made good and paid 
by the several interests, which is a complicated matter. The 
fundamental idea is that the several interests at risk shall 
contribute in proportion to the benefits they have severally 
received by the completion of the adventure. Contributions 
are not made in proportion to the amounts at stake when the 
sacrifice was made, but in proportion to the results when the 
adventure has come to an end. An interest which has become 
lost after the sacrifice, during the subsequent course of the 
voyage, will pay nothing; an interest which has become de- 
preciated will pay in proportion to the diminished value. The 
liability to contribute is inchoate only when the sacrifice has been 
made. It becomes complete when the adventure has come to 
an end, either by arrival at the destination, or by having been 
broken up at some intermediate point, while the interest in 
question still survives. To this there is one exception, in the 
case of G.A. expenditure. Where such expenditure has been 
incurred by the owner of one interest, generally by the ship- 
owner, the repayment to him by the other interests ought not 
to be wholly dependent upon the subsequent safety of those 
interests at the ultimate destination. If those other interests or 
some of them arrive, or are realized, as by being landed at an 
intermediate port, the rule (as in the case of G.A. sacrifices) 



is that the contributions are to be in proportion to the arrived 
or realized values. But if all are lost the burden of the expendi- 
ture ought not to remain upon the interest which at first bore it; 
and the proper rule seems to be that contributions must be made 
by all the interests which were at stake when it was made, in 
proportion to their then values. 

Again, the object of the law of G.A. is to put one whose 
property is sacrificed upon an equal footing with the rest, not 
upon a better footing. Thus, if goods to the value of £100 have 
been thrown overboard for the general safety, the owner of 
those goods must not receive the full £100 in contribution. He 
himself must bear a part of it, for those goods formed part of the 
adventure for whose safety the jettison was made; and it is 
owing to the partial safety of the adventure that any contribution 
at all is received by him. He, therefore, is made to contribute 
with the other saved interests towards his own loss, in respect 
of the amount " made good " to him for that. The full £100 
is treated as the amount to be made good, but the owner of the 
goods is made to contribute towards that upon the sum of £100 
thus saved to him. 

The same principle has a further consequence. The amount 
to be made good will not necessarily be the value of the goods 
or other property in their condition at the time they were 
sacrificed; so to calculate it would in effect be to withdraw 
those goods from the subsequent risks of the voyage, and thus 
to put them in a better position than those which were not 
sacrificed. Hence, in estimating the amount to be made good, 
the value of the goods or property sacrificed must be estimated 
as on arrival, with reference to the condition in which they would 
probably have arrived had they remained on board throughout 
the voyage. 

The liability to pay G.A. contributions falls primarily upon 
the owner of the contributing interest, ship, goods or freight. 
But in practice the contributions are paid by the insurers of the 
several interests. Merchants seldom have to concern themselves 
with the subject. And yet in an ordinary policy of insurance 
there is no express provision requiring the underwriter to in- 
demnify the assured against this liability. The policy commonly 
contains clauses which recognize such an obligation, e.g. a 
warranty against average " unless general," or an agreement 
that G.A. shall be payable " as per foreign statement," or 
" according to York- Antwerp Rules "; but it does not directly 
state the obligation. It assumes that. The explanation seems 
to be that the practice of the underwriter to pay the contribution 
has been so uniform, and his liability has been so fully recognized, 
that express provisions were needless. But one result has been 
that very differing views of the ground of the obligation have 
been held. One view has been that it is covered by the sue and 
labour clause of an ordinary policy, by which the insurer agrees 
to bear his proportion of expenses voluntarily incurred " in and 
about the defence, safeguard and recovery " of the insured 
subject. But that has been held to be mistaken by the House of 
Lords {Atichisonv. Lohre, 1879,4 A. C. 755). Another view is that 
the underwriter impliedly undertakes to repay sums which the 
law may require the assured to pay towards averting losses which 
would, by the contract, fall upon the underwriter. Expenses 
voluntarily incurred by the assured with that object are expressly 
made repayable by the sue and labour clause of the policy. It 
might well be implied that payments compulsorily required 
from the assured by law for contributions to G.A., or as salvage 
for services by salvors, will be undertaken or repaid by the 
underwriter, the service being for his benefit." But the decision 
in Aitchison v. Lohre negatives this ground also. The claim was 
against underwriters on a ship which had been so damaged that 
the cost of repairs had exceeded her insured value. A claim for 
the ship's contribution to certain salvage and G.A. expenses 
which had been incurred, over and above the cost of repairs, was 
disallowed. The view seems to have been that the insurer is 
liable for salvage and G.A. payments as losses of the subject 
insured, and therefore included in the sum insured, not as 
collateral payments made on his behalf. This bases the claim 
against the insurer upon a fiction, for there has been no loss of 



58 



AVERNUS— AVERROES 



the subject insured; in fact, the payment has been for averting 
such a loss. And it suggests that the insurer is not liable for 
salvage where the policy is free of particular average, which 
does not accord with practice. 

An important question as to an insurer's liability for G.A. 
arose in the case of the Brigella (1893, P. 189), where a shipowner 
had incurred expenses which would have been the subject of 
G.A. contributions, but that he alone was interested in the 
voyage. There were no contributories. He claimed from the 
insurers of the ship what would have been the ship's G.A. 
contribution had there been other persons to contribute in respect 
of freight or cargo. The claim was disallowed on the ground 
that there could be no G.A. in such circumstances, and therefore 
no basis for a claim against the insurer. The liability of the 
insurer was thus made to depend, not upon the character of the 
loss, but upon the fact or possibility of contribution. But this 
was not followed in Montgomery v. Indemnity Mutual M. I. Co. 
(1901, 1 K.B. 147). There ship, freight and cargo all belonged 
to the same person. He had insured the cargo but not the ship. 
The cargo underwriters were held liable to pay a contribution 
to damage done to the ship by cutting away masts for the 
general safety. The loss was in theory spread over all the 
interests at risk, and they had undertaken to bear the cargo's 
share of such losses. Their liability did not depend jtpon the 
accident of whether the interests all belonged to one person or 
not. This agrees with the view taken in the United States. 

As to Particular Average, see under Insurance: Marine. 

Authorities.— Lowndes on General Average (4th ed., London, 
); Abbott's Merchant Ships and Seamen (14th ed., London 



1901); Arnould's Marine Insurance (7th ed., London, 1901); 
Carver's Carriage by Sea (4th ed., London, 1905). (T. G. C.) 

AVERNUS, a lake of Campania, Italy, about if m. N. of 
Baiae. It is an old volcanic crater, nearly 2 m. in circumference, 
now, as in Roman times, filled with water. Its depth is 213 ft., 
and its height above sea-level 3 J ft.; it has no natural outlet. 
In ancient times it was surrounded by dense forests, and was the 
centre of many legends. It was represented as the entrance 
by which both Odysseus and Aeneas descended to the infernal 
regions, and as the abode of the Cimmerii. Its Greek name, 
"Aopvos, was explained to mean that no bird could fly across it. 
Hannibal made a pilgrimage to it in 214 B.C. Agrippa in 37 B.C. 
converted it into a naval harbour, the Portus lulius; joining 
it to the Lacus Lucrinus by a canal, and connecting the latter 
with the sea, he reduced the distance to Cumae by boring a tunnel 
over 5 m. in length, now called Grotta della Pace, through the hill 
on the north-west side of Lake Avernus. After Sextus Pompeius 
had been subdued, the chief naval harbour was transferred to 
Misenum. Nero's works for his proposed canal from Baiae to 
the Tiber (a.d. 64) seem to have begun near. Lake Avernus; 
indeed, according to one theory, the Grotta della Pace would 
be a portion of this canal. On the east side of the lake are 
remains of baths, including a great octagonal hall known as the 
Temple of Apollo, built of brickwork, and belonging to the 
1st century. The so-called Grotto of the Cumaean Sibyl, on 
the south side, is a rock-cut passage, ventilated by vertical 
apertures, possibly a part of the works connected with the naval 
harbour. To the south-east of the lake is the Monte Nuovo, a 
volcanic hill upheaved in 1538, with a deep extinct crater in the 
centre. To the south is the Lacus Lucrinus. 

See J. Beloch, Campanien (2nd ed., Breslau, 1890), pp. 168 
seq. (T. As.) 

AVERROES [Abul-Walid Muhammad ibn- Ahmad Ibn- 
Muhammad ibn-Rushd] (1126-1198), Arabian philosopher, was 
born at Cordova. His early life was occupied in mastering the 
curriculum of theology, jurisprudence, mathematics, medicine 
and philosophy, under the approved teachers of the time. The 
years of his prime fell during the last period of Mahommedan 
rule in Spain under the Almohades (q.v.). It was Ibn-Tufail 
(Abubacer), the philosophic vizier of Yusef, who introduced 
Averroes to that prince, and Avenzoar (Ibn-Zuhr), the greatest 
of Moslem physicians, was his friend. Averroes, who was 
versed in the Malekite system of law, was made cadi of Seville 
(1169), and in similar appointments the next twenty-five years 



of his life were passed. We find him at different periods in 
Seville, Cordova and Morocco, probably as physician to Yusef 
al-Mansur, who took pleasure in engaging him in discussions on 
the theories of philosophy and their bearings on the faith of 
Islam. But science and free thought then, as now, in Islam, 
depended almost solely on the tastes of the wealthy and the 
favour of the monarch. The ignorant fanaticism of the multitude 
viewed speculative studies with deep dislike and distrust, and 
deemed any one a Zendik (infidel) who did not rest content with 
the natural science of the Koran. These smouldering hatreds 
burst into open flame about the year 1195. Averroes was 
accused of heretical opinions and pursuits, stripped of his 
honours, and banished to a place near Cordova, where his 
actions were closely watched. At the same time efforts were 
made to stamp out all liberal culture in Andalusia, so far as 
it went beyond the little medicine, arithmetic and astionomy 
required for practical life. But the storm soon passed. Averroes 
was recalled to Morocco when the transient passion of the 
people had been satisfied, and for a brief period survived his 
restoration to honour. He died in the year before his patron, 
al-Mansur, with whom (in 1199) the political power of the 
Moslems came to an end, as did the culture of liberal science 
with Averroes. The philosopher left several sons, some of whom 
became jurists like his own grandfather. One of them has left 
an essay, expounding his father's theory of the intellect. The 
personal character of Averroes is known to us only in a general 
way, and as we can gather it from his writings. His clear, 
exhaustive and dignified style of treatment evidences the 
rectitude and nobility of the man. In the histories of his own 
nation he has little place; the renown which spread in his 
lifetime to the East ceased with his death, and he left no school. 
Yet, from a note in a manuscript, we know that he had intelligent 
readers in Spain more than a century afterwards. His historic 
fame came from the Christian Schoolmen, whom he almost 
initiated into the system of Aristotle, and who, but vaguely 
discerning the expositors who preceded, admired in his commen- 
taries the accumulated results of two centuries of labours. 

The literary works of Averroes include treatises on juris- 
prudence, grammar, astronomy, medicine and philosophy. 
In 1859 a work of Averroes was for the first time published 
in Arabic by the Bavarian Academy, and a German translation 
appeared in 187s by the editor, J. Miiller. It is a treatise en- 
titled Philosophy and Theology, and, with the exception of a 
German version of the essay on the conjunction of the intellect 
with man, is the first translation which enables the non-Semitic 
scholar to form any adequate idea of Averroes. The Latin 
translations of most of his works are barbarous and obscure. 
A great part of his writings, particularly on jurisprudence and 
astronomy, as well as essays on special logical subjects, prolego- 
mena to philosophy, criticisms on Avicenna and Alfarabius 
(FarabI) ,remain in manuscript in the Escorial and other libraries. 
The Latin editions of his medical works include the Colliget {i.e. 
Kulliyyat, or summary), a resumS of medical science, and a 
commentary on Avicenna's poem on medicine; but Averroes, 
in medical renown, always stood far below Avicenna. The 
Latin editions of his philosophical works comprise the Commen- 
taries on Aristotle, the Deslructio Destructionis (against Ghazali), 
the De Substantia Orbis and a double treatise De Animae Beati- 
tudine. The Commentaries of Averroes fall under three heads : — 
the larger commentaries, in which a paragraph is quoted at large, 
and its clauses expounded one by one; the medium commentaries, 
which cite only the first words of a section; and the paraphrases 
or analyses, treatises on the subjects of the Aristotelian books. 
The larger commentary was an innovation of Averroes; for 
Avicenna, copied by Albertus Magnus, gave under the rubrics 
furnished by Aristotle works in which, though the materials 
were borrowed, the grouping was his own. The great com- 
mentaries exist only for the Posterior Analytics, Physics, De 
Caelo, De Anima and Metaphysics. On the History of Animals 
no commentary at all exists, and Plato's Republic is substituted 
for the then inaccessible Politics. The Latin editions of these 
works between 1480 and 1580 number about 100. The first 



AVERRUNCATOR— A VIANUS 



59 



appeared at Padua (1472) ; about fifty were published at Venice, 
the best-known being that by the Juntas (1552-1553) in ten 
volumes folio. 

See E. Renan, Averroes et I'Averroisme (2nd ed., Paris, 1861); 
S. Munk, Melanges, 418-458; G. Stockl, Phil. d. Mittelalters, ii. 67- 
124; Averroes (Vater und Sohn), Drei Abhandl. iiber d. Conjunction 
d. separaten Intellects mit d. Menschen, trans, into German from the 
Arabic version of Sam. Ben-Tibbon, by Dr J. Hercz (Berlin, 1869); 
T. J. de Boer, History of Philosophy in Islam (London, 1903), ch. vi. ; 
A. F. M. Mehren in Museon, vii. 613-627; viii. 1-20; Carl Brockel- 
mann, Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur (Weimar, 1898), vol. i. 
pp. 461 f. See also Arabian Philosophy. (W. W. ; G. W. T.) 

AVERRUNCATOR, a form of long shears used in arboriculture 
for " averruncating " or pruning off the higher branches of trees, 
&c. The word " averruncate " (from Lat. averruncare, to ward 
off, remove mischief) glided into meaning to " weed the ground," 
" prune vines," &c, by a supposed derivation from the Lat. 
ab, off, and eruncare, to weed out, and it was spelt " aberuncate " 
to suit this ; but the New English Dictionary regards such a 
derivation as impossible. 

A VERSA, a town and episcopal see of Campania, Italy, in the 
province of Caserta, 155 m. S.S.W. by rail from Caserta, and 
125 m. N. by rail from Naples, from which there is also an electric 
tramway. Pop. (1901) 23,477. Aversa was the first place in 
which the Normans settled, it being granted to themiin 1027 
for the help which they had given to Duke Sergius of Naples 
against Pandulf IV. of Capua. The Benedictine abbey of S. 
Lorenzo preserves a portal of the nth century. There is also 
a large lunatic asylum, founded by Joachim Murat in 1813. 

AVESNES, a town of northern France, capital of an arrondisse- 
ment in the department of Nord, on the Helpe, 28 m. S.E. of 
Valenciennes by rail. Pop. (1906) 5076. The town is the seat 
of a sub-prefect, and has a tribunal of first instance, a chamber 
of commerce and a communal college. Its church of St Nicholas 
(16th century) has a tower 200 ft. high, with a fine chime of bells. 
The chief industry of the town is wool-spinning, and there is trade 
in wood. Avesnes was founded in the nth century, and formed 
a countship which in the 15th century passed to the house of 
Burgundy and afterwards to that of Habsburg. In 1477 it was 
destroyed by Louis XI. By the treaty of the Pyrenees (1659) 
it came into the possession of the French, and was fortified by 
Vauban. It was captured by the Prussians in 181 5. 

AVEYRON, a department of southern France, bounded N. 
by Cantal, E. by Lozere and Gard, S.W. by Tarn and W. by 
Tarn-et-Garonne and Lot. Area, 3386 sq. m. Pop. (1006) 
377,299. It corresponds nearly to the old district of Rouergue, 
which gave its name to a countship established early in the 9th 
century, and united with that of Toulouse towards the end of the 
1 1 th century. The earliest known natives of this region were the 
Celtic Rutheni, to whom the numerous megalithic monuments 
found in the department are attributed. Aveyron lies on the 
southern border of the central plateau of France. Its chief 
rivers are the Lot in the north, the Aveyron in the centre and the 
Tarn in the south, all tributaries of the Garonne. They flow 
from east to west, following the general slope of the department, 
and divide it into four zenes. In the north-east, between the 
Lot and its tributary the Truyere, lies the lonely pastoral plateau 
of the Viadene, dominated by the volcanic mountains of Aubrac, 
which form the north-eastern limit of the department and include 
its highest summit (4760 ft.). Entraygues, at the confluence 
of the Lot and the Truyere, is one of the many picturesque 
towns of the department. Between the Lot and the Aveyron 
is a belt of causses or monotonous limestone table-lands, broken 
here and there by profound and beautiful gorges — a type of 
scenery characteristic of Aveyron. This zone is also watered 
by the Dourdou du Nord, a tributary of the Lot. The salient 
feature of the region between the Tarn and the Aveyron is the 
plateau of the Segala, bordered on the east by the heights of 
Levezou and Palanges and traversed from east to west by the 
deep valley of the Viaur, a tributary of the Aveyron. The country 
south of the Tarn is occupied in great part by the huge plateau of 
Larzac, which lies between the Causse Noir and the Causse St 
Affrique, the three forming the south-western termination of the 



Cevennes, On the Causse Noir is found the fantastic chaos of 
rocks and precipices known as Montpellier-le-Vieux, resembling 
the ruins of a huge city. The climate of Aveyron varies from 
extreme rigour in the mountains to mildness in the sheltered 
valleys ; the south wind is sometimes of great violence. Wheat, 
rye and oats are the chief cereals cultivated, the soil of Aveyron 
being naturally poor. Other crops are potatoes, colza, hemp 
and flax. The mainstay of the agriculture of the department 
is the raising of live-stock, especially of cattle of the Aubrac 
breed, for which Laguiole is an important market. The wines 
of Entraygues, St Georges, Bouillac and Najac have some 
reputation; in the Segala chestnuts form an important element 
in the food of the peasants, and the walnut, cider-apple, mulberry 
(for the silk- worm industry), and plum are among the fruit 
trees grown. The production of Roquefort cheeses is prominent 
among the agricultural industries. They are made from the milk 
of the large flocks of the plateau of Larzac, and the choicest 
are ripened in the even temperature of the caves in the cliff 
which overhangs Roquefort. The minerals found in the depart- 
ment include the coal of the basins of Aubin and Rodez as well 
as iron, zinc and lead. Quarries of various kinds of stone are also 
worked. The chief industrial centres are Decazeville, which has 
metallurgical works, and Millau, where leather-dressing and the 
manufacture of gloves have attained considerable importance. 
Wool-weaving and the manufacture of woollen goods, machinery, 
chemicals and bricks are among the other industries. 

There are five arrondissements, of which the chief towns are 
Rodez, capital of the department, Espalion, Millau, St Affrique 
and Villefranche, with 43 cantons and 304 communes. Rodez 
is the seat of a bishopric, the diocese of which comprises the de- 
partment. Aveyron belongs to the 16th military region, and to 
the academic or educational circumscription of Toulouse. Its 
court of appeal is at Montpellier. The department is traversed 
by the lines both of the Orleans and Southern railways. The 
more important towns are Rodez, Millau, St Affrique, Ville- 
franche-de-Rouergue and Decazeville. The following are also 
of interest : — Sauveterre, founded in 1281, a striking example of 
the bastide (q.v.) of that period; Conques, which has a remark- 
able abbey-church of the nth century like St Sernin of Toulouse 
in plan and possessing a rich treasury of reliquaries, &c. ; Espalion, 
where amongst other old buildings there are the remains of a 
feudal stronghold and a church of the Romanesque period ; Najac, 
which has the ruins of a magnificent chateau of the 13th century; 
and Syl vanes, with a church of the 12 th century, once attached 
to a Cistercian abbey. 

AVEZZANO, a town of the Abruzzi, Italy, in the province of 
Aquila, 67 m. E. of Rome by rail and 38 m. S. of Aquila by road. 
Pop. (1901) 9442. It has a fine and well-preserved castle, built in 
1490 by Gentile Virginio Orsini; it is square, with round towers 
at the angles. Avezzano is on the main line from Rome to 
Castellammare Adriatico; a branch railway diverges to Rocca- 
secca, on the line from Naples to Rome. The Lago Fucino lies 
i|m. to the east. 

AVIANUS, a Latin writer of fables, placed by some critics in 
the age of the Antonines, by others as late as the 6th century a.d. 
He appears to have lived at Rome and to have been a heathen. 
The 42 fables which bear his name are dedicated to a certain 
Theodosius, whose learning is spoken of in most flattering terms. 
He may possibly be Macrobius Theodosius, the author of the 
Saturnalia ; some think he may be the emperor of that name. 
Nearly all the fables are to be found in Babrius, who was probably 
Avianus's source of inspiration, but as Babrius wrote in Greek, 
and Avianus speaks of having made an elegiac version from a 
rough Latin copy, probably a prose paraphrase, he was not 
indebted to the original. The language and metre are on the 
whole correct, in spite of deviations from classical usage, 
chiefly in the management of the pentameter. The fables soon 
became popular as a school-book. Promythia and epimythia 
(introductions and morals) and paraphrases, and imitations were 
frequent, such as the Novus Avianus of Alexander Neckam 
(12th century). 

Editions. — Cannegieter (1731), Lachmann (1 845) , Frohner ( 1 862) , 



6o 



AVIARY 



Bahrens in Poetae Laiini Minores, Ellis (1887). See Mviller, De 
Phaedri et Aviani Fabulis (1875) ; Unrein, De Aviani Aetate (1885) ; 
Hervieux, Les Fabulistes latins (1894) ; The Fables of Avian trans- 
lated into Englyshe . . . by William Caxton at Westmynslre (1483). 

AVIARY (from Lat. avis, a bird), called by older writers 
" volary," a structure in which birds are kept in a state of 
captivity. While the habit of keeping birds in cages dates from 
a very remote period, it is probable that structures worthy of 
being termed aviaries were first used by the ancient Romans, 
chiefly for the process of fattening birds for the table. In 
Varro's time, 116-127 B.C., aviaries or " ornithones " (from Gr. 
tpvvs oppidas, bird) were common. These consisted of two 
kinds, those constructed for pleasure, in which were kept nightin- 
gales and other song-birds, and those used entirely for keeping 
and fattening birds for market or for the tables of their owners. 
Varro himself had an aviary for song-birds exclusively, while 
Lucullus combined the two classes, keeping birds both for 
pleasure and as delicacies for his table. The keeping of birds 
for pleasure, however, was very rarely indulged in, while it was 
a common practice with poulterers and others to have large 
ornithones either in the city or at Sabinum for the fattening of 
thrushes and other birds for food. 

Ornithones consisted merely of four high walls and a roof, and 
were lighted with a few very small windows, as thejfeirds were 
considered to pine less if they could not see their free companions 
outside. Water was introduced by means of pipes, and conducted 
in narrow channels, and the birds were fed chiefly upon dried figs, 
carefully peeled, and chewed into a pulp by persons hired to 
perform this operation. 

Turtle-doves were fattened in large numbers for the market 
on wheat and millet, the latter being moistened with sweet wine; 
but thrushes were chiefly in request, and Varro mentions one 
ornithon from which no less than five thousand of these birds 
were sold for the table in one season. 

The habit of keeping birds in aviaries, as we understand the 
term, for the sake of the pleasure they afford their owners and 
for studying their habits is, however, of comparatively recent 
date. The beginning of geographical research in the 15th 
century brought with it the desire to keep and study at home 
some of the beautiful forms of bird-life which the explorers 
came across, and hence it became the custom to erect aviaries 
for the reception of these creatures. In the 16th century, in the 
early part of which the canary-bird was introduced into Europe, 
aviaries were not uncommon features of the gardens of the 
wealthy, and Bacon refers to them in his essay on gardening 
(1597). Elizabeth of Bohemia, the daughter of James I. of 
England, when a child, had an outdoor aviary at Coombe Abbey 
near Coventry, the back and roof of which were formed of 
natural rock, in which were kept birds of many species from 
many countries. 

Within recent years the method of keeping birds in large 
aviaries has received considerable attention, and it is fully 
recognized that by so doing, not only do we derive great pleasure, 
but our knowledge of avian habits and mode of living can 
thereby be very considerably increased. 

An aviary may be of almost any size, from the large cage 
known, on account of its shape, as the " Crystal Palace aviary," 
to a structure as large as a church; and the term is sometimes 
applied to the room of a house with the windows covered with 
wire-netting; but as a rule it is used for outdoor structures, 
composed principally of wire-netting supported on a framework 
of either iron or woodwork. For quite hardy birds little more 
than this is necessary, providing that protection is given in the 
form of growing trees and shrubs, rock-work or rough wooden 
shelters. For many of the delicate species, however, which hail 
from tropical countries, warmth must be provided during the 
inclement months of the year, and thus a part at least of an 
aviary designed for these birds must be in the form of a 
wooden or brick house which can be shut up in cold weather 
and artificially warmed. 

The ideal aviary, probably, is that which is constructed in 
two parts, viz. a well-built house for the winter, opening out 



into a large wire enclosure for use in the summer months. The 
doors between the two portions may be of wood or glazed. The 
part intended as the winter home of the birds is best built in' 
brick or stone, as these materials are practically vermin-proof 
and the temperature in such a building is less variable than that 
in a thin wooden structure. The floor should be of concrete or 
brick, and the house should be fitted with an efficient heating 
apparatus from which the heat is distributed by means of hot- 
water pipes. Any arrangement which would permit the escape 
into the aviary of smoke or noxious fumes is to be strongly 
condemned. Such a house must be well lighted, preferably by 
means of skylights; but it is a mistake to have the whole roof 
glazed, at least half of it should be of wood, covered with slates 
or tiles. Perches consisting of branches of trees with the bark 
adhering should be fixed up, and, if small birds are to be kept, 
bundles of bushy twigs should be securely fixed up in corners 
under the roofs. 

The outer part, which will principally be used during the 
summer, though it will do most birds good to be let out for a 
few hours on mild winter days also, should be as large as possible, 
and constructed entirely of wire-netting stretched on a framer 
work of wood or iron. If the latter material is selected, stout 
gas-piping is both stronger and more easily fitted together than 
solid iron rods. 

If the framework be of wood, this should be creosoted, prefer- 
ably - under pressure, or painted with three coats of good lead 
paint, the latter preservative also being used if iron is the 
material selected. 

The wire-netting used may be of almost any sized mesh, 
according to the sized birds to be kept, but as a general rule the 
smallest mesh, such as half or five-eighths of an inch, should be 
used, as it is practically vermin-proof, and allows of birds of 
any size being kept. Wire-netting for aviaries should be of the 
best quality, and well galvanized. The new interlinked type 
is less durable than the old mesh type, though perhaps it looks 
somewhat neater when fixed. 

Provision must be made for the entire exclusion of such 
vermin as rats, stoats and weasels, which, if they were to 
gain access, would commit great havoc 
amongst the birds. The simplest and 
most effectual method of doing this is 
by sinking the wire-netting some 2 ft. 
into the ground all round the aviary, 
and then turning it outwards for a 
distance of another foot as shown in the 
annexed cut (fig. 1). 

The outer part of the aviary should 
be turfed and planted with evergreen 
and deciduous shrubs, and be provided 
with some means of supplying an abun- 
dance of pure water for the birds to drink and bathe in; 
a gravel path should not be forgotten. 

Perhaps the most useful type of aviary is that built as above 
described, but with several compartments, and a passage at 
the back by which any compartment may be visited without 
the necessity of passing through and disturbing the birds in other 
compartments. Fig. 2 represents a ground plan of an aviary 
of this type divided into four compartments, each with an inner 
house 10 ft. square, and an outer flight of double that area'. 
The outer flights are intended to be turfed, and planted with 
shrubs, and the gravel path has a glazed roof above it by which 
it is kept dry in wet weather. Shallow water-basins are shown, 
which should be supplied by means of an underground pipe and 
a cock which can be turned on from outside the aviary; and they 
must be connected with a properly laid drain by means of a 
waste plug and an overflow pipe. 

An aviary should always be built with a southern or south- 
eastern aspect, and, where possible, should be sheltered from the 
north, north-east and north-west by a belt of fir-trees, high wall 
or bank, to protect the birds from the biting winds from these 
quarters. 

When parrots of any kind are to be kept it is useless to trj 




Fig.. 1. 



and 



AVIARY 



61 



to grow any kind of vegetation except grass, and even this will 
be demolished unless the aviary is of considerable size. The 
larger parrots will, in fact, bite to pieces not only living trees 
but also the woodwork of their abode, and the only really suitable 
materials for the construction of an aviary for these birds are 
brick or stone and iron; and the wire-netting used must be of 
the stoutest gauge or it will be torn to pieces by their strong 
bills. 

The feeding of birds in aviaries is, obviously, a matter of the 
utmost importance, and, in order that they may have what 
is most suitable, the aviculturist should find out as much as 
possible of the wild life of the species he wishes to keep, or if little 
or nothing is known about their mode of living, as is often the case 
with rare forms, of nearly related species whose habits and food 
are probably much the same, and he should endeavour to provide 
food as nearly as possible resembling that which would be ob- 
tained by the birds when wild. It is often, however, impossible to 
supply precisely the same food as would be obtained by the birds 
had they their liberty, but a substitute which suits them well can 




Fig. 2. — Plan of 4-compartment Aviary for Foreign Birds, 
generally be obtained. The majority of the parrot tribe subsist 
principally upon various nuts, seed and fruit, while some of the 
smaller parrakeets or paroquets appear to feed almost exclusively 
upon the seeds of various grasses. Almost all of these are com- 
paratively easy to treat in captivity, the larger ones being fed 
on maize, sunflower-seed, hemp, dari, oats, canary-seed, nuts 
and various ripe fruits, while the grass-parrakeets thrive re- 
markably well on little besides canary-seed and green food, the 
most suitable of which is grass in flower, chickweed, groundsel 
and various seed-bearing weeds. But there is another large group 
of parrots, the Loriidae or brush-tongued parrots, some of the 
most interesting and brightly coloured of the tribe, which, when 
wild, subsist principally upon the pollen and nectar of flowers, 
notably the various species of Eucalyptus, the filamented tongues 
of these parrots being peculiarly adapted for obtaining this. 
In captivity these birds have been found to live well upon 
sweetened milk-sop, which is made by pouring boiling milk upon 
crumbled bread or biscuit. They frequently learn to eat seed 
like other parrots, but, if fed exclusively upon this, are apt, 
especially if deprived of abundance of exercise, to suffer from 
fits which are usually fatal. Fruit is also readily eaten by the 
lories and lorikeets, and should always be supplied. 

The foreign doves and pigeons form a numerous and beautiful 
group which are mostly hardy and easily kept and bred in 
captivity. They are for the most part grain-feeders and require 
only small corn and seeds, though a certain group, known as 
the fruit-pigeons, are fed in captivity upon soft fruits, berries, 
boiled potato and soaked grain. 

The various finches and finch-like birds form an exceedingly 
large group and comprise perhaps the most popular of foreign 



aviary birds. The weaver-birds of Africa are mostly quite 
hardy and very easily kept, their food consisting, for the most 
part, of canary-seed. The males of these birds are, as a rule, 
gorgeously attired in brilliant colours, some having long flowing 
tail-feathers during the nuptial season, while in the winter their 
showy dress is replaced by one of sparrow-like sombreness. 
The grass-finches of Australasia contain some of the most 
brilliantly coloured birds, the beautiful grass-finch {Poephila 
mirabilis) being resplendent in crimson, green, mauve, blue and 
yellow. Most of these birds build their nests, and many rear 
their young, successfully in outdoor aviaries, their food consisting 
of canary and millet seeds, while flowering grasses provide 
them with an endless source of pleasure and wholesome food. 
The same treatment suits the African waxbills, many of which 
are extremely beautiful, the crimson-eared waxbill or " cordon- 
bleu " being one of the most lovely and frequently imported. 
These little birds are somewhat delicate, especially when first 
imported, and during the winter months require artificial 
warmth. 

There is a very large group of insectivorous and fruit-eating 
birds very suitable for aviculture, but their mode of living 
necessarily involves considerable care on the part of the avicul- 
turist in the preparation of their food. Many birds are partially 
insectivorous, feeding upon insects when these are plentiful, 
and upon various seeds at other times. Numbers of species again 
which, when adult, feed almost entirely upon grain, feed their 
young, especially during the early stages of their existence, 
upon insects; while others are exclusively insect-eaters at all 
times of their lives. All of these points must be considered by 
those who would succeed in keeping and breeding birds in 
aviaries. 

It would be almost an impossibility to keep the purely insecti- 
vorous species, were it not for the fact that they can be gradually 
accustomed to feed on what is known as " insectivorous " or 
" insectile " food, a composition of which the principal in- 
gredients generally consist of dried ants' cocoons, dried flies, 
dried powdered meat, preserved yolk of egg, 1 and crumb of 
bread or biscuit. This is moistened with water or mixed with 
mashed boiled potato, and forms a diet upon which most of the 
insectivorous birds thrive. The various ingredients, or the 
food ready made, can be obtained at almost any bird-fancier's 
shop. Although it is a good staple diet for these birds, the 
addition of mealworms, caterpillars, grubs, spiders and so forth 
is often a necessity, especially for purely insectivorous species. 

The fruit-eating species, such as the tanagers and sugar-birds 
of the New World, require ripe fruit in abundance in addition 
to a staple diet such as that above described, while for such 
birds as feed largely upon earth-worms, shredded raw meat is 
added with advantage. 

Many of the waders make very interesting aviary birds, and 
require a diet similar to that above recommended, with the addi- 
tion of chopped raw meat, mealworms and any insects that can 
be obtained. 

Birds of prey naturally require a meat diet, which is best given 
in the form of small, freshly killed mammals and birds, the fur 
or feathers of which should not be removed, as they aid digestion. 

The majority of wild birds, from whatever part of the world 
they may come, will breed successfully in suitable aviaries 
providing proper nesting sites are available. Large bundles 
of brushwood, fixed up in sheltered spots, will afford accom- 
modation for many kinds of birds, while some will readily build 
in evergreen shrubs if these are grown in their enclosure. Small 
boxes and baskets, securely fastened to the wall or roof of the 

1 It has recently been stated by certain medical men that egg- 
food in any form is an undesirable diet for birds, owing to its being 
peculiarly adapted to the multiplication of the bacillus of septic- 
aemia, a. disease which is responsible for the death of many newly 
imported birds. It is a significant fact, however, that insectivorous 
species, which are those principally fed upon this substance, are not 
nearly so susceptible to this disease as seed-eating birds which rarely 
taste egg; and in spite of what has been written concerning its 
harmfulness the large majority of aviculturists use it, in both the 
fresh and the preserved state, with no apparent ill effects, but 
rather the reverse. 



62 



AVICENNA 



sheltered part of an aviary, will be appropriated by such species 
as naturally build in holes and crevices. Parrots, when wild, 
lay their eggs in hollow trees, and occasionally in holes in rocks, 
making no nest, 1 but merely scraping out a slight hollow in which 
to deposit the eggs. For these birds hollow logs, with small 
entrance holes near the top, or boxes, varying in size according 
to the size of the parrots which they are intended for, should 
be supplied. In providing nesting accommodation for his 
birds the aviculturist must endeavour to imitate their natural 
surroundings and supply sites as nearly as possible similar to 
those which the birds, to whatever order they may belong, 
would naturally select. 

Aviculture is a delightful pastime, but it is also far more than 
this; it is of considerable scientific importance, for it admits of 
the living birds being studied in a way that would be quite 
impossible otherwise. There are hundreds of species of birds, 
from all parts of the world, the habits of which are almost un- 
known, but which may be kept without difficulty in suitable 
aviaries. Many of these birds cannot be studied satisfactorily 
in a wild state by reason of their shy nature and retiring habits, 
not to mention their rarity and the impossibility, so far as most 
people are concerned, of visiting their native haunts. In suitable 
large aviaries, however, their nesting habits, courtship, display, 
incubation, moult and so forth can be accurately observed and 
recorded. The keeping of birds in aviaries is therefore a practice 
worthy of every encouragement, so long as the aviaries are of 
sufficient size and suitable design to allow of the birds exhibiting 
their natural habits; for in a large aviary they will reveal the 
secrets of their nature as they never would do in a cage or small 
aviary. (D. S. -S.) 

AVICENNA [Abu 'AH al-Husain ibn 'Abdallah ibn Sina] 
(080-1037), Arabian philosopher, was born at Afshena in the 
district of Bokhara. His mother was a native of the place; his 
father, a Persian from Balkh, filled the post of tax-collector in 
the neighbouring town of Harmaitin, under Nuh II. ibn Mansur, 
the Samanid amir of Bokhara. On the birth of Avicenna's 
younger brother the family migrated to Bokhara, then one of 
the chief cities of the Moslem world, and famous for a culture 
which was older than its conquest by the Saracens. Avicenna 
was put in charge of a tutor, and his precocity soon made him 
the marvel of his neighbours, — as a boy of ten who knew by rote 
the Koran and much Arabic poetry besides. From a green- 
grocer he learnt arithmetic; and higher branches were begun 
under one of those wandering scholars who gained a livelihood 
by cures for the sick and lessons for the young. Under him 
Avicenna read the Isagoge of Porphyry and the first propositions 
of Euclid. But the pupil soon found his teacher to be but a 
charlatan, and betook himself, aided by commentaries, to master 
logic, geometry and the Almagest. Before he was sixteen he 
not merely knew medical theory, but by gratuitous attendance 
on the sick had, according to his own account, discovered new 
methods of treatment. For the next year and a half he worked 
at the higher philosophy, in which he encountered greater 
obstacles. In such moments of baffled inquiry he would leave 
his books, perform the requisite ablutions, then hie to the 
mosque, and continue in prayer till light broke on his difficulties. 
Deep into the night he would continue his studies, stimulating 
his senses by occasional cups of wine, and even in his dreams 
problems would pursue him and work out their solution. Forty 
times, it is said, he read through the Metaphysics of Aristotle, 
till the words were imprinted on his memory; but their meaning 
was hopelessly obscure, until one day they found illumination 
from the little commentary by Farabi (q.v.), which he bought 
at a bookstall for the small sum of three dirhems. So great was 
his joy at the discovery, thus made by help of a work from which 
he had expected only mystery, that he hastened to return thanks 
to God, and bestowed an alms upon the poor. Thus, by the 
end of his seventeenth year his apprenticeship of study was 
1 There is, however, one true nest-building parrot, the grey- 
breasted parrakeet (Myopsittacus monachus), which constructs a 
huge nest of twigs. The true love-birds (Agapornis) may also be 
said to build nests, for they line their nest-hole with strips of pliant 
bark. 



concluded, and he went forth to find a market for his accomplish- 
ments. 

His first appointment was that of physician to the amir, 
who owed him his recovery from a dangerous illness (997). 
Avicenna's chief reward for this service was access to the royal 
library of the Samanids (q.v.), well-known patrons of scholarship 
and scholars. When the library was destroyed by fire not long 
after, the enemies of Avicenna accused him of burning it, in 
order for ever to conceal the sources of his knowledge. Mean- 
while, he assisted his father in his financial labours, but still 
found time to write some of his earliest works. 

At the age of twenty-two Avicenna lost his father. The 
Samanid dynasty came to its end in December 1004. Avicenna 
seems to have declined the offers of Mahmud the Ghaznevid, 
and proceeded westwards to Urjensh in the modern Khiva, 
where the vizier, regarded as a friend of scholars, gave him a 
small monthly stipend. But the pay was small, and Avicenna 
wandered from place to place through the districts of Nishapur 
and Merv to the borders of Khorasan, seeking an opening for 
his talents. Shams al-Ma'ali Qabus, the generous ruler of 
Dailam, himself a poet and a scholar, with whom he had 
expected to find an asylum, was about that date (1012) starved 
to death by his own revolted soldiery. Avicenna himself was 
at this season stricken down by a severe illness. Finally, at 
Jorjan, near the Caspian, he met with a friend, who bought near 
his own house a dwelling in which Avicenna lectured on logic 
and astronomy. For this patron several of his treatises were 
written; and the commencement of his Canon of Medicine also 
dates from his stay in Hyrcania. 

He subsequently settled at Rai, in the vicinity of the modern 
Teheran, where a son of the last amir, Majd Addaula, was 
nominal ruler, under the regency of his mother. At Rai about 
thirty of his shorter works are said to have been composed. But 
the constant feuds which raged between the regent and her 
second son, Shams Addaula, compelled the scholar to quit the 
place, and after a brief sojourn at Kazwln, he passed southwards 
to Hamadan, where that prince had established himself. At 
first he entered into the service of a high-born lady; but ere 
long the amir, hearing of his arrival, called him in as medical 
attendant, and sent him back with presents to his dwelling. 
Avicenna was even raised to the office of vizier; but the turbulent 
soldiery, composed of Kurds and Turks, mutinied against their 
nominal sovereign, and demanded that the new vizier should be 
put to death. Shams Addaula consented that he should be 
banished from the country. Avicenna, however, remained 
hidden for forty days in a sheik's house, till a fresh attack of 
illness induced the amir to restore him to his post. Even during 
this perturbed time he prosecuted his studies and teaching. 
Every evening extracts from his great works, the Canon and the 
Sanatio, were dictated and explained to his pupils; among 
whom, when the lesson was over, he spent the rest of the night 
in festive enjoyment with a band of singers and players. On the 
death of the amir Avicenna ceased to be vizier, and hid himself 
in the house of an apothecary, where, with intense assiduity, he 
continued the composition of his works. Meanwhile, he had 
written to Abu Ya'far, the prefect of Isfahan, offering his 
services; but the new amir of Hamadan getting to hear of this 
correspondence, and discovering the place of Avicenna's con- 
cealment, incarcerated him in a fortress. War meanwhile con- 
tinued between the rulers of Isfahan and Hamadan; in 1024 
the former captured Hamadan and its towns, and expelled the 
Turkish mercenaries. When the storm had passed Avicenna 
returned with the amir to Hamadan, and carried on his literary 
labours; but at length, accompanied by his brother, a favourite 
pupil, and two slaves, made his escape out of the city in the 
dress of a Sufite ascetic. After a perilous journey they reached 
Isfahan, and received an honourable welcome from the prince. 
The remaining ten or twelve years of Avicenna's life were spent 
in the service of Abu Ya'far 'Ala Addaula, whom he accompanied 
as physician and general literary and scientific adviser, even in 
his numerous campaigns. During these years he began to study 
literary matters and philology, instigated, it is asserted, by 



AVIENUS— AVIGNON 



63 



criticisms on his style. But amid his restless study Avicenna 
never forgot his love of enjoyment. Unusual bodily vigour 
enabled him to combine severe devotion to work with facile 
indulgence in sensual pleasures. His passion for wine and women 
was almost as well known as his learning. Versatile, light- 
hearted, boastful and pleasure-loving, he contrasts with the 
nobler and more intellectual character of Averroes. His bouts 
of pleasure gradually weakened his constitution; a severe colic, 
which seized him on the march of the army against Hamadan, 
was checked by remedies so violent that Avicenna could scarcely 
stand. On a similar occasion the disease returned; with 
difficulty he reached Hamadan, where, finding the disease 
gaining ground, he refused to keep up the regimen imposed, 
and resigned himself to his fate. On his deathbed remorse 
seized him; he bestowed his goods on the poor, restored unjust 
gains, freed his slaves, and every third day till his death listened 
to the reading of the Koran. He died in June 1037, in his fifty- 
eighth year, and was buried in Hamadan. 

It was mainly accident which determined that from the 12th 
to the 17th century Avicenna should be the guide of medical 
study in European universities, and eclipse the names of Rhazes, 
Ali ibn al-Abbas and Avenzoar. His work is not essentially 
different from that of his predecessors Rhazes and Ali; all 
present the doctrine of Galen, and through Galen the doctrine 
of Hippocrates, modified by the system of Aristotle. Slit the 
Canon of Avicenna is distinguished from the Al-Hawi (Continens) 
or Summary of Rhazes by its greater method, due perhaps to 
the logical studies of the former, and entitling him to his surname 
of Prince of the Physicians. The work has been variously 
appreciated in subsequent ages, some regarding it as a treasury 
of wisdom, and others, like Avenzoar, holding it useful only as 
waste paper. In modern times it has been more criticized than 
read. The vice of the book is excessive classification of bodily 
faculties, and over-subtlety in the discrimination of diseases. 
It includes five books; of which the first and second treat of 
physiology, pathology and hygiene, the third and fourth deal 
with the methods of treating disease, and the fifth describes 
the composition and preparation of remedies. This last part 
contains some contingent of personal observation. He is, like 
all his countrymen, ample in the enumeration of symptoms, and 
is said to be inferior to Ali in practical medicine and surgery. 
He introduced into medical theory the four causes of the Peri- 
patetic system. Of natural history and botany he pretends 
to no special knowledge. Up to the year 1650, or thereabouts, 
the Canon was still used as a text-book in the universities of 
Louvain and Montpellier. 

About 100 treatises are ascribed to Avicenna. Some of them 
are tracts of a few pages, others are works extending through 
several volumes. The best-known amongst them, and that to 
which Avicenna owed his European reputation, is the Canon 
of Medicine; an Arabic edition of it appeared at Rome in 1593, 
and a Hebrew version at Naples in 1491. Of the Latin version 
there were about thirty editions, founded on the original trans- 
lation by Gerard of Cremona. The 15th century has the honour 
of composing the great commentary on the text of the Canon, 
grouping around it all that theory had imagined, and all that 
practice had observed. Other medical works translated into 
Latin are the Medicamenta Cordialia, Canticum de Medicina, 
Tractatus de Syrupo Acetoso. Scarcely any member of the 
Arabian circle of the sciences, including theology, philology, 
mathematics, astronomy, physics and music, was left un- 
touched by the treatises of Avicenna, many of which probably 
varied little, except in being commissioned by a different patron 
and having a different form or extent. He wrote at least one 
treatise on alchemy, but several others have been falsely attri- 
buted to him. His book on animals was translated by Michael 
Scot. His Logic, Metaphysics, Physics, De Caelo, are treatises 
giving a synoptic view of Aristotelian doctrine. The Logic 
and Metaphysics have been printed more than once, the latter, 
e.g., at Venice in 1493, 1495 and 1546. Some of his shorter essays 
on medicine, logic, &c, take a poetical form (the poem on logic 
was published by Schmoelders in 1836). Two encyclopaedic 



treatises, dealing with philosophy, are often mentioned. The 
larger, Al-ShijbV (Sanatio), exists nearly complete in manuscript 
in the Bodleian library and elsewhere; part of it on the De 
Anima appeared at Pavia (1490) as the Liber Sextus Naturalium, 
and the long account of Avicenna's philosophy given by Shah- 
rastani seems to be mainly an analysis, and in many places a 
reproduction, of the Al-Shifa'. A shorter form of the work is 
known as the An-najdt (Liberatio). The Latin editions of part 
of these works have been modified by the corrections which the 
monkish editors confess that they applied. There is also a 
Philosophia Orientalis, mentioned by Roger Bacon, and now 
lost, which according to Averroes was pantheistic in tone. 

For Avicenna's life, see Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary, 
translated by McG. de Slane (1842) ; F. Wiistenfeld's Geschickte der 
arabischen Aerzte und Naturforscker (Gottingen, 1840). For bis 
medicine, see Sprengel, Histoire de la MMecine; and for his philo- 
sophy, see Shahrastani, German trans, vol. ii. 213-332; K. Prantl, 
Geschickte der Logik, ii. 318-361; A. Stockl, Phil. d. Mittelalters, ii. 
2 3-58; S. Munk, Melanges, 352-366; B. Haneberg in the Abhand- 
lungen der pkilos.-philolog. Class, der bayerischen Academie (1867); 
and Carra de Vaux, Avicenne (Paris, 1900). For list of extant works 
see C. Brockelmaim's Geschickte der arabischen Litteratur (Weimar, 
1898), vol. i. pp. 452-458. (W. W.; G. W. T.) 

AVIENUS, RUFIUS FESTUS, a Roman aristocrat and poet, 
of Vulsinii in Etruria, who flourished during the second half of 
the 4th century a.d. He was probably proconsul of Africa (366) 
and of Achaia (372). Avienus was a pagan and a staunch 
supporter of the old religion. He translated the ^aivofxeua. of 
AratUs and paraphrased the Hepiriyiiai.s of Dionysius under 
the title of Descriptio Orbis Terrarum, both in hexameters. 
He also compiled a description, in iambic trimeters, of the coasts 
of the Mediterranean, Caspian and Black Seas in several books, 
of which only a fragment of the first is extant. He also epitomized 
Livy and Virgil's Aeneid in the same metre, but these works are 
lost. Some minor poems are found under his name in anthologies, 
e.g. a humorous request to one Favianus for some pomegranates 
for medicinal purposes. 

AVIGLIANA, a town of Piedmont, Italy, in the province of 
Turin, 14 m. W. by rail from the town of Turin. Pop. (1901) 
4629. It has medieval buildings of some interest, but is mainly 
remarkable for its large dynamite factory, employing over 
500 workman. 

AVIGNON, a city of south-eastern France, capital of the 
department of Vaucluse, 143 m. S. of Lyons on the railway 
between that city and Marseilles. Pop. (1906) 35,356. Avignon, 
which lies on the left bank of the Rhone, a few miles above its 
confluence with the Durance, occupies a large oval-shaped area 
not fully populated, and covered in great part by parks and 
gardens. A suspension bridge leads over the river to Villeneuve- 
les- Avignon (q.v.), and a little higher up, a picturesque ruined 
bridge of the 12th century, the Pont Saint-Benezet, projects into 
the stream. Only four of the eighteen piles are left; on one of 
them stands the chapel of Saint-Benezet, a small Romanesque 
building. Avignon is still encircled by the ramparts built by 
the popes in the 14th century, which offer one of the finest 
examples of medieval fortification in existence. The walls, 
which are of great strength, are surmounted by machicolated 
battlements, flanked at intervals by thirty-nine massive towers 
and pierced by several gateways, three of which date from the 
14th century. The whole is surrounded by a line of pleasant 
boulevards. The life of the town is almost confined to the 
Place de l'Hotel de Ville and the Cours de la Republique, which 
leads out of it and extends to the ramparts. Elsewhere the streets 
are narrow, quiet, and, for the most part, badly paved. At 
the northern extremity of the town a precipitous rock, the Rocher 
des Doms, rises from the river's edge and forms a plateau stretch- 
ing southwards nearly to the Place de l'Hotel .de Ville. Its 
summit is occupied by a public garden and, to the south of this, 
by the cathedral of Notre-Dame des Doms and the Palace of 
the Popes. The cathedral is a Romanesque building, mainly 
of the 12th century, the most prominent feature of which is the 
gilded statue of the Virgin which surmounts the western tower. 
Among the many works of art in the interior, the most beautiful 
is the mausoleum of Pope John XXII., a masterpiece of Gothic 



6 4 



AVILA 



carving of the 14th century. The cathedral is almost dwarfed 
by the Palace of the Popes, a sombre assemblage of buildings, 
which rises at its side and cavers a space of more than ij acres. 
Begun in 1316 by John XXII., it was continued by succeeding 
popes until 1370, and is in the Gothic style; in its construction 
everything has been sacrificed to strength, and though the effect 
is imposing, the place has the aspect rather of a fortress than 
of a palace. It was for long used as a barracks and prison, 
to the exigencies of which the fine apartments were ruthlessly 
adapted, but it is now municipal property. Among the minor 
churches of the town are St Pierre, which has a graceful facade 
and richly carved doors, St Didier and St Agricol, all three of 
Gothic architecture. The most notable of the civil buildings are 
the hotel de ville, a modern building with a belfry of the 14th 
century, and the old Hotel des Monnaies, the papal mint which 
was built in 1610 and is now used as a music-school. The Calvet 
Museum, so named after F. Calvet, physician, who in 1810 left 
his collections to the town, is rich in inscriptions, bronzes, glass 
and other antiquities, and in sculptures and paintings. Tlie 
library has over 140,000 volumes. The town has a statue of 
a Persian, Jean Althen, who in 1765 introduced the culture of 
the madder plant, which long formed the staple and is still an 
important branch of local trade. In 1873 John Stuart Mill died at 
Avignon, and is buried in the cemetery. For the connexion of 
Petrarch with the town see Petrarch. ~^ 

Avignon is subject to violent winds, of which the most dis- 
astrous is the mistral. The popular proverb is, however, some- 
what exaggerated, Avenio ventosa, sine vento venenosa, cum vento 
fastidiosa (windy Avignon, pest-ridden when there is no wind, 
wind-pestered when there is) . 

Avignon is the seat of an archbishop and has tribunals of first 
instance and of commerce, a council of trade-arbitrators, a lycee, 
and training college, a chamber of commerce and a branch of 
the Bank of France. It is in the midst of a fertile district, in 
the products of which it has a large trade, and has flour-mills, 
distilleries, oil-works and leather-works, manufactures soap, 
chemicals and liquorice, and is well known for its sarsanet and 
other fabrics. 

Avignon (Avenio) was an important town of the Gallic tribe 
of the Cavares, and under the Romans one of the leading cities 
of Gallia Narbonensis. Severely harassed during the barbarian 
invasions and by the Saracens, it was, in later times, attached 
successively to the kingdoms of Burgundy and of Aries and to 
the domains of the counts of Provence and of Toulouse and of 
Forcalquier. At the end of the 1 2 th century it became a republic, 
but in 1226 was taken and dismantled by Louis VIII. as punish- 
ment for its support of the Albigenses, and in 1251 was forced 
to submit to the counts of Toulouse and Provence. In 1309 
the city was chosen by Clement V. as his residence, and from 
that time till 1377 was the papal seat. In 1348 the city was sold 
by Joanna, countess of Provence, to Clement VI. After Gregory 
XI. had migrated to Rome, two antipopes, Clement VII. and 
Benedict XIII., resided at Avignon, from which the latter was 
expelled in 1408. The town remained in the possession of the 
popes, who governed it by means of legates, till its annexation 
by the National Assembly in 1791, though during this interval 
several kings of France made efforts to unite it with their 
dominions. In 1791 conflicts between the adherents of the 
Papacy and the Republicans led to much bloodshed. In 1815 
Marshal Brune was assassinated in the town by the adherents 
of the royalist party. The bishopric, founded in the 3rd century, 
became an archbishopric in 1475. 

See Fantoni Castrucci, Istoria detta citta d" Avignone e del Contado 
Venesino (Venice, 1678); J. B. Joudou, Histoire des souverains 
pontifes qui out siege a Avignon (Avignon, 1855); A. Canron, Guide 
de V Stranger dans la ville a" Avignon et ses environs (Avignon, 1858) ; 
J. F. Andre, Histoire de la Papaute d Avignon (Avignon, 1887). 

AVILA, GIL GONZALEZ DE (c. iS77-i6s8)_, Spanish bio- 
grapher and antiquary, was born and died at Avila. He was 
made historiographer of Castile in 161 2, and of the Indies in 
1 64 1. Of his numerous works, the most valuable are his Teatro 
de las Grandezas des Madrid (Madrid, 1623, sqq.), and his Teatro 
Eclesiastico. descriptive of the metropolitan churches and 



cathedrals of Castile, with lives of the prelates (Madrid, 1645- 
1653, 4 vols. 4to). 

AVILA, a province of central Spain, one of the modern divisions 
of the kingdom of Old Castile; bounded on the N. by Valladolid, 
E. by Segovia and Madrid, S. by Toledo and Caceres, and W. 
by Salamanca. Pop. (1900) 200,457; area, 2570 sq. m. Avila 
is naturally divided into two sections, differing completely in 
soil, climate, productions and social economy. The northern 
portion is generally level; the soil is of indifferent quality, 
strong and marly in a few places, but rocky in all the valleys of 
the Sierra de Avila; and the climate alternates from severe 
cold in winter to extreme heat in summer. The population 
of this part is mainly agricultural. The southern division is one 
mass of rugged granitic sierras, interspersed, however, with 
sheltered and well-watered valleys, abounding with rich vegeta- 
tion. The winter here, especially in the elevated region of the 
Paramera and the waste lands of Avila, is long and severe, but 
the climate is not unhealthy. In this region stock-breeding 
is an important industry. The principal mountain chains are 
the Guadarrama, separating this province from Madrid; the 
Paramera and Sierra de Avila, west of the Guadarrama; and 
the vast wall of the Sierra de Gredos along the southern frontier, 
where its outstanding peaks rise to 6000 or even 8000 ft. The 
ridges which ramify from the Paramera are covered with valuable 
forests of beeches, oaks and firs, presenting a striking contrast 
to the bare peaks of the Sierra de Gredos. The principal rivers 
are the Alberche and Tietar, belonging to the basin of the Tagus, 
and the Tormes, Trabancos and Adaja, belonging to that of the 
Douro. The mountains contain silver, copper, iron, lead and 
coal, but their mineral wealth has been exaggerated, and at the 
beginning of the 20th century mining had practically been 
abandoned. Quarries of fine marble and jasper exist in the 
district of Arenas. The province declined in wealth and popula- 
tion during the 1 8th and 19th centuries, a result due less to the 
want of activity on the part of the inhabitants than to the 
oppressive manorial and feudal rights and the strict laws of 
entail and mortmain, which acted as barriers to progress. 

Towards the close of this period many improvements were 
introduced, although the want of irrigation is still keenly felt 
Wide tracts of waste land were planted with pinewoods by the 
ducal house of Medina Sidonia. The main roads are fairly good; 
and Avila, the capital, is connected by rail with Salamanca. 
Valladolid and Madrid; but in many parts of the province 
the means of communication are defective. Except Avila there 
are no important towns. The principal production is the wool 
of the merino sheep, which at one time yielded an' immense 
revenue. Game is plentiful, and the rivers abound in fish, 
specially trout. Olives, chestnuts and grapes are grown, and 
silk-worms are kept. There is little trade, and the manufactures 
are few, consisting chiefly of copper utensils, lime, soap, cloth, 
paper and combs. The state of elementary education is com- 
paratively good, rather more than two-thirds of the population 
being able to read and write, and the ratio of crime is proportion- 
ately low. 

AVILA (anc. Abula or Avela), the capital of the province 
described above; on the right bank of the river Adaja, 54 m. 
W. by N. of Madrid, by the Madrid-Valladolid railway. Pop. 
(1900) 11,885. The city is built on -the flat summit of a rocky 
hill, which rises abruptly in the midst of a veritable wilderness; 
a brown, arid, treeless table-land, strewn with immense grey 
boulders, and shut in by lofty mountains. The ancient walls 
of Avila, constructed of brown granite, and surmounted by a 
breastwork, with eighty-six towers and nine gateways, are still 
in excellent repair; but a large part of the city lies beyond 
their circuit. Avila is the seat of a bishop, and contains several 
ecclesiastical buildings of high interest. The Gothic cathedral, 
said by tradition to date from 1167, but probably of 13th or 
14th century workmanship, has the appearance of a fortress, 
with embattled walls and two solid towers. It contains many 
interesting sculptures and paintings, besides one especially fine 
silver pyx, the work of Juan de Arphe, dating from 1571. The 
churches of San Vicente, San Pedro, Santo Tomas and San 



AVILA Y ZUNIGA— AVLONA 



65 



Segundo are, in their main features, Romanesque of the 15th 
century, although parts of the beautiful San Vicente, and of 
San Pedro, may be as old as the 12 th century. Especially 
noteworthy is the marble monument in Santo Tomas, carved by 
the 15th-century Florentine sculptor Domenico Fancelli, over 
the tomb of Prince John (d. 1497), the only son of Ferdinand 
and Isabella. The convent and church of Santa Teresa mark 
the supposed birthplace of the saint whose name they bear 
(c. 1515-1582). Avila also possesses an old Moorish castle 
(alcdzar) used as barracks, a foundling hospital, infirmary, 
military academy, and training schools for teachers of both 
sexes. From 1482 to 1807 it was also the seat of a university. 
It has a considerable trade in agricultural products, leather, 
pottery, hats, linen and cotton goods. 

For the local history see V. Picatoste, Traiiciones de Ayila 
(Madrid, 1888) ; and L. Ariz, Historic, de las grandezas de . . . Avila 
(Alcala de Henares, 1607). 

AVILA Y ZDNIGA, LUIS DE (C.1400-C 1560), Spanish 
historian, was born at Placentia. He was probably of low 
origin, but married a wealthy heiress of the family of Zuniga, 
whose name he added to his own. He rose rapidly in the favour 
of the emperor Charles V., served as ambassador to Rome, and 
was made grand commander of the order of the Knights of 
Alcantara. He accompanied the emperor to Africa in 1541, 
and having served during the war of the league of Schmaikalden, 
wrote a history of this war entitled Commentaries de la guerra 
de Alemana, hecha de Carlos V enelano de 1546 y 154J. This 
was first printed in 1548, and becoming very popular was 
translated into French, Dutch, German, Italian and Latin. 
As may be expected from the author's intimacy with Charles, 
the book is very partial to the emperor, and its misrepresentations 
have been severely criticized. 

AVILES, PEDRO MENENDEZ DE (1519-1574), Spanish 
seaman, founder of St Augustine, Florida, was born at Aviles 
in Asturias on the 15th of February 1519. His family were 
gentry, and he was one of nineteen brothers and sisters. At 
the age of fourteen he ran away to sea, and was engaged till he 
was thirty in a life of adventure as a corsair. In 1549 during 
peace between France and Spain he was commissioned by the 
emperor Charles V. to clear the north coast of Spain and the 
Canaries of French pirates. In 1554 he was appointed captain- 
general of the " flota " or convoy which carried the trade between 
Spain and America. The appointment was made by the emperor 
over the head and against the will of the Casa de Contratacion, 
or governing board of the American trade. In this year, and 
before he sailed to America, Aviles accompanied the prince of 
Spain, afterwards Philip II., to England, where he had gone to 
marry Queen Mary. As commander of the flota he displayed a 
diligence, and achieved a degree of success in bringing back 
treasure, which earned him the hearty approval of the emperor. 
But his devotion to the imperial service, and bis steady refusal 
to receive bribes as the reward for permitting breaches of the 
regulations, made him unpopular with the merchants, while 
his high-handed ways offended the Casa de Contratacion. Re- 
appointed commander in 1557; and knowing the hostility of the 
Casa, he applied for service elsewhere. The war with France in 
which Spain and England were allies was then in progress, and 
until the close of 1559 ample occupation was found for Avilfis in 
bringing money and recruits from Spain to Flanders. When peace 
was restored he commanded the fleet which brought Philip II. 
back from the Low Countries to Spain. In 1560 he was again 
appointed to command the flota, and he made a most successful 
voyage to America and back, in that and the following year. 
His relations with the Casa de Contratacion were, however, 
as strained as ever. On his return from another voyage in 
1563 he was arrested by order of the Casa, and was detained in 
prison for twenty months. What the charges brought against 
him were is not known. Aviles in a letter to the king avows 
his innocence, and he was finally discharged by the judges, 
but not until they had received two peremptory orders from the 
king to come to a decision. 

On his release he prepared to sail to the Bermudas to seek for 

in. 3 



his son Juan, who had beert shipwrecked in the previous year. 
At that time the French Huguenots were engaged in endeavour- 
ing to plant a colony in Florida. As the country had been 
explored by the Spaniards they claimed it as theirs, and its 
position-on the track of the home-coming trade of Mexico rendered 
its possession by any other power highly dangerous. Philip II. 
endeavoured to avert the peril by making an " asiento" or contract 
with Aviles, by which he advanced 15,000 ducats to the seaman, 
and constituted him proprietor of any colony which he could 
establish in Florida, on condition that the money was repaid. 
The contract was signed on the 20th of March 1565. Aviles 
sailed on the 28th of July of the 1 same year with one vessel of 600 
tons, ten sloops and 1 500 men. On the 28th of August he entered 
and named the Bay of St Augustine, and began a fort there. 
He took the French post of Fort Caroline on the 20th of 
September 1565, and in October exterminated a body of French- 
men who, under the Huguenot Jean Ribault, had arrived on the 
coast of Florida to relieve their colony. The Spanish commander, 
after slaying nearly all his prisoners, hung their bodies on trees, 
with the inscription, " Not as Frenchmen but as Lutherans." A 
French sea-captain named Dominique de Gourgues revenged the 
massacre by capturing in 1568 Fort San Mateo (as the Spanish 
had renamed Fort Caroline), and hanging the garrison, with 
the inscription, " Not as Spaniards but as murderers." Till 
1567 Aviles remained in Florida, busy with his colony. In 
that year he returned to Spain. He made one more voyage to 
Florida, and died on the i7thof September 1574. Aviles married 
Maria de Solis, when very young, and left three daughters. His 
letters prove him to have been a pious and high-minded officer, 
who never imagined that he could be supposed by any honest 
man to have gone too far in massacring the Frenchmen, whom he 
regarded as pirates and heretics. 

See The Spanish Settlements within the Present Limits of the 
United States, filQlida, 1562-1574, by Woodbury Lowery (New 
York, 1905). * (D. H.) 

AVIL&S, or S/.^ Nicolas de' Aviles (the Roman Flavionavia) , 
a seaport of northern Spain, in the province of Oviedo; on the 
Bay of Avil6s, a winding inlet of the Bay of Biscay, 24 m. by rail 
W. of Gijon. Pop. (1900) 12,763. Avil6s is a picturesque and 
old- fashioned town, containing several ancient palaces and 
Gothic churches. The bay, which is crossed by a fine bridge at 
its narrow landward extremity, is the headquarters of a fishing 
fleet, and a port of call for many coasting vessels. Coal from the 
Oviedo mines is exported coastwise, and in 1904 the shipments 
from Aviles for the first time exceeded those from Gijon, reaching 
a total of more than 290,000 tons. Glass and coarse linen and 
woollen stuffs are manufactured; and there are valuable stone 
quarries in the neighbourhood. 

AVIZANDUM (from Late Lat. avizare, to consider), a Scots 
law term; the judge " makes avizandum with a cause," i.e. takes 
time to consider his judgment. 

AVLONA (anc. Aulon; Ital. Valona; Alb. Vliona), a town 
and seaport of Albania, Turkey, in the vilayet of Iannina. Pop. 
(1900) about 6000. Avlona occupies an eminence near the Gulf 
of Avlona, an inlet of the Adriatic, almost surrounded by moun- 
tains. The port is the best on the Albanian coast, and the nearest 
to Italy. It is protected by the island of Saseno, the ancient 
Saso, and by Cape Glossa, the northernmost headland of the 
Acroceraunian mountains. It is regularly visited by steamers 
from Trieste, Fiume, Brindisi, and other Austro-Hungarian and 
Italian ports, as well as by many small Greek and Turkish 
coasters. The cable and telegraph line from Otranto, in Italy, 
to Constantinople, has an important station here. The town is 
about if m. from the sea, and has rather a pleasant appearance 
with its minarets and its palace, surrounded with gardens and 
olive-groves. Valonia, a material largely used by tanners, is 
the pericarp of an acorn obtained in the neighbouring oak- 
woods, and derives its name from Valona. The surrounding 
district is mainly agricultural and pastoral, producing oats, maize, 
cotton, olive oil, cattle, sheep, skins, hides and butter. All 
these commodities are exported in considerable quantities, besides 
bitumen, which is obtained from a mine worked by a French 



66 



AVOCA— AVON 



company. The imports are woollen and cotton piece-goods, 
metals and petroleum. 

Avlona played an important part in the wars between the 
Normans and the Byzantines, during the nth and 12th centuries. 
In 1464 it was taken by the Ottomans; and after being in 
Venetian possession in 1690, was restored to them in 169 1. In 
1851 it suffered severely from an earthquake. 

AVOCA, or Ovoca, VALE OF, a mountain glen of county 
Wicklow, Ireland, in the south-eastern part of the county, 
formed by the junction of the small rivers Avonmore and Avon- 
beg, which, rising in the central highlands of the county, form 
with their united waters the Ovoca river, flowing south and 
south-east to the Irish Sea at Arklow. The vale would doubtless 
rank only as one among the many beautiful glens of the district, 
but that it has obtained a lasting celebrity through one of the 
Irish Melodies of the poet Thomas Moore, in which its praises 
are sung. It is through this song that the form " Avoca " is 
most familiar, although the name is locally spelt " Ovoca." 
The glen is narrow and densely wooded. Its beauty is somewhat 
marred by the presence of lead and copper mines, and by the 
main line of the Dublin & South Eastern railway, on which 
Ovoca station, midway in the vale, is 42! m. south of Dublin. 
Of the two " meetings of the waters " (the upper, of the Avon- 
more and Avonbeg, and the lower, of the Aughrim with the 
Ovoca) the upper, near the fine seat of Castle Howard, is 
that which inspired the poet. At Avondale, above the upper 
" meeting," by the Avonmore, Charles Stewart Parnell was 
born. 

AVOCADO PEAR, the fruit of the tree Persea gratissima, 
which grows in the West Indies and elsewhere; the flesh is of a 
soft and buttery consistency and highly esteemed. The name 
avocado, the Spanish for " advocate," is a sound-substitute for 
the Aztec ahuacatl; it is also corrupted into " alliga tor-pear." 
Avocato, avigato, abbogada are variants. 

AVOGADRO, AMEDEO, Conte Di Quaej^GNA (1776-1856), 
Italian physicist, was born at Turin on the 9th of June 1776, and 
died there on the 9th of July 1856. He was for many years 
professor of higher physics in Turin University. He published 
many physical memoirs on electricity, the dilatation of liquids 
by heat, specific heats, capillary attraction, atomic volumes &c. 
as well as a treatise in 4 volumes on Fisica di corpi ponderabili 
(1837-1841). But he is chiefly remembered for his " Essai d'une 
maniere de determiner les masses relatives des molecules elemen- 
taires des corps, et les proportions selon lesquelles elles entrent 
dans les combinaisons " (Journ. de Phys., 1811), in which he 
enunciated the hypothesis known by his name (Avogadro's 
rule) that under the same conditions of temperature and pressure 
equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of smallest 
particles or molecules, whether those particles consist of single 
atoms or are composed of two or more atoms of the same or 
different kinds. 

fhi AVOIDANCE (from " avoid," properly to make empty or void, 
in current usage, to keep away from, to shun; the word " avoid " 
is adapted from the O. Fr. esvuidier or evider, to empty out, 
voide, modern vide, empty, connected with Lat. vacuus), the 
action of making empty, void or null, hence, in law, invalidation, 
annulment (see Confession and Avoidance) ; also the becoming 
void or vacant, hence in ecclesiastical law a term signifying the 
vacancy of a benefice — that it is void of an incumbent. In general 
use, the word means the action of keeping away from anything, 
shunning or avoiding. 

AVOIRDUPOIS, or Averdupois (from the French avoir de pois, 
goods of weight), the name of a system of weights used in Great 
Britain and America for all commodities except the precious 
metals, gems and medicines. The foundation of the system is 
the grain. A cubic inch of water weighs 252-458 grains. Of this 
grain 7000 now (see Weights and Measures) make a pound 
avoirdupois. This pound is divided into 16 oz., and these 
ounces into 16 drachms. 

Avoirdupois Weight. 

Drachm, i6=ounce_ i6=pound, i4=stone t 2=quarter, 4=hundred, 2o;=ton. 
27*3 grains 437*5 7000 98,000 196,000 grs, 112 B> 2240 5b. 



AVON, the name of several rivers in England and elsewhere. 
The word is Celtic, appearing in Welsh (very frequently) as afon, 
in Manx as aon, and in Gaelic as abhuinn (pronounced avain), 
and is radically identical with the Sanskrit ap, water, and the Lat. 
aqua and amnis. The root appears more or less disguised in a 
vast number of river names all over the Celtic area in Europe. 
Thus, besides such forms as Evan, Aune, Anne,Ive, Auney, Inney, 
&c, in the British Islands, Aff, Aven, Avon, Aune appear in 
Brittany and elsewhere in France, Avenza and Avens in Italy, 
Avia in Portugal, and Avono in Spain; while the terminal 
syllable of a large proportion of the Latinized names of French 
rivers, such as the Sequana> the Matrona and the Garumna, 
seems originally to have been the same word. The names 
Punjofe, Doafe, &c, show the root in a clearer shape. 

In England the following are the principal rivers of this name. 

1. The East or Hampshire Avon rises in Wiltshire south of 
Marlborough, and watering the Vale of Pewsey collects feeders 
from the high downs between Marlborough and Devizes. Breach- 
ing the high ground of Salisbury Plain, it passes Amesbury, and 
following a very sinuous course reaches Salisbury. Here it 
receives on the east bank the waters of the Bourne, and on the 
west those of the Wylye. With a more direct course, and in a 
widening, fertile valley it continues past Downton, Fording- 
bridge and Ringwood, skirting the New Forest on the west, to 
Christchurch, where it receives the Stour from the west, and 25 m, 
lower enters the English Channel through the broad but narrow- 
mouthed Christchurch harbour. The length, excluding lesser 
sinuosities, is about 60 m., Salisbury being 35 m. above the 
mouth. The total fall is rather over 500 ft., and that from 
Salisbury about 140 ft. The river is of no commercial value for 
navigation. It abounds in loach, and there are valuable salmon 
fisheries. The drainage area is 1132 sq. m. 

2. The Lower or Bristol Avon rises on the eastern slope of 
the Cotteswold Hills in Gloucestershire, collecting the waters of 
several streams south of Tetbury and east of Malmesbury. It 
flows east and south in a wide curve, through a broad upper 
valley past Chippenham and Melksham, after which it turns 
abruptly west to Bradford-on-Avon, receives the waters of the 
Frome from the south, and enters the beautiful narrow valley in 
which lie Bath and Bristol. Below Bristol the valley becomes 
the Clifton Gorge, famous for its wooded cliffs and for the 
Clifton (q.v.) suspension bridge which bestrides it. The cliffs 
and woods have been so far disfigured by quarries that public 
feeling was aroused, and in 1904 an " Avon Gorge Committee " 
was appointed to report to the corporation of Bristol on the 
possibility of preserving the beauties of the locality. The Avon 
finally enters the estuary of the Severn at Avonmouth, though it 
can hardly be reckoned as a tributary of that river. From Bristol 
downward the river is one of the most important commercial 
waterways in England, as giving access to that great port. 
The Kennet and Avon Canal, between Reading and the Avon, 
follows the river closely from Bradford down to Bath, where it 
enters it by a descent of seven locks. The length of the river, 
excluding minor sinuosities, is about 75 m., the distance from 
Bradford to Bath being 10 m., thence to Bristol 12m., and thence 
to the mouth 8 m. The total fall is between 500 and 600 ft., but 
it is only 235 ft. from Malmesbury. The drainage area is 891 
sq. miles. 

3. The Upper Avon, also called the Warwickshire, and some- 
times the " Shakespeare " Avon from its associations with the 
poet's town of Stratford on its banks, is an eastern tributary 
of the Severn. It rises near Naseby in Northamptonshire, and, 
with a course of about 100 m. joins the Severn immediately 
below Tewkesbury in Gloucestershire. Its early course is south- 
westerly to Rugby, thereafter it runs west and south-west to 
Warwick, receiving the Learn on the east. Its general direction 
thereafter remains south-westerly, and it flows past Stratford- 
on-Avon, receives the Stour on the south and the Arrow on the 
north and thence past Evesham and Pershore to Tewkesbury. 
The valley is always broad, and especially from Warwick down- 
ward, through the Vale of Evesham, the scenery is very beautiful, 
the rich valley being flanked by the bold Cotteswold Hills on 



AVONIAN— AXE 



67 



the south and by the wooded slopes of the Arden district of 
Warwickshire on the north. The view of Warwick Castle, rising 
from the wooded banks of the river, is unsurpassed, and the 
positions of Stratford and Evesham are admirable. The river 
is locked, and carries a small trade up to Evesham, 28 m. from 
Tewkesbury; the locks frohi Evesham upward to Stratford 
(17 m.) are decayed, but the weirs, and mill-dams still higher, 
afford many navigable reaches to pleasure boats. The total 
fall of the river is about 500 ft.; from Rugby about 230 ft., and 
from Warwick 120 ft. The river abounds in coarse fish. 

Among other occurrences of the name of Avon in Great Britain 
there may be noted — in England, a stream flowing south-east 
from Dartmoor in Devonshire to the English Channel; in 
South Wales, the stream which has its mouth at Aberavon in 
Glamorganshire; in Scotland, tributaries of the Clyde, the Spey 
and the Forth. 

AVONIAN, in geology, the name proposed by Dr A. Vaughan 
in 1905 (Q.J.G.S. vol. lxi. p. 264) for the rocks of Lower 
Carboniferous age in the Avon gorge at Bristol. The Avonian 
stage appears to embrace precisely the same rocks and fossil- 
zones as the earlier designation " Dinantien " (see Carboni- 
ferous System) ; but its substages, being founded upon different 
local conditions and a different interpretation of the zonal fossils, 
do not correspond exactly with those of the French and Belgian 
geologists. 

Substages. Zones. Substages. 

Kidwellian { Dibunophyllum 
\ Seminula 



Avonian 



rTournaisien 



Dinantien 



{VViseen 
Syringothyris J 
Zaphrentis 
Cleistopora j 

The upper Avonian (Kidwellian) is well developed about 
Kidwelly in Carmarthenshire. The lower substage (Clevedonian) 
is well displayed near Clevedon in Somerset. 

See A. Vaughan, " The Carboniferous Limestone Series (Avonian) 
of the Avon Gorge," Proc. Bristol Naturalists' Soc, 4th series, 
vol. i. pt. 2, 1906, pp. 74-168 (many plates) ; and T. F. Sibley, " On 
the Carboniferous Limestone (Avonian) of the Mendip area (Somer- 
set)," Q.J.G.S. vol. lxii., 1906, pp. 324-380 (plates). (J. A. H.) 

AVONMORE, BARRY YELVERTON, ist Viscount (1736- 
1805), Irish judge, was born in 1736. He was the eldest son of 
Frank Yelverton of Blackwater, Co. Cork. Educated at Trinity 
College, Dublin, he was for some years an assistant master under 
Andrew Buck in the Hibernian Academy. In 1761 he married 
Miss Mary Nugent, a lady of some fortune, and was then enabled 
to read for the bar. He was called in 1 764, his success was rapid, 
and he took silk eight years afterwards. He sat in the Irish 
parliament as member successively for the boroughs of Donegal 
and Carrickfergus, becoming attorney-general in 1782, but was 
elevated to the bench as chief baron of the exchequer in 1783. 
He was created (Irish) Baron Avonmore in 1795, and in 1800 
(Irish) viscount. Among his colleagues at the Irish bar Yelver- 
ton was a popular and charming companion. Of insignificant 
appearance, he owed his early successes to his remarkable 
eloquence, which made a great impression on his contemporaries ; 
as a judge, he was inclined to take the view of the advocate 
rather than that of the impartial lawyer. He gave his support 
to Grattan and the Whigs during the greater part of his parlia- 
mentary career, but in his latter days became identified with the 
court party and voted for the union, for which his viscounty was 
a reward. He had three sons and one daughter, and the title 
has descended in the family. 

AVRANCHES, a town of north-western France, capital of an 
arrondissement in the department of Manche, 87 m. S. of Cher- 
bourg on the Western railway. Pop. (1906) 7186. It stands on 
a wooded hill, its botanical gardens commanding a fine view 
westward of the bay and rock of St Michel. At the foot of the 
hill flows the river See, which at high tide is navigable from the 
sea. The town is surrounded by avenues, which occupy the site 
of the ancient ramparts, remains of which are to be seen on the 
north side. Avranches was from 511 to 1790 a bishop's see, held 
at the end of the 17th century by the scholar Daniel Huet; and its 



cathedral, destroyed as insecure in the time of the first French 
Revolution, was the finest in Normandy. Its site is now occupied 
by an open square, one stone remaining to mark the spot where 
Henry II. of England received absolution for the murder of 
Thomas Becket. The churches of Notre-Dame des Champs and 
St Saturnin are modern buildings in the Gothic style. The 
ancient episcopal palace is now used as a court of justice; a 
public library is kept in the h6tel de ville. In the public gardens 
there is a statue of General Jean Marie Valhubert, killed at 
Austerlitz. Avranches is seat of a sub-prefect and has a tribunal 
of first instance and a communal college. Leather-dressing is 
the chief industry; steam-sawing, brewing and dyeing are also 
carried on, and horticulture flourishes in the environs. Trade 
is in cider, cattle, butter, flowers and fruit, and there are salmon 
and other fisheries. 

Avranches, an important military station of the Romans, 
was in the middle ages chief place of a county of the duchy of 
Normandy. It sustained several sieges, the most noteworthy 
of which, in 1591, was the result of its opposition to Henry IV. 
In 1639 Avranches was the focus of the peasant revolt against 
the salt-tax, known as the revolt of the Nu-pieds. 

AWADIA and FADNIA, two small nomad tribes of pure Arab 
blood living in the Bayuda desert, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 
between the wells of Jakdul and Metemma. They are often 
incorrectly classed as Ja'alin. They own numbers of horses and 
cattle, the former of the black Dongola breed. At the battle 
of Abu Klea (17th of January 1885) they were conspicuous for 
their courage in riding against the British square. 

See Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, edited by Count Gleichen (London, 
I905)- 

AWAJI, an island belonging to Japan, situated at the eastern 
entrance of the Inland Sea, having a length of 32 m., an extreme 
breadth of 16 m., and an area of 218 sq. m., with a population 
of about 190,000. It is separated on the south from the island 
of Shikoku by the Naruto channel, through which, in certain 
conditions of the tide, a remarkable torrential current is set up. 
The island is celebrated for its exquisite scenery, and also for 
the fact that it is traditionally reputed to have been the first 
of the Japanese islands created by the deities Izanagi and 
Izanami. The loftiest peak is Yuruuba-yama (1998 ft.) , the most 
picturesque Sen-zan (1519 ft.). Awaji is noted for a peculiar 
manufacture of pottery. 

AWARD (from O. Fr. ewarl, or esguart, cf. "reward"), the 
decision of an arbitrator. (See Arbitration.) 

AWE, LOCH, the longest freshwater lake in Scotland, situated 
in mid-Argyllshire, 116 ft. above the sea, with an area of nearly 
16 sq. m. It has a N.E. to S.W. direction and is fully 23 m. long 
from Kilchurn Castle to Ford, its breadth varying from -J of a 
mile to 3 m. at its upper end, where it takes the shape of a 
crescent, one arm of which runs towards Glen Orchy, the other 
to the point where' the river Awe leaves the lake. The two ends 
of the loch are wholly dissimilar in character, the scenery of the 
upper extremity being majestic, while that of the lower half 
is pastoral and tame. Of its numerous islands the best-known 
is Inishail, containing ruins of a church and convent, which was 
suppressed at the Reformation. At the extreme north-eastern 
end of the lake, on an islet which, when the water is low, 
becomes part of the mainland, stand the imposing ruins of Kil- 
churn Castle. Its romantic surroundings have made this castle 
a favourite subject of the landscape painter. Dalmally, about 
2 m. from the loch, is one of the pleasantest villages in the High- 
lands and has a great yogue in midsummer. The river Awe, 
issuing from the north-western horn of the loch, affords excellent 
trout and salmon fishing. 

AWL (O. Eng. ael; at one time spelt nawl by a confusion 
with the indefinite article before it) , a small hand-tool for piercing 
holes. 

AXE (O. Eng. aex; a word common, in different forms, 
in the Teutonic languages, and akin to the Greek dijiyrj; the 
New English Dictionary prefers the spelling " ax "), a tool or 
weapon, taking various shapes, but, when not compounded with 
some distinguishing word (e.g. in " pick-axe "), generally formed 



68 



AXHOLME^AXOLOTL 



by an edged head fixed upon a handle for striking. A " hatchet " 
is a small sort of axe. 

AXHOLME, an island in the north-west part of Lincolnshire, 
England, lying between the rivers Trent, Idle and Don, and 
isolated by drainage channels connected with these rivers. 
It consists mainly of a plateau of slight elevation, rarely ex- 
ceeding ioo ft., and comprises the parishes of Althorpe, Belton, 
Epworth, Haxey, Luddington, Owston and Crowle; the total 
area being about 47,900 acres. At a very early period it would 
appear to have been covered with forest; but this having been 
in great measure destroyed, it became in -great part a swamp. 
In 1627 King Charles I., who was lord of the island, entered 
into a contract with Cornelius Vermuyden, a Dutchman, for 
reclaiming the meres and marshes, and rendering them fit for 
tillage. This undertaking led to the introduction of a large 
number of Flemish workmen, who settled in the district, and, 
in spite of the violent measures adopted by the English peasantry 
to expel them, retained their ground in sufficient numbers to 
affect the physical appearance and the accent of the inhabitants 
to -this day. The principal towns in the isle are Crowle (pop. 
2769) and Epworth. The Axholme joint light railway runs north 
and south through the isle, connecting Goole with Haxey 
junction; and the Great Northern, Great Eastern and Great 
Central lines also afford communications. The land is extremely 
fertile. The name, properly Axeyholm (.cf. Haxey), js' hybrid, 
Ax being the Celtic uisg, water; ey the Anglo-Saxon for island; 
and holm the Norse word with the same signification. 

AXILE, or Axial, a term ( = related to the axis) used technic- 
ally in science; in botany an embryo is called axile when it has 
the same direction as the axis of the seed. 

AXINITE, a mineral consisting of a complex aluminium and 
calcium boro-silicate with a small amount of basic hydrogen; 
the calcium is partly replaced in varying amounts by ferrous 
iron and manganese, and the aluminium by ferric iron: the 
formula is HCa 3 BAl 2 (Si04)4- The mineral was named (from 
a^ivri, an axe) by R. J. Haiiy in 1799, on account of the char- 
acteristic thin wedge-like form of its 
anorthic crystals. The colour is usually 
, clove-brown, but rarely it has a violet 
tinge (on this account the mineral was 
named yanolite, meaning violet stone, by 
J. C. Delametherie in 1792). The best 
specimens are afforded by the beautifully 
developed transparent glassy crystals, 
found with albite, prehnite and quartz, 
in a zone of amphibolite and chlorite-schists at Le Bourg 
d'Oisans in Dauphine. It is found in the greenstone and horn- 
blende-schists of Batallack Head near St Just in Cornwall, and 
in diabase in the Harz; and small ones in Maine and in North- 
ampton county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Large crystals have 
also been found in Japan. In its occurrence in basic rather than 
in acid eruptive rocks, axinite differs from the boro-silicate 
tourmaline, which is usually found in granite. The specific 
gravity is 3-28. The hardness of 65-7, combined with the colour 
and transparency, renders axinite applicable for use as a gem- 
stone, the Dauphine crystals being occasionally cut for this 
purpose. (L. J. S.) 

AXIOM (Gr. a&wixa), a general proposition or principle 
accepted as self-evident, either absolutely or within a particular 
sphere of thought. Each special science has its own axioms 
(cf. the Aristotelian dpxai, "first principles "), which, however, 
are sometimes susceptible of proof in another wider science. 
The Greek word was probably confined by Plato to mathematical 
axioms, but Aristotle (Anal. Post. i. 2) gave it also the wider 
significance of the ultimate principles of thought which are 
behind all special sciences (e.g. the principle of contradiction). 
These are apprehended solely by the mind, which may, however, 
be led to them by an inductive process. After Aristotle, the 
term was used by the Stoics and the school of Ramus for a 
proposition simply, and Bacon (Nov. Organ, i. 7) used it of any 
general proposition. The word was reintroduced in modern 
philosophy probably by Rene Descartes (or by his followers) 




who, in the search for a definite self-evident principle as the basis 
of a new philosophy, naturally turned to the familiar science of 
mathematics. The axiom of Cartesianism is, therefore, the 
Cogito ergo sum. Kant still further narrowed the meaning to 
include only self-evident (intuitive) synthetic propositions, 
i.e. of space and time. The nature of axiomatic certainty is 
part of the fundamental problem of logic and metaphysics. 
Those who deny the possibility of all non-empirical knowledge 
naturally hold that every axiom is ultimately based on observa- 
tion. For the Euclidian axioms see Geometry. 

AXIS (Lat. for " axle "), a word having the same meaning 
as axle, and also used with many extensions of this primary 
meaning. It denotes the imaginary line about which a body 
or system of bodies rotates, or a line about which a body or 
action: is symmetrically disposed. In geometry, and in geo- 
metrical crystallography, the term denotes a line which serves 
to aid the orientation of a .figure. In anatomy, it is, among 
other uses, applied to the second cervical vertebra, and in 
botany it means the stem. 

AXLE (in Mid. Eng. axel-tre, from O. Norweg. oxull-tre, 
cognate with the O. Eng. mxe or eaxe, and connected with Sansk. 
dksha, Gr. a^ow, and Lat. axis), the pin or spindle on which 
a wheel turns. In carriages the axle-tree is the bar on which 
the wheels are mounted, the axles being strictly its thinner 
rounded prolongations on which they actually turn. The pins 
which pass through the ends of the axles and keep the wheels 
from slipping off are known as axle-pins or " linch-pins," 
" linch " being a corruption, due to confusion with " link," 
of the Old English word for " axle," lynis, cf. Ger. Liinse. 

AX - LES - THERMES, a watering place of south-western 
France, in the department of Ariege, at the confluence of the 
Ariege with three tributaries, 26 m. S.S.E. of Foix by rail. 
Pop. (1906) 1 1 79. Ax (Aquae), situated at a height of 2300 ft., 
is well known for its warm sulphur springs (77°-i72° F.), of 
which there are about sixty. The waters, which were used by 
the Romans, are efficacious in the treatment of rheumatism, 
skin diseases and other maladies. 

AXMINSTER, a market-town in the Honiton parliamentary 
division of Devonshire, England, on the river Axe, 27 m. E. by 
N. of Exeter by the London & South-Western railway. Pop. 
(1901) 2906. The minster, dedicated to St Mary the Virgin, 
illustrates every style of architecture from Norman to Perpen- 
dicular. There are in the chancel two freestone effigies, perhaps 
of the 14th century, besides three sedilia, and a piscina under 
arches. Axminster was long celebrated for the admirable 
quality of its carpets, which were woven by hand, like tapestry. 
Their manufacture was established in 1 755. Their name is 
preserved, but since the seat of this industry was removed to 
Wilton near Salisbury, the inhabitants of Axminster have found 
employment in brush factories, corn mills, timber yards and an 
iron foundry. Cloth, drugget, cotton, leather, gloves and 
tapes are also made. Coaxdon House, the birthplace in 1602 
of Sir Symonds d'Ewes, the Puritan historian, is about 2 m. 
distant, and was formerly known as St Calyst. 

Axminster (Axemystre) derives its name from the river Axe and 
from the old abbey church or minster said to have been built by 
King iEthelstan. The situation of Axminster at the intersection of 
the two great ancient roads, Iknield Street and the Fosse Way, and 
also the numerous earthworks and hill-fortresses in the neighbour- 
hood indicate a very early settlement. There is a tradition that 
the battle of Brunanburh was fought in the valley of the Axe, and 
that the bodies of the Danish princes who perished in action were 
buried in Axminster church. According to Domesday, Axminster 
was held by the king. In 1246 Reginald de Mohun, then lord of the 
manor, founded a Cistercian abbey at Newenham within the parish 
of Axminster, granting it a Saturday market and a fair on Mid- 
summer day, and the next year made over to the monks from 
Beaulieu the manor and hundred of Axminster. The abbey was 
dissolved in 1539. The midsummer fair established by Reginald de 
Mohun is still held. 

See Victoria County History — Devon; James Davidson, British 
and Roman Remains in the Vicinity of Axminster (London, 1833). 

AXOLOTL, the Mexican name given to larvae salamanders of 
the genus Amblystoma. It required the extraordinary acumen 
of the great Cuvier at once to recognize, when the first specimens 



AXQLOTL 



69 



of the Gyrinus edulis or Axolett of Mexico were brought to him 
by Humboldt in the beginning of the 19th century, that these 
Batrachians were not really related to the Perennibranchiates, 
such as Siren and Proteus, with which he was well acquainted, 
but represented the larval form of some air-breathing salamander. 
Little heed was paid to his opinion by most systematists, and 
when, more than half a century later, the axolotl was found to 
breed in its branchiferous condition, the question seemed to be 
settled once for all against him, and the genus Siredon, as it was 
called by J. Wagler, was unanimously maintained and placed 
among the permanent gill-breathers. 

It seemed impossible to admit that an animal which lives for 
years without losing its gills, and is able to propagate in that 
state, could be anything but a perfect form. And yet subsequent 
discoveries, which followed in rapid succession, have established 
that Siredon is but the larval form of the salamander A mbly- 
Stoma, a genus long known from various parts of North America; 
and Cuvier's conclusions now read much better than they did 
half a century after they were published. Before reviewing the 
history of these discoveries, it is desirable to say a few words of 
the characters of the axolotl (larval form) and of the Amblystoma 
(perfect or imago form). 

The axolotl has been known to the Mexicans from the remotest 
times, as an article of food regularly brought from neighbouring 
lakes to the Mexico market, its flesh being agreeable and whole- 
some. Francisco Hernandez (151 4- 157 8) has alluded^fo it as 
Gyrinus edulis or atolocatl, and as lusus aquarum, piscis ludicrus, 
or axolotl, which latter name has remained in use, in Mexico and 
elsewhere, to the present day. But for its large size — it grows 
to a length of eleven inches — it is a nearly exact image of the 
British newt larvae. It has the same moderately long, plump 
body, with a low dorsal crest, the continuation of the membrane 
bordering the strongly compressed tail; a large thick head with 
small eyes without lids and with a large pendent upper lip; two 
pairs of well-developed limbs, with free digits; and above all, 
as the most characteristic feature, three large appendages on 
each side of the back of the head, fringed with filaments which, 
in their fullest development, remind one of black ostrich feathers. 
These are the external gills, through which the animal breathes 
the oxygen dissolved in the water. The jaws are provided with 
small teeth in several rows, and there is an elongate patch of 
further teeth on each side of the front of the palate (inserted on 
the vomerine and palatine bones) . The colour is blackish, or of 
a dark olive-grey or brownish grey with round black spots or dots. 

The genus Amblystoma was established by J. J. Tschudi in 
1838 for various salamanders from North America, which had 
previously been described as Lacerta or Salamandra, and which, 
so far as general appearance is concerned, differ little from the 
European salamanders. The body is smooth and shiny, with 
vertical grooves on the sides, the tail is but feebly compressed, 
the eye is moderately large and provided with movable lids, 
and the upper lip is nearly straight. But the dentition of the 
palate is very different; the small teeth, which are in a single row, 
as in the jaws, form a long transverse, continuous or interrupted 
series behind the inner nares or choanae. The animal leaves the 
water after completing its metamorphosis, the last stage of which 
is marked by the loss of the gills. One of the largest and most 
widely distributed species of this genus, which includes about 
twenty, is the Amblystoma tigrinum, an inhabitant of both the 
east and west of the United States and of a considerable part 
of the cooler parts of Mexico. It varies much in colour, but it 
may be described as usually brown or blackish, with more or less 
numerous yellow spots, sometimes arranged in transverse bands. 
It rarely exceeds a length of nine inches. This is the Amblystoma 
into which the axolotl has been ascertained to transform. It is 
generally admitted that the axolotls which were kept alive in 
Europe and were particularly abundant between 1870 and 1880 
are all the descendants of a stock bred in Paris and distributed 
chiefly by dealers, originally, we believe, by the late P. Car- 
bonnier. Close in-breeding without the infusion of Hew blood 
is probably the cause of the decrease in their numbers at the 
present day, specimens being more difficult to procure and 



fetching much higher prices than they did formerly, at least in 
England and in France. 

The original axolotls, from the vicinity of Mexico City, it is 
believed, arrived at the Jardin d'Acclimatation, Paris, late in 

1863. They were thirty-four in number, among which was an 
albino, and had been sent to that institution, together with a few 
other animals, by order of Marshal Forey, who was appointed 
commander-in-chief of the French expeditionary force to Mexico 
after the defeat of General Lorencez at Puebla (May 5th, 1862), 
and returned to France at the end of 1863, after having handed 
over the command to Marshal (then General) Bazaine. Six 
specimens (five males and one female) were given by the Society 
d'Acclimatation to Professor A. Dumeril, the administrator of the 
reptile collection of the Jardin des Plantes, the living specimens 
of which were at that time housed in a very miserable structure, 
situated at a short distance from the comparatively sumptuous 
building which was erected some years later and opened to the 
public in 1874. Soon after their arrival at the Jardin d'Acclimata- 
tion, some of the axolotls spawned, but the eggs, not having been 
removed from the aquarium, were devoured by its occupants. 
At the same time, in the Jardin des Plantes, the single female 
axolotl also spawned, twice in succession, and a large number of 
young were successfully reared. This, it then seemed, solved 
the often-discussed question of the perennibranchiate nature of 
these Batrachians. But a year later, the second generation 
having reached sexual maturity, new broods were produced, 
and out of these some individuals lost their gills and dorsal 
crest, developed movable eyelids, changed their dentition, and 
assumed yellow spots,— in fact, took on all the characters of 
A mbly stoma tigrinum. However, these transformed salamanders, 
of which twenty-nine were obtained from 1865 to 1870, did not 
breed, although their branchiate brethren continued to do so 
very freely. It was not until 1876 that the axolotl in its Ambly- 
stoma state, offspring of several generations of perennibran- 
chiates, was first observed to spawn, and this again took place 
in the reptile house of the Jardin des Plantes, as reported by 
Professor E. Blanchard. 

The original six specimens received in 1864 at the Jardin des 
Plantes, which had been carefully kept apart from their progeny, 
remained in the branchiate condition, and bred eleven times 
from 1865 to 1868, and, after a period of two years' rest, again 
in 1870. According to the report of Aug. Dumeril, they and 
their offspring gave birth to 9000 or 10,000 larvae during that 
period. So numerous, were the axolotls that the Paris Museum 
was able to distribute to other institutions, as well as to dealers 
and private individuals, over a thousand examples, which found 
their way to all parts of Europe, and numberless specimens have 
been kept in England from 1866 to the present day. The first 
specimens exhibited in the London Zoological Gardens, in August 

1864, were probably part of the original stock received from 
Mexico by the Societe d'Acclimatation, but do not appear to 
have bred. 

" White " axolotls, albinos of a pale flesh colour, with beautiful 
red gills, have also been kept in great numbers in England and 
on the continent. They are said to be all descendants of one 
albino male specimen received in the Paris Museum menagerie 
in 1866, which, paired with normal specimens in 1867 and 1&68, 
produced numerous white offspring, which by selection have 
been fixed as a permanent race, without, according to L. Vaillant, 
showing any tendency to reversion. We are not aware of any 
but two of these albinos having ever turned into the perfect 
Amblystoma form, as happened in Paris in 1870, the albinism 
being retained. 

Thus we see that in our aquariums most of the axolotls remain 
in the branchiate condition, transformed individuals being on 
the whole very exceptional. Now it has been stated that in the 
lakes near Mexico City, where it was first discovered, the axolotl 
never transforms into an Amblystoma. This the present writer 
is inclined to doubt, considering that he has received examples 
of the normal Amblystoma tigrinum from various parts of 
Mexico, and that Alfred Duges has described an Amblystoma 
from mountains near Mexico City; at the same time he feels very 



7° 



AXUM^-AYAGUCHO 



suspicious of the various statements to that effect which have 
appeared in so many works, and rather disposed to make light 
of the ingenious theories launched by biological speculators who 
have never set foot in Mexico, especially Weismann's picture 
of the dismal condition of the salt-incrusted surroundings which 
were supposed to have hemmed in the axolotl — the brackish Lago 
de Texcoco, the largest o"f the lakes near Mexico, being evidently 
in the philosopher's mind. 

Thanks to the enthusiasm of H. Gadow during his visit to 
Mexico in the summer of 1902, we are now better informed 
on the conditions under which the axolotl lives near Mexico City. 
First, he ascertained that there are no axolotls at all in the Lago 
de Texcoco, thus disposing at once of the Weismannian explana- 
tion; secondly, he confirmed A. Duges's statement that there is 
a second species of Ambly stoma, which is normal in its meta- 
morphosis, near Mexico but at a higher altitude, which may 
explain Velasco's observation that regularly transforming 
Amblystomas occur near that city; and thirdly, he made a care- 
ful examination of the two lakes, Chalco and Xochimilco, where 
the axolotls occur in abundance and are procured for the market. 
The following is an abstract of Gadow's very interesting account. 
" Lakes Chalco and Xochimilco are a paradise, situated about 
10 ft. higher than the Texcoco Lake and separated from it 
by several hills. High mountains slope down to the southern 
shores, with a belt of fertile pastures, with shrubs and trees and 
little streams, here and there with rocks and ravines. In fact, 
there are thousands of inviting opportunities for newts to leave 
the. lake if they wanted to do so. Lake Xochimilco contains 
powerful springs, but away from them the water appears dark 
and muddy, full of suspended fresh and decomposing vegetable 
matter, teeming with fish, larvae of insects, Daphniae, worms 
and axolotl. These breed in the beginning of February. The 
native fishermen know all about them; how the eggs are fastened 
to the water plants, how soon after the little larvae swarm about 
in thousands, how fast they grow, until by the month of June they 
are all grown into big, fat creatures ready for the market; later 
in the summer the axolotls are said to take to the rushes, in the 
autumn they become scarce, but none have ever been known 
to leave the water or to metamorphose, nor are any perfect 
Amblystomas found in the vicinity of the two lakes." 

In Gadow's opinion, the reason why there are only perenni- 
branchiate axolotls in these lakes is obvious. The constant 
abundance of food, stable amount of water, innumerable hiding- 
places in the mud, under the banks, amongst the reeds and roots 
of the floating islands which are scattered all over them, — all 
these points are inducements or attractions so great that the 
creatures remain in their paradise and consequently retain all 
those larval features which are not directly connected with 
sexual maturity. There is nothing whatever to prevent them 
from leaving these lakes, but there is also nothing to induce 
them to do so. The same applies occasionally to European 
larvae, as in the case observed in the Italian Alps by F. de 
Filippi. Nevertheless, in the axolotl the latent tendency can 
still be revived, as we have seen above and as is proved by the 
experiments of Marie von Chauvin. When once sexually ripe 
the axolotl are apparently incapable of changing, but their 
ancestral course of evolution is still latent in them, and will, if 
favoured by circumstances, reappear in following generations. 

Bibliography. — G. Cuvier, Mem. Instil. Nation. (1807), p. 149, 
and in A. Humboldt and A. Bompland, Observ. zool. i. (181 1), p. 93; 
L. Calori, Mem. Ace. Bologna, iii. (1851), p. 269 ; A. Dumeril, Comptes 
rendus, lx. (1865), p. 765, and N. Arch. Mus. ii. (1866), p. 265; 
E. Blanchard, Comptes rendus, lxxxii. (1876), p. 716; A. Weismann, 
Z. wiss. Zool. xxv. (Suppl. 1875), p. 297; M. von Chauvin, Z. wiss. 
Zool. xxvii. (1876), p. 522; F. de Filippi, Arch. p. la zool. i. (1862), 
p. ,206; G. Hahn, Rev. Quest. Sci. Brussels (2), i. (1892), p. 178; 
H. Gadow, Nature, lxvii. (1903), p. 330. (G..A. B.) 

AXUM, or Aksum, an ancient city in the province of Tigre, 
Abyssinia (14 7' 52" N., 38 31' 10" E.; altitude, 7226 ft), 12 m. 
W. by S. of Adowa. Many European travellers have given 
descriptions of its monuments, though none of them has stayed 
there more than a few days. The name, written Aksm and 
Aksum in the Sabaean and Ethiopic inscriptions in the place, 



is found in classical and early Christian writers in the forms of 
Auxome, Axumis, Axume, &c, the first mention being in the 
Periplus Maris Erylhraei (c. a.d. 67), where it is said to be the 
seat of a kingdom, and the emporium for the ivory brought from 
the west. For the history of this kingdom see Ethiopia. J. T. 
Bent conjectured that the seat of government was transferred to 
Axum from Jeha, which he identified with the ancient Ava; 
and according to a document quoted by Achille Raff ray the third 
Christian monarch transferred it from Axum to Lalibela. This 
second transference probably took place very much later; in 
spite of it, the custom of crowning Abyssinian kings at Axum 
continued, and King John was crowned there as late as 187 1 or 
1872. A. B. Wylde conjectures that it had become unsuitable 
for a royal seat by having acquired the status of a sacred city, 
and thus affording sanctuary to criminals and political offenders 
within the chief church and a considerable area round it, where 
there are various houses in which such persons can be lodged and 
entertained. This same sanctity makes it serve as a depository 
for goods of all sorts in times of danger, the chief church forming 
a sort of bank. The present town, containing less than a thousand 
houses, is supposed to occupy only a small portion of the area 
covered by the ancient city; it lies in a kloof or valley, but the 
old town must have been built on the western ridge rather than 
in the valley, as the traces of well-dressed stones are more 
numerous there than elsewhere. 

Most of the antiquities of Axum still await excavation; those 
that have been described consist mainly of obelisks, of which 
about fifty are still standing, while many more are fallen. They 
form a consecutive series from rude Unhewn stones to highly 
finished obelisks, of which the tallest still erect is 60 ft. in height, 
with 8 ft. 7 in. extreme front width; others that are fallen may 
have been taller. The highly finished monoliths are all representa- 
tions of a many-storeyed castle, with an altar at the base of each. 
They appear to be connected with Semitic sun-worship, and are 
assigned by Bent to the same period as the temple at Baalbek, 
though some antiquarians would place them much earlier; the 
representation of a castle in a single stone seems to bear some 
relation to the idea worked out in the monolith churches of 
Lalibela described by Raffray. The fall of many of the monuments, 
according to 3-ent, was caused by the washing away of the 
foundations by the stream called Mai Shum, and indeed the native 
tradition states that " Gudert, queen of the Amhara," when she 
visited Axum, destroyed the chief obelisk in this way by digging 
a trench from the river to its foundation. Others attribute it 
to religious fanaticism, or to the result of some barbaric invasion, 
such as Axum may have repeatedly endured before it was sacked 
by Mahommed Gran, sultan of Harrar, about 1535. 

Literature. — Classical references to Axum are collected by 
Pietschmann in Pauly's Realencyclopadie (2nd ed.) ; for the history 
as derived from the inscriptions see D. H. Miiller, Appendix to 
J. T. Bent's Sacred City of the Ethiopians (London, 1893), and 
E. Glaser, Die Abessinier in Arabien (Munich, 1895). For the 
antiquities, Bruce's Travels (1790); Salt, in the Travels of Viscount 
Valentia (Lpndon, 1809), iii. 87-97 and 178-200; J. T. Bent, I.e. ; 
and A. B. Wylde, Modem Abyssinia (London, 1901). For geology, 
Schimper, in the Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde (Berlin, 
1869). (D. S. M.*) 

AY, AYE. The word" aye," meaning always (and pronounced 
as in'"day"; connected with Gr. ael, always, and Lat. aevum, 
an age), is often spelt " ay," and the New English Dictionary 
prefers this. " Aye," meaning Yes (and pronounced almost like 
the word " eye "), though sometimes identified with " yea," is 
probably the same word etymologically, though differentiated 
by usage; the form " ay " for this is also common, but incon- 
venient; at one time it was spelt simply / (e.g. in Michael 
Drayton's Idea, 57; published in 1593). 

AYACUCHO, a city and department of central Peru, formerly 
known as Guamanga or Huamanga, renamed from the small 
plain of Ayacucho (Quichua, " corner of death "). This lies 
near the village of Quinua, in an elevated valley 11,600 ft. 
above sea-level, where a decisive battle was fought between 
General Sucre and the Spanish viceroy La Serna in 1824, which 
resulted in the defeat of the latter and the independence of Peru. 
The city of Ayacucho, capital of the department of that name 



AYAH— AYE^AYE 



7* 



and of the province of Guamanga, is situated on an elevated 
plateau, 891 1 ft. above sea-level, between the western and central 
Cordilleras, and on the main road between Lima and Cuzco, 394 
m. from the former by way of Jauja. Pop. (1896) 20,000. It 
has an agreeable, temperate climate, is regularly built, and has 
considerable commercial importance. 1 1 is the seat of a bishopric 
and of a superior court of justice. It is distinguished for the 
number of its churches and conventual establishments, although 
the latter have been closed. The city was founded by Pizarro 
in 1530 and was known as Guamanga down to 1825. It has been 
the scene of many notable events in the history of Peru. 

The department of Ayacucho extends across the great plateau 
of central Peru, between the departments of Huancavelica and 
Apurimac, with Cuzco on the E. and lea on the W. Area, 
18,185 sq. m.; pop. (1896) 302,469. It is divided into six 
provinces, and covers a broken, mountainous region, partially 
barren in its higher elevations but traversed by deep, warm, 
fertile valleys. It formed a part of the original home of the Incas 
and once sustained a large population. It produces Indian corn 
and other cereals and potatoes in the colder regions, and tropical 
fruits, sweet potatoes and mandioca (Jalropha manihot, L.) in 
the low tropical valleys. It is also an important mining region, 
having a large number of silver mines in operation. Its name 
was changed from Guamanga to Ayacucho by a decree of 1825. 

AYAH, a Spanish word (aya) for children's nurse or maid, 
introduced by the Portuguese into India and adopted by the 
English to denote their native nurses. 

AYALA, DON PEDRO LOPEZ DE (1332-1407), Spanish states- 
man, historian and poet, was born at Vittoria in 1332. He first 
came into prominence at the court of Peter the Cruel, whose 
cause he finally deserted; he greatly distinguished himself in 
subsequent campaigns, during which he was twice made prisoner, 
by the Black Prince at Najera (1367) and by the Portuguese 
at Aljubarrota (1385). A favourite of Henry II. and John I. 
of Castile, he was made grand chancellor of the realm by Henry 
III. in 1398. A brave officer arid an able diplomat, Ayala was 
one of the most cultivated Spaniards of his time, at once historian, 
translator and poet. Of his many works the most important 
are his chronicles of the four kings of Castile during whose 
reigns he lived; they give a generally accurate account of scenes 
and events, most of which he had witnessed; he also wrote a 
long satirical and didactic poem, interesting as a picture of his 
personal experiences and of contemporary morality. The first 
part of his chronicle, covering only the reign of Peter the Cruel, 
was printed at Seville in 1495; the first complete edition was 
printed in 17 79-1 780 in the collection of Cronicas Espanolas, 
under the auspices of the Spanish Royal Academy of History. 
Ayala died atCalahorra in 1407. 

See Rafael Floranes, " Vida literaria de Pedro Lopez de Ayala," 
in the Documenlos ineditos para la historia de Espana, vols. xix. and 
xx.; F. W. Schirrmacher, " tJber die Glaubwiirdigkeit der Chronik 
Ayalas," in Geschichle von Spanien (Berlin, 1902), vol. v. pp. 510- 

532- 

AYALA Y HERRERA, ADELARDO LOPEZ DE (1828-1879), 
Spanish writer and politician, was born at Guadalcanal on the 
1st of May 1828, and at a very early age began writing for the 
theatre of his native town. The titles of these juvenile per- 
formances, which were played by amateurs, were Saiga por 
donde saliere, Me voy d Sevilla and La Corona y el Punal. As 
travelling companies never visited Guadalcanal, and as ladies 
took no part in the representations, these three plays were 
written for men only. Ayala persuaded his sister to appear as 
the heroine of his comedy, La primera Dama, and the innovation, 
if it scandalized some of his townsmen, permitted him to develop 
his talent more freely. In his twentieth year he matriculated 
at the university of Seville, but his career as a student was 
undistinguished. In Seville he made acquaintance with Garcia 
Gutierrez, who is reported to have encouraged his dramatic 
ambitions and to have given him the benefit of his own experience 
as a playwright. Early in 1850 Ayala removed his name from 
the university books, and settled in Madrid with the purpose 
of becoming a professional dramatist. Though he had no 
friends and no influence, he speedily found an opening. A four- 



act play in verse, Un Hombre de Estado, was accepted by the 
managers of the Teatro Espanol, was given on the 25th of 
January 1851, and proved a remarkable success. Henceforward 
Ayala's position and popularity were secure. Within a twelve- 
month he became more widely known by his Castigo y Perdon, 
and by a more humorous effort, Los dos Guzmanes; and 
shortly afterwards he was appointed by the Moderado govern- 
ment to a post in the home office, which he lost in 1854 on the 
accession to power of the Liberal party. In 1854 he produced 
Rioja, perhaps the most admired and the most admirable of all 
his works, and from 1854 to 1856 he took an active part in the 
political campaign carried on in the journal El Padre Cobos. A 
zarzuela, entitled Guerta a muerte, for which Emilio Arrieta 
composed the music, belongs to 1855, and to the same collabora- 
tion is due El Agente de Matrimonios. At about this date Ayala 
passed over from the Moderates to the Progressives, and this 
political manoeuvre had its effect upon the fate of his plays. 
The performances of Los Comuneros were attended by members 
of the different parties; the utterances of the different characters 
were taken to represent the author's personal opinions, and 
every speech which could be brought into connexion with 
current politics was applauded by one half of the house and 
derided by the other half. A zarzuela, named El Conde de 
Castralla, was given amid much uproar on the 20th of February 
1856, and, as the piece seemed likely to cause serious disorder 
in the theatre, it was suppressed by the government after the 
third performance. Ayala's rupture with the Moderates was 
now complete, and in 1857, through the interest of O'Donnell, 
he was elected as Liberal deputy for Badajoz. His political 
changes are difficult to follow, or to explain, and they have been 
unsparingly censured. So far as can be judged, Ayala had no 
strong political views, and drifted with the current of the moment. 
He took part in the revolution of 1868, wrote the " Manifesto 
of Cadiz," took office as colonial minister, favoured the candida- 
ture of the due de Montpensier, resigned in 1871, returned to his 
early Conservative principles, and was a member of Alfonso 
XII. 's first cabinet. Meanwhile, however divided in opinion as 
to his political conduct, his countrymen were practically unani- 
mous in admiring his dramatic work; and his reputation, if 
it gained little by El Nuevo Don Juan, was greatly increased by 
El Tanto por Ciento and El Tejado de Vidrio. His last play, 
Consuelo, was given on the 30th of March 1878. Ayala was 
nominated to the post of president of congress shortly before 
his death, which occurred unexpectedly on the 30th of January 
1879. The best of his lyrical work, excellent for finish and 
intense sincerity, is his Epistola to Emilio Arrieta, and had he 
chosen to dedicate himself to lyric poetry, he might possibly 
have ranked with the best of Spain's modern singers; as it is, 
he is a very considerable poet who affects the dramatic form. 
In his later writings he deals with modern society, its vices, 
ideals and perils; yet in many essentials he is a manifest 
disciple of Calderon. He has the familiar Calderonian limitations; 
the substitution of types for characters, of eloquence for vital 
dialogue. Nor can he equal the sublime lyrism of his model; 
but he is little inferior in poetic conception, in dignified idealiza- 
tion, and in picturesque imagery. And it may be fairly claimed 
for him that in El Tejado de Vidrio and El Tanto por Ciento he 
displays a very exceptional combination of satiric intention with 
romantic inspiration. By these plays and by Rioja and Consuelo 
he is entitled to be judged. They will at least ensure for him 
an honourable place in the history of the modern Spanish theatre. 
A complete edition of his dramatic works, edited by his friend and 
rival Tamayo y Baus, has been published in seven volumes (Madrid, 
1881-1885). (J. F.-K.) 

AYE-AYE, a word of uncertain signification (perhaps only an 
exclamation), but universally accepted as the designation of the 
most remarkable and aberrant of all the Malagasy lemurs (see 
Primates). The aye-aye, Chiromys (or Daubentonia) madagas- 
cariensis, is an animal with a superficial resemblance to a long- 
haired and dusky-coloured cat with unusually large eyes. It 
has a broad rounded head, short face, large naked eyes, large 
hands, and long thin fingers with pointed claws, of which the 



7 2 



AYLESBUft¥-A-AYLESFORD 



third is remarkable for its extreme 1 slenderness; The foot 
resembles that of the other lemurs in its large opposable great 
toe with a flat nail; but all the other toes have pointed com- 
pressed claws. Tail long and bushy. General colour dark 
brown, the outer fur being long and rather loose, with a woolly 
under-coat. Teats two, * inguinal in position. The aye-aye 
was discovered by Pierre Sonnerat in 1780, the specimen 
brought to Paris by that traveller being the only one known 
until i860. Since then many others have been obtained, and 
one lived for several years in the ga-rdens of the Zoological Society 
of London. Like so many lemurs, it is completely nocturnal 
in its habits, living either alone or in pairs, chiefly in the bamboo 
forests. Observations upon captive specimens have led to the 
conclusion that it feeds principally on juices, especially of the 
sugar-cane, which it obtains by tearing open the hard woody 
circumference of the stalk with its strong incisor teeth; but it 
is said also to devour certain species of wood-boring caterpillars, 
which it obtains by first cutting down with its teeth upon their 
burrows, and then- picking them out of their retreat with the 
claw of its attenuated middle finger. - It constructs large ball-like 
nests of dried leaves, lodged in a fork of the branches of a large 
tree, and with the opening on one side. 

Till recently the aye-aye was regarded as representing a 
family by itself — the Chiromyidae; but the discovery, that it 
resembles the other lemurs of Madagascar in the structure of 
the inner ear, and thus differs from all other members o£ the 
group, has led to the conclusion that it is best classed as a 
subfamily (Ghiromyinae) of the Lemuridae* (R. L.*) 

AYLESBURY, a market-town in the Aylesbury parlia- 
mentary division of Buckinghamshire, England, 38 m. N. W. by 
W. of London; served by the Great Central, Metropolitan 
and Great Western railways (which use a common station) 
and by a branch of the London & North- Western railway. Pop. 
of urban district (1001) 9243. It has connexion by a branch 
with the Grand Junction canal. It lies on a slight eminence in 
a fertile tract called the Vale of Aylesbury, which extends north- 
ward from the foot of the Chiltern Hills. Its streets are mostly 
narrow and irregular, but picturesque. The church of St Mary, 
a large cruciform building, is primarily Early English, but has 
numerous additions of later dates. The font is transitional 
Norman, a good example; and a small pre-Norman crypt remains 
beneath part of the church. There are some Decorated canopied 
tombs, and the chancel stalls are of the 15th century. The 
central tower is surmounted by an ornate clock-turret dating 
from the second half of the 17th century. The countyrhall and 
town-hall, overlooking a broad market-place, are the principal 
public buildings. The grammar school was founded in 1611. 
Aylesbury is the assize town for the county, though Buckingham 
is the county town. There is a large agricultural trade, the 
locality being especially noted for the rearing of ducks; straw- 
plaiting and the manufacture of condensed milk are carried on, 
and there are printing works. The Jacobean mansion of Hart- 
well in the neighbourhood of Aylesbury was the residence of the 
French king Louis XVIII. during his exile (1810-1814). 

Aylesbury OEylesburge, Eilesberia, Aillesbir) was famous in Saxon 
times as the supposed burial-place of St Osith. In A,D. 571 it was 
one of the towns captured by Cuthwulf, brother of Ceawhn, king of 
the Saxons. At the time of the Domesday survey the king owned 
the manor. In 1554, by a charter from Queen Mary, bestowed as a 
reward for fidelity during the rebellion of the duke of Northumber- 
land, Aylesbury was constituted a free borough corporate, with 
a common council consisting of a bailiff, 10 aldermen and 12 
chief burgesses. The borough returned two members to parliament 
from this date until the Redistribution Act of 1885, but the other 
privileges appear to have lapsed in the reign of Elizabeth. Ayles- 
bury evidently had a considerable market from very early times, 
the tolls being assessed at the time of Edward the Confessor at £25 
and at the time of the Domesday survey at £tq. Tn 1239 Henry III. 
made a grant to John, son of Geoffrey FitzPeter of an annual fair at 
the feast of St Osith (June 3rd), which was confirmed by Henry VI. 
in 1440. Queen Mary's charter instituted a Wednesday market 
and fairs at the feasts of the Annunciation and the Invention of the 
Holy Cross. In 1579 John Pakington obtained a grant of two 
annual fairs to be held on the day before Palm Sunday and on the 
feast of the Tnvention of the Holy Cross, and a Monday market for 
the sale of horses and other animals, grain and merchandise. 



; AYLESFORD, HENEAGE FINCH, 1st Earl as (c. 1640-1719), 
2nd son of Heneage Finch, 1st earl of Nottingham, was educated 
at Westminster school and at Christ Church, Oxford, where he 
rriatriculated on the 18th of November 1664. In 1673 he became 
a barrister of the Inner Temple; king's counsel and bencher 
in 1677; and in 1679, during the chancellorship of his father, 
was appointed solicitor-general, being returned to parliament 
for Oxford University, and in 1685 for Guildford. In 1682 he 
represented the crown in the attack upon the corporation of 
London, and next year in the prosecution of Lord Russell, when, 
according to Burnet, " and in several other trials afterwards, he 
showed more of a vicious eloquence in turning matters with 
some subtlety against the prisoners than of strict or sincere 
reasoning." l He does not, however, appear to have exceeded 
the duties of prosecutor for the crown as they were then under- 
stood. In 1684, in the trial of Algernon Sidney, he argued that 
the unpublished treatise of the accused was an overt act, and 
supported the opinion of Jeffreys that scribere est agere. 2 The 
same year he was counsel for James in his successful action against 
Titus Oates for libel, and in 1685 prosecuted Oates for the crown 
for perjury. Finch, however, though a Tory and a crown lawyer, 
was a staunch churchman, and on his refusal in 1686 to defend 
the royal dispensing power he was summarily dismissed by James. 
He was the leading counsel in June 1688 for the seven bishops, 
when he " strangely exposed and very boldly ran down " 3 the 
dispensing power, but his mistaken tactics were nearly the cause of 
his clients losing their case. 4 He sat again for Oxford University 
in the convention parliament, which constituency he represented 
in all the following assemblies except that of 1698, till his eleva- 
tion to the peerage. He was, however, no supporter of the House 
of Orange, advocated a regency in James's name, and was one of 
the few who in the House of Commons opposed the famous vote 
that James had broken the contract between king and people 
and left the throne vacant. He held no office during William's 
reign, and is described by Macky as " always a great opposer " 
of the administration. In 1689 he joined in voting for the 
reversal of Lord Russell's attainder, and endeavoured to defend 
his conduct in the trial, but was refused a hearing by the House. 
He opposed the Triennial Bill of 1692, but in 1696 spoke against 
the bill of association and test, which was voted for the king's 
protection, on the ground that though William was to be obeyed 
as sovereign he could not be acknowledged " rightful and lawful 
king." In 1694 he argued against the crown in the bankers' 
case. In 1703 he was created baron of Guernsey and a privy 
councillor, and after the accession of George I. on the 19th of 
October 17 14, earl of Aylesford, being reappointed a privy coun- 
cillor and made chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, which office 
he retained till February 1716. He died on the 22nd of July 
17 19. According to John Macky (Memoirs, p. 71; published by 
Roxburghe Club, 1895) he was accounted " one of the greatest 
orators in England and a good common lawyer; a firm asserter 
of the prerogative of the crown and jurisdiction of the church; 
a tall, thin, black man, splenatick." He married Elizabeth, 
daughter and co-heiress of Sir John Banks of Aylesford, by whom, 
besides six daughters, he had three sons, of whom the eldest, 
Heneage, succeeded him as 2nd earl of Aylesford. The 2nd 
earl died in 1757, and since this date the earldom has been held 
by his direct descendants, six of whom in succession have borne 
the Christian name of Heneage. 

Many of his legal arguments are printed in State Trials (see esp. 
viii. 694, 1087, ix. 625, 880, 996, x. 126, 319, 405, 1199, xii. 183, 353, 
365). Wood attributes to him on the faith of common rumour the 
authorship of An Antidote against Poison . . .Remarks upon a Paper 
printed .by Lady (Rachel) Russel (1683), ascribed in State Trials (ix. 
710) to Sir Bartholomew Shower; but see the latter's allusion to it 
on p. 753- 

1 Hist, of His Own Times, i. 556. Swift has appended a note, " an 
arrant rascal," but Finch's great offence with the dean was probably 
his advancement by George I. rather than his conduct of state trials 
as here described. 

2 Ibid. 572, and Speaker Onslow's note. 

3 N- Luttrell's Relation, i. 447. 

4 State Trials, xii. 353. 



AYLESFORDh-rA^MESTRY LIMESTONE 



73 



AYIBSFORD, a town in the Medway parliamentary division 
of Kent, England, 35 m. N.W. of Maidstone on the South- 
Eastern & Chatham railway. Pop. (1901) 2678. It stands at 
the base of a hill on the right bank of the Medway. The 
ancient church of St Peter (restored in 1878) is principally 
Perpendicular, but contains some Norman and Decorated 
portions. It has interesting brasses of the 15th and ,16th cen- 
turies and an early embattled tower. At a short distance 
west, a residence occupying part of the site, are remains of a 
Carmelite friary, founded here in 1240. It is claimed for this 
foundation (but not with certainty) that it was the first house 
of Carmelites established in England, and the first general 
chapter of the order was held here in 1245. Several remains of 
antiquity exist in the neighbourhood, among them a cromlech 
called Kit's Coty House, about a mile north-east from the village. 
(See Stone Monuments, Plate, fig. 2.) In accordance with 
tradition this has been thought to mark the burial-place of 
Catigern, who was slain here in a battle between the Britons and 
Saxons in a.d. 455; the name has also been derived from Celtic 
Ked-coit, that is, the tomb in the wood. The name of the larger 
group of monuments close by, called the Countless Stones, is due 
to the popular belief, which occurs elsewhere, that they are not 
to be counted. Large numbers of British coins have been found 
in the neighbourhood. The supposed tomb of. Horsa, who fell 
in the same battle, is situated at Horsted, about 2 m-. to the 
north. 

AYLLON, LUCAS VASQUEZ DE (c. 14/5-1526), Spanish 
adventurer and colonizer in America, was born probably in 
Toledo, Spain, about 1475. He accompanied Nicolas Ovando 
to Hispaniola (Santo Domingo) in 1502, and there became a 
magistrate of La Concepcion and other towns, and a member 
of the superior court of Hispaniola. He engaged with great 
profit in various commercial enterprises, became interested in a 
plan for the extension of the Spanish settlements to the North 
American mainland, and in 1521 sent Francisco Gordillo on an 
exploring expedition which touched on the coast of the Florida 
peninsula and coasted for some distance northward. Gordillo's 
report of the region was so favourable that Ayllon in 1523 
obtained from Charles V. a rather indefinite charter giving 
him the right to plant colonies. He sent another reconnoitring 
expedition in 1525, and early in 1526 he himself set out with 500 
colonists and about 100 African slaves. He touched at several 
places along the coast, at one time stopping long enough to 
replace a wrecked ship with a new one, this being considered 
the first instance of shipbuilding on the North American con- 
tinent. Sailing northward to about latitude 33 40', he began 
the construction of a town which he called San Miguel. The 
exact location of this town is in dispute, some writers holding 
that it was on the exact spot upon which Jamestown, Va., 
was later built; more probably, however, as Lowery contends, 
it was near the mouth of the Pedee river. The employment of 
negro slaves here was undoubtedly the first instance of the sort 
in what later became the United States. The spot was unhealthy 
and fever carried off many of the colonists, including Ayllon 
himself, who died on the 18th of October 1526. After the death 
of their leader dissensions broke out among the colonists, some 
of the slaves rebelled and escaped into the forest, and in December 
the town was abandoned and the remnant of the colonists 
embarked for Hispaniola, less than 150 arriving in safety. 

See Woodbury Lowery, Spanish Settlements within the Present 
Limits of the United States (2 vols., New York, 1903-1905). 

AYLMER, JOHN (1521-1594), English divine, was born in 
the year 1521 at Aylmer Hall, Tivetshall St Mary, Norfolk. 
While still a boy, his precocity was noticed by Henry Grey, 
marquis of Dorset, afterwards duke of Suffolk, who sent him to 
Cambridge, where he seems to have become a fellow of Queens' 
College. About 1541 he was made chaplain to the duke, and 
tutor to his daughter, Lady Jane Grey. His first preferment 
was to the archdeaconry of Stow, in the diocese of Lincoln, but 
his opposition in convocation to the doctrine of transubstantia- 
tion led to his deprivation and to his flight into Switzerland. 
While there he wrote a reply to John Knox's famous Blast 



agaiHst the Monstrous Regiment of Women, under the title of 
An Harborowe for Faithfull and Trewe Subjects, &c, and assisted ■ 
John Foxe in translating the: Acts of the Martyrs into Latin. 
On the accession of Elizabeth he returned to England. In 1559 
he resumed the : Stow archdeaconry, and in 1562 he obtained 
that of Lincoln. He was a member of the famous convocation 
of 1562, which reformed and settled the doctrine and discipline 
of the Church of England. In 1576 he was consecrated bishop 
of London, and while in that position made himself notorious 
by hia harsh treatment of all who differed from him on ecclesi- 
astical questions, whether Puritan or Papist. Various efforts 
were made to remove him to another see. He is frequently 
assailed in the famous Marprelate Tracts, and is characterized as 
".Morrell," the bad shepherd, in Spenser's Shepheard's Calendar 
(July). His reputation as a scholar hardly balances his inade- 
quacy as a bishop in the transition time in which he lived. He 
died in June 1594- His Life was written by John Strype 
(i7°i)- 

AYMARA (anc. Colla), a tribe of South American Indians, 
formerly inhabiting the country around Lake Titicaca and the 
neighbouring valleys of the Andes. They form now the chief 
ethnical element in Bolivia, but are of very mixed blood. In 
early days the home of the Aymaras by Lake Titicaca was a 
" holy land " for the Incas themselves, whose national legends 
attributed the: origin of all Quichua (Inca) civilization to that 
region. The Aymaras, indeed, seem to have possessed a very 
Considerable culture before their conquest by the Incas in the 
r 3th and 14th centuries, evidence of which remains in the 
megalithic ruins of Tiahuanaco. When the Spaniards arrived 
the Aymaras had been long under the Inca domination, and 
were in a decadent state. They, however, retained certain 
privileges, such as the use of their own language; and their 
treatment by their conquerors generally suggested that the latter 
believed themselves of Aymara blood. Physically, the pure 
Aymara is short and thick-set, with a great chest development, 
and with the same reddish complexion, broad face, black eyes 
and rounded forehead which distinguish the Quichuas. Like 
the latter, too, the Aymaras are sullen and apathetic in disposi- 
tion. They number now, including half-breeds, about half a 
million in Bolivia. Some few are also found in southern Peru. 

See_ Journal Ethnol. Society (1870), "The Aymara Indians of 
Bolivia and Peru." 

AYMER, or ^Ethelmar, OF VALENCE (d. 1260), bishop of 
Winchester, was a half-brother of Henry III. His mother was 
Isabelle of Angouleme, the second wife of King John, his father 
was Hugo of Lusignan, the count of La Marche, whom Isabelle 
married in 1220. The children of this marriage came to England 
in 1247 in the hope of obtaining court preferment. In 1250 
the king, by putting strong pressure upon the electors, succeeded 
in obtaining the see pf Winchester for Aymer. The appointment 
was in every way unsuitable. Aymer was illiterate, ignorant of 
the English language, and wholly secular in his mode of life. 
Upon his head was concentrated the whole of the popular 
indignation against the foreign favourites; and he seems to have 
deserved this unenviable distinction. At the parliament of 
Oxford (1258) he and his brothers repudiated the new constitu- 
tion prepared by the barons. He was pursued to Winchester, 
besieged in Wolvesey castle, and finally compelled to surrender 
and leave the kingdom. He had never been consecrated; 
accordingly in 1259 the chapter of Winchester proceeded to 
a new election. Aymer, however, gained the support of the 
pope; he was on his way back to England when he was over- 
taken by a fatal illness at Paris. 

See W. Stubbs' Constitutional History, vol. ii. (1896); G. W. 
Prothero's Simon de Montfort (1877); W. H. Blaauw's Barons' War 
(1871). 

AYMESTRY LIMESTONE, an inconstant limestone which 
occurs locally in the Ludlow series of Silurian rocks, between 
the Upper and Lower Ludlow shales. It derives its name from 
Aymestry in Herefordshire, where it may be seen on both sides 
of the river Lugg. It is well developed in the neighbourhood 
of Ludlow (it is sometimes called the Ludlow limestone) and 
occupies a * similar position in the Ludlow shales at Woolhope, 



74 



AYR— AYRSHIRE 



the Abberley Hills, May Hill and the Malvern Hills. In litho- 
' logical character it varies greatly; in one place it is a dark grey, 
somewhat crystalline limestone, elsewhere it passes into a flaggy, 
earthy or shaly condition, or even into a mere layer of nodules. 
When well developed it may reach 50 ft. in thickness in beds 
of from 1 to 5 ft.; in this, condition it naturally forms a con- 
spicuous feature in the landscape because it stands out by its 
superior hardness from the soft shales above and below. 

The most common fossil is Pentamerus Knighlii, which is 
extremely abundant in places. Other brachiopods, corals and 
trilobites are present, and are similar to those found in the 
Wenlock limestone. (See Silurian.) 

AYR, a royal, municipal and police burgh and seaport, and 
county town of Ayrshire, Scotland, at the mouth of the river 
Ayr, 4i£m. S.S.W. of Glar^ow by the Glasgow & South- 
western railway. Pop. (1891) 24,944; (1901) 29,101. It is 
situated on a fine bay and its beautiful sands attract thousands 
of summer visitors. Ayr proper lies on the south bank of the 
river, which is crossed by three bridges, besides the railway 
viaduct — the Victoria Bridge (erected in 1898) and the famous 
" Twa Brigs " of Burns. The Auld Brig is said to date from 
the reign of Alexander III. (d. 1286). The New Brig was built 
in 1788, mainly owing to the efforts of Provost Ballantyne. 
The prophecy which Burns put into the mouth of the venerable 
structure came true in 1877, when the newer bridge yielded 
to floods and had to be rebuilt (1879); and the older structure 
itself was closed for public safety in 1 904. The town has extended 
greatly on the southern side of the stream, where, in the direction 
of the racecourse, there are now numerous fine villas. The 
county buildings, designed after the temple of Isis in Rome, 
accommodate the circuit and provincial courts and various local 
authorities. The handsome town buildings, surmounted by 
a fine spire 226 ft. high, contain assembly and reading rooms. 
Of the schools the most notable is the Academy (rebuilt in 1880), 
which in 1764 superseded the grammar school of the burgh, 
which existed in the 13th century. The Gothic Wallace Tower 
in High Street stands on the site of an old building of the 
same name taken down in 1835, from which were transferred 
the clock and bells of the Dungeon steeple. A niche in front 
is filled by a statue of the Scottish hero by James Thorn (1802- 
1850), a self-taught sculptor. There are statues of Burns, the 
13th earl of Eglinton, General Smith Neill and Sir William 
Wallace. The Carnegie free library was established in 1893. 
The charitable institutions include the county hospital, district 
asylum, a deaf and dumb home, the Kyle combination poor- 
house, St John's refuge and industrial schools for boys and 
girls. The Ayr Advertiser first appeared on 5th of August 1803, 
and was the earliest newspaper published in Ayrshire. In the 
suburbs is a racecourse where the Western Meeting is held in 
September of every year. The principal manufactures include 
leather, carpets, woollen goods, flannels, blankets, lace, boots and 
shoes; and fisheries and shipbuilding are also carried on. There 
are several foundries, engineering establishments and saw mills. 
Large quantities of timber are imported from Canada and 
Norway; coal, iron, manufactured goods and agricultural 
produce are the chief exports. The harbour, with wet and slip 
dock, occupies both sides of the river from the New Bridge to 
the sea, and is protected on the south by a pier projecting some 
distance into the sea, and on the north by a breakwater with 
a commodious dry dock. There are esplanades to the south and 
north of the harbour. The town is governed by a provost and 
council, and unites with Irvine, Inveraray, Campbeltown and 
Oban in returning one member to parliament. 

In 1873 the municipal boundary was extended northwards 
beyond the river so as to include Newton-upon-Ayr and Wallace 
Town, formerly separate. Newton is a burgh or barony of very 
ancient creation, the charter of which is traditionally said to 
have been granted by Robert Bruce in favour of forty-eight 
of the inhabitants who had distinguished themselves at Bannock- 
burn. The suburb is now almost wholly occupied with manu- 
factures, the chief of which are chemicals, boots and shoes, 
carpets and lace. It is on the Glasgow & South-Western 



railway, and has a harbour and dock from which coal and goods 
are the main exports. About 3 m. north of Ayr is Prestwick, 
a popular watering-place and the headquarters of one of the 
most flourishing golf clubs in Scotland. The outstanding 
attraction of Ayr, however, is the pleasant suburb of Alloway, 
2| m r . to the south,' with which there is frequent communication 
by electric cars. The '* auld clay biggin " in which Robert 
Burns was born on the 25th of January 1759, has been com- 
pletely repaired and is now the property of the Ayr Burns's 
Monument trustees. In the kitchen is the box bed in which 
the poet was born, and many of the articles of furniture belonged 
to his family. Adjoining the cottage is a museum of Burnsiana. 
The " auld haunted kirk," though roofless, is otherwise in a 
fair state of preservation, despite relic-hunters who have removed 
all the woodwork. In the churchyard is the grave of William 
Burness, the poet's father. Not far distant, on a conspicuous 
position close by the banks of the Doon, stands the Grecian 
monument to Burns, in the grounds of which is the grotto con- 
taining Thorn's figures of Tam o' Shanter and Souter Johnnie. 

Nothing is known of the history of Ayr till the close of the 1 2 th 
century, when it was made a royal residence, and soon afterwards 
a royal burgh, by William the Lion. During the wars of Scottish 
independence the possession of Ayr and its castle was an object 
of importance to both the contending parties, and the town was 
the scene of many of Wallace's exploits. In 1315 the Scottish 
parliament met in the church of St John to confirm the succession 
of Edward Bruce to the throne. Early in the 16th century it was 
a place of considerable influence and trade. The liberality of 
William the Lion had bestowed upon the corporation an extensive 
grant of lands; while in addition to the well-endowed church of 
St John, it had two monasteries, each possessed of a fair revenue. 
When Scotland was overrun by Cromwell, Ayr was selected as 
the site of one of the forts which he built to command the country. 
This fortification, termed the citadel, enclosed an area of ten 
or twelve acres, and included within its limits the church of St 
John, which was converted into a storehouse, the Protector partly 
indemnifying the inhabitants by contributing £150 towards the 
erection of a new place of worship, now known as the Old Church. 
A portion of the tower of St John's church remains, but has 
been completely modernized. The site of the fort is now nearly 
covered with houses, the barracks being in Fort Green. 

AYRER, JAKOB (?-i6os), German dramatist, of whose life 
little is known. He seems to have come to Nuremberg as a boy 
and worked his way up to the position of imperial notary. He 
died at Nuremberg on the 26th of March 1605. Besides a 
rhymed Chronik der Stadl Bamberg (edited by J. Heller, Bamberg, 
1838), and an unpublished translation of the Psalms, Ayrer has 
left a large number of dramas which were printed at Nuremberg 
under the title Opus Thealricum in 1618. This collection contains 
thirty tragedies and comedies and thirty-six Fastnachtsspiele 
(Shrovetide plays) and Singspiele. As a dramatist, Ayrer is 
virtually the successor of Hans Sachs (q.v.), but he came under 
the influence of the so-called Engliscke Kombdianten, that is, 
troupes of English actors, who, at the close of the 16th century 
and during the 17th, repeatedly visited the continent, bringing 
with them the repertory of the Elizabethan theatre. From those 
actors Ayrer learned how to enliven his dramas with sensational 
incidents and spectacular effects, and from them he borrowed 
the character of the clown. His plays, however, are in spite of 
his foreign models, hardly more dramatic, in the true sense of the 
word, than those of Hans Sachs, and they are inferior to the latter 
in poetic qualities. The plots of two of his comedies, Von 
der schonen Phoenicia and Von der schonen Sidea, were evidently 
drawn from the same sources as those of Shakespeare's Much 
Ado about Nothing and Tempest. 

Ayrers Dramen, edited by A. von Keller, have been published by 
the Stuttgart Lit. Verein (1864-1865). See also L. Tieck, Deutsche! 
Theater (1817); A. Cohn, Shakespeare in Germany (1885), which 
contains a translation of the two plays mentioned above; J. Titt- 
mann, Schauspiele des sechzehnlen Jahrhunderts (1888). 

AYRSHIRE, a south-western county of Scotland, bounded N. 
by Renfrewshire, E. by Lanarkshire and Dumfriesshire, S.E. by 



AYRSHIRE 



75 



Kirkcudbrightshire, S. by Wigtownshire and W. by the Firth of 
Clyde. It includes off its coast the conspicuous rock of Ailsa 
Craig, 10 m. W. of Girvan, Lady Island, 3 m. S.W.. of Troon, 
and Horse Island, off Ardrossan. Its area is 724,523 acres or 
1 142 sq. m., its coast-line being 70 m. long. In former times the 
shire was divided into the districts of Cunninghame (N. of the 
Irvine), Kyle (between the Irvine and the Doon), and Carrick 
(S. of the Doon), and these terms are still occasionally used. 
Kyle was further divide>l by the Ayr into King's Kyle on the 
north and Kyle Stewart. Robert Bruce was earl of Carrick, 
a title now borne by the prince of Wales. The county is politic- 
ally divided into North and South Ayrshire, the former compris- 
ing Cunninghame and the latter Kyle and Carrick. The surface 
is generally undulating with a small mountainous tract in the 
north and a larger one in the south and south-east. The principal 
hills are Black Craig (2298 ft.), 5 m. south-east of New Cumnock; 
Enoch (1865 ft.), s m. east of Dalmellington; Polmaddie (1750 
ft.) 2 m. south-east of Biirr; Stake on the confines of Ayrshire 
and Renfrewshire, and Corsancone (1547 ft.), 3 m. north-east 
of New Cumnock. None of the rivers is navigable, but their 
varied and tranquil beauty has made them better known than 
many more important streams. The six most noted are the 
Stinchar (c soft), Girvan, Doon, Ayr, Irvine and Garnock. 
Of these the Ayr is the longest. It rises at Glenbuck, on the 
border of Lanarkshire, and after a course of some 38 m. falls into 
the Firth of Clyde at the county town which, wfth the county, is 
named from it. The scenery along its banks from Sorn down- 
wards — passing Catrine, Ballochmyle, Barskimming, Sundrum, 
Auchencruive and Craigie — is remarkably picturesque. The 
lesser streams are numerous, but Burns's verse has given pre- 
eminence to the Afton, the Cessnock and the Lugar. There are 
many lochs, the largest of which is Loch Doon, 55 m. long, the 
source of the river of the same name. From Loch Finlas, about 
20 m. south-east of Ayr, the town derives its water-supply. 
The Nith rises in Ayrshire and a few miles of its early course 
belong to the county. 

Geology. — The greater portion of the hilly region in the south of 
the county forms part of the Silurian tableland of the south of 
Scotland. Along its north margin there is a belt of elevated ground 
consisting mainly of Old Red Sandstone strata, while the tract of 
fertile low ground is chiefly occupied by younger Palaeozoic rocks. 
The Silurian belt stretching eastwards from the mouth of Loch Ryan 
' to the Merrick range is composed of grits, greywackes and shales with 
thin leaves of black shales, containing graptolites of Upper Llandeilo 
age which are repeated by folding and cover a broad area. Near 
their northern limit Radiolarian cherts, mudstones and lavas of 
Arenig age rise from underneath the former along anticlines striking 
north-east and south-west. In the Ballantrae region there is a 
remarkable development of volcanic rocks — lavas, tuffs and agglo- 
merates — of Arenig age,' their horizon being defined by graptolites 
occurring in cherty mudstones and black shales interleaved in lavas 
and agglomerates. These volcanic materials are pierced by ser- 
pentine, gabbro and granite. The serpentine forms two belts running 
inland from near Bennane Head and from Burnfoot, being typically 
developed on Balhamie Hill near Colmonell. Gabbro appears on 
the shore north of Lendalfoot, while on the Byne and Grey Hills south 
of Girvan there are patches of granite and quartz-diorite which seem 
to pass into more basic varieties. These volcanic and plutonic 
rocks and Radiolarian cherts are covered unconformably by con- 
glomerates (Bennan Hill near Straiton and Kennedy's Pass) which 
are associated with limestones of Upper Llandeilo age that have 
been wrought in the Stinchar valley and at Craighead. South of the 
river Girvan there is a sequence from Llandeilo — Caradod to Llan- 
dovery — Tarannon strata, excellent sections of which are seen on 
the shore north of Kennedy's Pass and in Penwhapple Glen near 
Girvan. Llandovery strata again appear north of the Girvan at 
Daifly, where they form an inher surrounded by the Old Red Sand- 
stone and Carboniferous formations. Representatives of Wenlock 
rocks form a narrow belt near the village of Straiton. Some of the 
Silurian sediments of the Girvan province are highly fossiliferous, but 
the order of succession is determined by the graptolites. Near Muir- 
kirk and in the Douglas Water there are inliers of Wenlock, Ludlow 
and Downtonian rocks, coming to the surface along anticlines trun- 
cated by faults and surrounded by Old Red Sandstone and Carboni- 
ferous strata. In the south-east of the county there is a part of the 
large granite mass that stretches from Loch Doon south to Loch 
Dee, giving rise to wild scenery and bounded by the high ground near 
the head of the Girvan Water, boulders of which have been dis- 
tributed over a wide area during the glacial period. Along the 
northern margin of the uplands the Lower Old Red Sandstone is 



usually faulted against the Silurian strata, but on Hadyard Hill 
south of the Girvan valley they rest on the folded and denuded 
members of the latter system. The three divisions of this formation 
are well represented. The lower group of conglomerates and sand- 
stones are well displayed on Hadyard Hill and on the tract near May- 
bole; the middle volcanic series on the shore south of the Heads of 
Ayr and from the Stinchar valley along the Old Red belt towards 
Dalmellington and New Cumnock; while the upper group, com- 
prising conglomerates and sandstones, form a well-marked syn- 
clinal ford at Corsancone north-east of New Cumnock. The Upper 
Old Red Sandstone appears as a fringe round the south-west margin 
of the Carboniferous rocks of the county, and it rises from beneath 
them on the shore of the Firth of Clyde south of Wemyss Bay. 
The Carboniferous strata of the central low ground form a great 
basin traversed by faults, all the subdivisions of the system being 
represented save the Millstone Grit. Round the north and north- 
east margin there is a great development of volcanic rocks — lavas, 
tuffs and agglomerates — belonging to the Calciferous Sandstone 
series, and passing upwards into the Carboniferous Limestone. The 
lower limestones of the latter division are typically represented near 
Dairy and Beith, where in one instance they reach a thickness of over 
100 ft. They are followed by the coal-bearing group (Edge coals of 
Midlothian) which have been wrought in the Dairy, and Patna 
districts and at Dailly. The position of the Millstone Grit is occupied 
by lavas and tuffs, extending almost continually as a narrow fringe 
round the northern margin of the Coal Measures from Saltcoats by 
Kilmaurs to the Crawfordland Water. The workable coals of the 
true Coal Measures have a wide distribution from Kilwinning by 
Kilmarnock to Galston and again in the districts of Coylton, Dal- 
mellington, Lugar and Cumnock. These members are overlaid by a 
set of upper barren red sandstones, probably the equivalents of the 
red beds of Uddingston, Dalkeith and Wemyss in Fife, visible in the 
ravines of Lugar near Ochiltree and of Ayr at Catrine. In various 
parts of the Ayrshire coalfield the coal-seams are rendered useless by 
intrusive sheets of dolerite as near Kilmarnock and Dalmellington. 
In the central part of the field there is an oval-shaped area of red 
sandstones now grouped with the Trias, extending from near Tar- 
bolton to Mauchhne, where they are largely worked for building stone. 
They are underlaid by a volcanic series which forms a continuous belt 
between the underlying red sandstones of the Coal Measures and 
the overlying Trias. I n the north part of the county, as near Wemyss 
Bay, the strata are traversed by dykes of dolerite and basalt trending 
in a north-west direction and probably of Tertiary age. 

Agriculture. — There has been no lack of agricultural enterprise. 
With a moist climate, and, generally, a rather heavy soil, drainage 
was necessary for the successful growth of green crops. Up to 
about 1840, a green crop in the rotation was seldom seen, except 
on porous river-side land, or on the lighter farms of the lower 
districts. In the early part of the 19th century lime was a 
powerful auxiliary in the inland districts, but with repeated ap- 
plications it gradually became of little avail. Thorough draining 
gave the next great impetus. Enough had been done to test 
its efficacy before the announcement of Sir Robert Peel's drainage 
loan, after which it was rapidly extended throughout the county. 
Green-crop husbandry, and the liberal use of guano and other 
manures, made a wonderful change in the county, and immensely 
increased the amount of produce. Potatoes are now extensively 
grown, the coast-lands supplying the markets of Scotland and the 
north of England. Of roots, turnips, carrots and mangolds are 
widely cultivated, heavy crops being obtained by early sowing 
and rich manuring. Oats form the bulk of the cereal crop, but 
wheat and barley are also grown. High farming has developed 
the land enormously. Dairying has received particular attention. 
Dunlop cheese was once a well-known product. Part of it was 
very good; but it was unequal in its general character, and 
unsaleable in English markets. Dissatisfied with the inferior 
commercial value of their cheese in comparison with some English 
varieties, the Ayrshire Agricultural Association brought a Somer- 
set farmer and his wife in 1855 to teach the Cheddar method, and 
their effort was most successful. Cheddar cheese of first-rate 
quality is now made in Ayrshire, and the annual cheese show 
at Kilmarnock is the most important in Scotland. The Ayrshire 
breed of cows are famous for the quantity and excellence of their 
milk. Great numbers of cattle, sheep and pigs are raised for the 
market, and the Ayrshire horse is in high repute. 

Other Industries. — Ayrshire is the principal mining county 
in Scotland and has the second largest coalfield. There is a 
heavy annual output also of iron ore, pig iron and fire-clay. 
The chief coal districts are Ayr, Dalmellington, Patna, Maybole, 
Drongan, Irvine, Coylton, Stevenston, Beith, Kilwinning, 



7 6 



AYRTQNft-iAYSCOUGH 



Dairy, Kilbirnie, Dreghorn, Kilmarnock, Galstony Hurlford, 
Muirkirk, Cumnock and New Cumnock. Ironstone' occurs 
chiefly at Patna, Coylton, Dairy, Kilbirnie, Dreghorn , and 
Cumnock, and there are blast furnaces at most of i these towns. 
A valuable whetstone is quarried at Bridge of Stair on the Ayr 
— the Water.-of-Ayr stone. The leading manufactures fire im- 
portant. At Catrine are cotton factories and bleachfields, and 
at Ayr and Kilmarnock extensive engineering works, and 
carpet, blanket and woollens, boot and shoe factories. Cotton, 
woollens, and other fabrics and hosiery are also manufactured 
at Dairy, Kilbirnie, Kilmaurs, Beith and Stewarton. An 
extensive trade in chemicals is carried on at Irvine. Near 
Stevenston works have been erected in the sandhills' for the 
making of dynamite and other explosives. There aire large 
lace curtain factories at Galston, Newmilns and Darvel, and at 
Beith cabinet-making is a considerable industry. Shipbuilding 
is conduct|d at Troon, Ayr, Irvine and Fairlie, which is famous 
for its yaolts. The leading ports are Ardrossan, Ayr, Girvan, 
Irvine and Troon. Fishing is carried on in the harbours and 
creeks, which are divided between the fishery districts of Greenock 
and Ballantrae. ' 

Communications. — The Glasgow & South- Western railway 
owns most of the lines within the shire, its system serving all 
the industrial towns, ports and seaside resorts. Its tnmk line 
via Girvan to Stranraer commands the shortest sea passage to 
Belfast and the north of Ireland, and its main line via Kilmarnock 
communicates with Dumfries and Carlisle and so with England, 
The Lanarkshire & Ayrshire branch of the Caledonian railway 
company also serves aj part of the county. For passenger 
steamer traffic Ardross|n is the principal port, there being 
services to Arran and Belfast and, during the season, to Douglas 
in the Istei>f Man. Millport, on Great Cumbrae, is reached by 
steamerlrlm Fairlie. 

Population and Administration- *The population of Ayrshire 
in 1891 was 226,386, and in 1901, 254,468, or 223 to the sq. m. 
In 1901 the number of persons speaking Gaelic only was 17. 
The chief towns, with populations in 1901 are: Ardrossan 
(6077), Auchinleck (2168), Ayr (29,101), Beith (4963), Cumnock 
(3o88),»Dalry (5316), Darvel (3070), Galston (4876), Girvan 
(4024),JHurlford (4601), Irvine (9618), Kilbirnie (457*), Kil- 
marnock (35,091), Kilwinning (4440)* Largs (3246), Maybole 
(5892), Muirkirk (3892), Newmilns (4467), Saltcoats (8120), 
Stevenston (6554), Stewarton (2858), Troon (4764). The 
county returns two members to parliament, who represent 
North and South Ayrshire respectively. Ayr (the county town) 
and Irvine are royal burghs and belong to the Ayr group of 
parliamentary burghs, and Kilmarnock is a parliamentary 
burgh of the Kilmarnock group. Under the county council 
special water districts, drainage districts, and lighting and 
scavenging districts have been formed. The county forms a 
sheriffdom, and there are resident sheriffs-substitute at Ayr 
and Kilmarnock, who sit also at Irvine, Beith, Cumnock and 
Girvan. The shire is under school-board jurisdiction, but there 
are a considerable number of voluntary schools, besides secondary 
schools at Ayr, Irvine, Kilmarnock and Beith, while Kilmarnock 
Dairy School is a part of the West of Scotland Agricultural 
College established in 1899. In addition to grants earned by 
the schools, the county and borough councils expend a good 
deal of money upon secondary and technical education, towards 
which contributions are also made by the Glasgow and West of 
Scotland Technical College and the Kilmarnock Dairy School. 
The technical classes, subsidized at various local centres, em- 
brace instruction in agriculture, mining, engineering, plumbing, 
gardening, and various science and art subjects. 

History. — Traces of Roman occupation are found in Ayrshire. 
At the time of Agricola's campaigns the country was held by 
the Damnonii, and their town of Vandogara has been identified 
with a site at Loudoun Hill near Darvel,where a serious encounter 
with the Scots took place. On the withdrawal of the Romans, 
Ayrshire formed part of the kingdom of Strathclyde and ulti- 
mately passed under the sway of the Northumbrian kings. 
Save for occasional intertribal troubles, as that in which the 



Scottish king Alphv was slain at Dalmellington in the 9th 
century, the annals are silent until the battle of Largs in 1263, 
when the pretensions of Haakon of Norway to the sovereignty 
of the Isles were crushed by the Scots under Alexander HI. 
A generation later William Wallace conducted a vigorous 
campaign in the shire. He surprised the English garrison at 
Ardrossan,. and burned the barns of Ayr in which the forces of 
Edward I. were lodged. Robert Bruce is alleged to have been 
born at Turnberry Castle, some 12 m. S.W. of Ayr. In 1307 
he defeated the English at Loudoun Hill. Cromwell paid the 
county a hurried visit, during which he demolished the castle 
of Ardrossan and is said to have utilized the stones in rearing 
a fort at Ayr. Between 1660 and 1688 the sympathies of the 
county were almost wholly with the Covenanters, who suffered 
one of their heaviest reverses at Airds Moss — a morass between 
the Ayr and Lugar, — their leader, Richard Cameron, being 
killed (20th of July 1680). The county was dragooned and the 
Highland host ravaged wherever it went. The Hanoverian 
succession excited no active hostility if it evoked no enthusiasm. 
Antiquarian remains include cairns in Galston, Sorn and other 
localities; a road supposed to be a work of the Romans, which 
extended from Ayr, through Dalrymple and Dalmellington, 
towards the Solway; camps attributed to the Norwegians or 
Danes on the hills of Knockgeorgan and Dundonald; and the 
castles of Loch Doon, Turnberry, Dundonald, Portencross, 
Ardrossan and Dunure. There are ruins of celebrated abbeys 
at Kilwinning and Crossraguel, and of Alloway's haunted church, 
famous from their associations. 

See James Paterson, " History of the County of Ayr." Trans- 
actions of Ayrshire and Galloway Archaeological Associations, 
Edinburgh, 1879-1900; John Smith, Prehistoric Man in Ayrshire 
(London, 1895) ; William Robertson, History of Ayrshire (Edinburgh, 
1894); Archibald Sturrock, "On the Agriculture of Ayrshire," 
Transactions of Highland and Agricultural Society; D. Lands- 
borough, Contributions to Local History (Kilmarnock, 1878). 

AYRTON, WILLIAM EDWARD (1847-1908), English physi- 
cist, was born in London on the 14th of September 1847. He 
was educated at University College, London, and in 1868 went 
out to Bengal in the service of the Indian Government Telegraph 
department. In 1873 he was appointed professor of physics 
and telegraphy at the Imperial College of Engineering, Tokio. 
On his return to London six years later he became professor of 
applied physics at the Finsbury College of the City and Guilds • 
of London Technical Institute, and in 1884 he was chosen 
professor of electrical engineering at the Central Technical 
College, South Kensington. He published, both alone and 
jointly with others, a large number of papers on physical, and 
in particular electrical, subjects, and his name was especially 
associated, together with that of Professdr John Perry, with the 
invention of a long series of electrical measuring instruments. 
He died in London on the 8th of November 1908. His wife, 
Mrs Hertha Ayrton, whom he married in 1885, assisted him in 
his researches, and became known for her scientific work on the 
electric arc and other subjects. The Royal Society awarded her 
one of its Royal medals in 1906. 

AVSCOUGH, SAMUEL (1745-1804), English librarian and 
index-maker, was born at Nottingham in 1745. His father, a 
printer and stationer, having ruined himself by speculation, 
Samuel Ayscough left Nottingham for London, where he obtained 
an engagement in the cataloguing department of the British 
Museum. In 1782 he published a two-volume catalogue of 
the 1 then undescribed manuscripts in the museum. About 1785 
he was appointed assistant librarian at the museum, and soon 
afterwards took holy orders. In 1786 he published an index 
to the first seventy volumes of the Monthly .Review, and in 1796 
indexed the remaining volumes. Both this index and his 
catalogue of the undescribed manuscripts in the museum were 
private ventures. His first official work was a third share in the 
British Museum catalogue of 1787, and he subsequently cata- 
logued the ancient rolls and charters, 16,000 in all. In 1789 he 
produced the first two volumes of the index to the Gentleman's 
Magazine,a.nd in 1790 the first index-concordance to Shakespeare. 
He was a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, and has been called 



AYSCUE— AYUB KHAN 



77 



" The Prince of Indexers." He died at the British Museum on 
the 30th of October 1804. 

AYSCUE (erroneously Askew or Ayscough), SIR GEORGE 
(d. 1671), British admiral, came of an old Lincolnshire family. 
Beyond the fact that he was knighted by Charles I., nothing 
is known of his career until in 1646 he received a naval command. 
Through the latter years of the first civil war, Ayscue seems to 
have acted as one of the senior officers of the fleet. In 1648, 
when Sir William Batten went over to Holland with a portion 
of his squadron, Ayscue's influence kept a large part of the fleet 
loyal to the Parliament, and in reward for this service he was 
appointed -the following year admiral of the Irish Seas. For his 
conduct at the relief of Dublin he received the thanks of Parlia- 
ment, and in 1651 he was employed under Blake in the operations 
for the reduction of Stilly. He was next sent to the West Indies 
in charge of a squadron destined for the Conquest of Barbadoes 
and the other islands still under royalist control. This task 
successfully accomplished, he returned to take part in the first 
Dutch War. In this he played a prominent part, but the in- 
decisive battle off Plymouth (August 16th, 1652) cost him his 
command, though an annuity was assigned him. For some 
years Sir George Ayscue lived in retirement, but the later years 
of the Commonwealth he spent in Sweden, Cromwell having 
despatched him thither as naval adviser. At the Restoration 
he returned, and became one of the commissioners of the navy, 
but on the outbreak of the second Dutch War in 1664 he once 
more hoisted his flag as rear-admiral of the Blue, and took part 
in the battle of Lowestoft (June 3rd, 1665). In the great Four 
Days' Battle (June nth-i4th, 1666) he served with Monck as 
admiral of the White. His flagship, the " Prince Royal," was 
taken on the third day, and he himself remained a prisoner in 
Holland till the peace. It seems doubtful whether he ever again 
flew his flag at sea, and the date of his death is supposed to be 
167 1. Lely's portrait of Sir George Ayscue is in the Painted 
Hall at Greenwich. 

AYTOUN, or Ayton, SIR ROBERT (1570-1638), Scottish 
poet, son of Andrew Aytoun of Kinaldie, Fifeshire, was born in 
1570. He was educated at the university of St Andrews, where 
he was incorporated as a student of St Leonard's College in 1584 
and graduated M.A. in 1588. He lived for some years in France, 
and on the accession of James VI. to the English throne he wrote 
in Paris a Latin panegyric, which brought him into immediate 
favour at court. He was knighted in 161 2. He held various 
lucrative offices, and was private secretary to the queens of 
James I. and Charles I. He died in London and was buried 
in Westminster Abbey on the 28th of February 1638. His 
reputation with his contemporaries was high, both personally 
and as a writer, though he had no ambition to be known as the 
latter. 

Aytoun's remains are in Latin and English. In respect of the 
latter he is one of the earliest Scots to use the southern standard 
as a literary medium. The Latin poems include the panegyric 
already referred to, an Epicedium in obitum Thorna Rhodi; Basia, 
sive Strena ad Jacobum Hayum; Lessus in funere Raphaelis 
Thorei; Carina Caro; and minor pieces, occasional and epitaphic. 
His first English poem was Diophantus and Charidora (to which 
he refers in his Latin panegyric to James). He has left a number 
of pieces on amatory subjects, including songs and sonnets. 

Aytoun's Latin poems are printed in DelUiae Poetarum Scotorum 
(Amsterdam, 1637), i. pp. 40-75. His English poems are preserved 
in a MS. in the" British Museum {Aid. MSS. 10,308), which was pre- 
pared by his nephew, Sir John Aytoun. Both were collected by 
Charles Rogers in The Poems of Sir Robert Aytoun (London, privately 
printed, 1871). This edition is unsatisfactory, though it is better 
than the first issue by the same editor in 1844. Additional poems 
are included which cannot be ascribed to Aytoun, and which in some 
cases have been identified as the work of others. The poem " I 
do confess thou'rt smooth and fair " may be suspected, and the old 
version of " Auld Lang Syne " and " Sweet Empress " are cer- 
tainly not Aytoun's. Some of the English poems are printed in 
Watson's Collection (1706-1711) and in the Bannatyne Miscellany, 
i. p. 299 (1827). There is a memoir of Aytoun in Rogers's edition, 
and another by Grosart in the Diet, of Nat. Biog. Particulars of his 
public career will be found in the printed Calendars of State Papers 
and Register of the Privy Council of the period. 



AYTOUN, WILLIAM EDMONSTOUNE (1813-1865), Scottish 
poet, humorist and miscellaneous writer, was born at Edinburgh 
on the 21st of June 1813. He was the only son of Roger Aytoun, 
a writer to the signet, and the family was of the same stock as 
Sir Robert Aytoun noticed above. From his mother, a woman 
of marked originality of character and considerable culture, 
he derived his distinctive qualities, his early tastes in literature, 
and his political sympathies, his love for ballad poetry, and his 
admiration for the Stuarts. At the age of eleven he was sent to 
the Edinburgh Academy, passing in due time to the university. 
In 1833 he spent a few months in London for the purpose of 
studying law; but in September of that year he went to study 
German at Aschaffenburg, where he remained till April 1834. 
He then resumed his legal, pursuits in his father's chambers, 
was admitted a writer to the signet in 1835, and five years later 
was called to the Scottish bar. But, by his own confession, 
though he " followed the law, he never could overtake it." His 
first publication — a volume entitled Poland, Homer, and other 
Poems, in which he gave expression to his eager interest in the 
state of Poland— bad appeared in 1832^ While in Germany he 
made a translation in blank verse of the first part of Faust; 
but, forestalled by other translations, it was never published. 
In 1836 he made his earliest contributions to Blackwood's 
Magazine, in translations from Uhland; and from 1839 till 
his death he remained on the staff of Blackwood. About 1841 
he became acquainted with Mr (afterwards Sir) Theodore Martin, 
and in association with him wrote a series of light humorous 
papers on the tastes and follies of the day, in which were inter- 
spersed the verses which afterwards became popular as the 
Bon Gaultier Ballads (1855). The work on which his reputation 
as a poet chiefly rests is the Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers (1848; 
29th ed. 1883). In 1845 he was appointed professor of rhetoric 
and belles lettres at Edinburgh University. His lectures were 
very attractive, and the number of students increased correspond- 
ingly. His services in support of the Tory party, especially 
during the Anti-Corn-Law struggle, received official recognition 
in his appointment (1852) as sheriff of Orkney and Zetland. 
In 1854 appeared Firmilian, a Spasmodic Tragedy, in which he 
attacked and parodied the writings of Philip James Bailey, 
Sydney Dobell and Alexander Smith; and two years later he 
published his Bothwell, a Poem. Among his other literary works 
are a Collection of the Ballads of Scotland (1858), a translation 
of the Poems and Ballads of Goethe, executed in co-operation 
with his friend Theodore Martin (1858), a small volume on the 
Life and Times of Richard I. (1840), written for the Family 
Library, and a novel entitled Norman Sinclair (1861), many of 
the details in which are taken from incidents in his own experience. 
In i860 Aytoun was elected honorary president of the Associated 
Societies of Edinburgh University. In 1859 he lost his first 
wife, a daughter of John Wilson (Christopher North), to whom 
he was married in 1849, and this was a great blow to him. His 
mother died in November 1861, and his own health began to fail. 
In December 1863 he married Miss Kinnear. He died at Black- 
hills, near Elgin, on the 4th of August 1865. 

See Memoir of W. E. Aytoun (1867), by Sir Theodore Martin, with 
an appendix containing some of his prose essays. 

AYUB KHAN (1855- ), Afghan prince, son of Shere Ali 
(formerly amir of Afghanistan), and cousin of the amir Abdur 
Rahman, was born about 1855. During his father's reign little is 
recorded of him, but after Shere Ali's expulsion from Kabul by the 
English, and his death in January 1879, Ayub took possession of 
Herat, and maintained himself there until June 188 1, when he 
invaded Afghanistan with the view of asserting his claims to the 
sovereignty, and in particular of gaining possession of Kanda- 
har, still in the occupation of the British. He encountered the 
British force commanded by General Burrows at Maiwand on 
the 27th of July, and was able to gain one of the very few pitched 
battles that have been won by Asiatic leaders over an army 
under European direction. His triumph, however, was short- 
lived; while he hesitated to assault Kandahar he was attacked 
by Sir Frederick (afterwards Lprd) Roberts, at the close of the 
latter's memorable march from Kabul, and utterly discomfited, 



78 



AYUNTAMIENTO— AZALEA 



•20th. of September 1880. He made his way back to Herat, where 
he remained for some time unmolested. In the summer of 
188 1 he again invaded Afghanistan, and on the anniversary of 
the battle of Maiwand obtained a signal victory over Abdur 
Rahman's lieutenants, mainly through the defection of a Durani 
regiment. Kandahar fell into his hands, but Abdur Rahman 
now took the field in person, totally defeated Ayub, and expelled 
him from Herat. He took refuge in Persia, and for some time 
lived quietly in receipt of an allowance from the Persian govern- 
ment. In 1887 internal troubles in Afghanistan tempted him to 
make another endeavour to seize the throne. Defeated and 
driven into exile, he wandered for some time about Persia, and 
in November gave himself up to the British agent at Meshed. 
He was sent to India to live as a state prisoner. 

AYUNTAMIENTO, the Spanish name for the district over 
which a town council has administrative authority; it is used 
also for a town council, and for the town -hall. The word is de- 
rived from the Latin adjungere, and originally meant " meeting." 
In some parts of Spain and in Spanish America the town council 
was called the cabildo or chapter, from the Latin capitulum. 
The ayuntamiento consisted of the official members, and of 
regidores or regulators, who were chosen in varying proportions 
from the " hidalgos " or nobles (hijos de algo, sons of somebody) 
and the " pecheros," or commoners, who paid the pecho, or 
personal tax; pecho (Lat. pectus) is in Spanish the breast, and 
then by extension the person. The regidores of the ayunta- 
mientos, or lay cabildos, were checked by the royal judge or 
corregidor, who was in fact the permanent chairman or president. 
The distinction between hidalgo and pechero has been abolished 
in modern Spain, but the powers and the constitution of ayun- 
tamientos have been subject to many modifications. 

AYUTHIA, a city of Siam, now known to the Siamese as Krung 
Kao or " the Old Capital," situated in ioo° 32' E., 14° 21' N. 
Pop. about 10,000. The river Me Nam, broken up into a network 
of creeks, here surrounds a large island upon which stand the 
ruins of the famous city which was for more than four centuries 
the capital of Siam. The bulk of the inhabitants live in the 
floating houses characteristic Of lower Siam, using as thorough- 
fares the creeks to the edges of which the houses are moored. 
The ruins of the old city are of great archaeological interest, as 
are the relics, of which a large collection is housed in the local 
museum. Outside the town is an ancient masonry enclosure 
for the capture of elephants, which is still periodically used. 
Ayuthia is on the northern main line of the state railways, 42 m. 
from Bangkok. Great quantities of paddi are annually sent by 
river and rail to Bangkok, in return for which cloth and other 
goods are imported to supply the wants of the agriculturist 
peasantry. There is no other trade. Ayuthia is the chief town 
of one of the richest agricultural provincial divisions of Siam and 
is the headquarters of a high commissioner. The government 
offices occupy spacious buildings, once a royal summer retreat; 
the government is that of an ordinary provincial division 
(Monlon) . 

Historically Ayuthia is the most interesting spot in Siam. 
Among the innumerable ruins may be seen those of palaces, 
pagodas, churches and fortifications, the departed glories of 
which are recorded in the writings of the early European travellers 
who first brought Siam within the knowledge of the West, and laid 
the foundations of the present foreign intercourse and trade. 
The town was twice destroyed by the Burmese, once in 1555 
and again in 1767, and from the date of the second destruction 
it ceased to be the capital of the country. 

AZAIS, PIERRE HYACINTHE (1766-1845), French philo- 
sopher, was born at Soreze and died at Paris. He spent his 
early years as a teacher and a village organist. At the outbreak 
of the Revolution he viewed it with favour, but was soon 
disgusted at the violence of its methods. A critical pamphlet 
drew upon him the hatred of the revolutionists, and it was 
not until 1806 that he was able to settle in Paris. In 1809 he 
published his great work, Des Compensations dans les destinies 
humaines (5th ed. 1846), which pleased Napoleon so much that 
he made its author professor at St Cyr. In 181 1 he became 



inspector of the public library at Avignon, and from 1812- to 
18 15 he held the same position at Nancy. The Restoration 
government at* first suspected him as a Bonapartist, but at 
length granted him a pension. From that time he occupied 
himself in lecturing and the publication of philosophical works. 
In the Compensations he sought to prove that, on the whole, 
happiness and misery are equally balanced, and therefore that 
men should accept the government which is given them rather 
than risk the horrors of revolution. " Le principedel'inegalite 
naturelle et essentielle dans les destinees humaines conduit 
inevitablement au fanatisme revolutionnaire ou au fanatisme 
religieux." The principles of compensation and equilibrium 
are found also in the physical universe, the product of matter 
and force, whose cause is God. Force, naturally expansive and 
operating on the homogeneous atoms which constitute elemental 
matter, is subject to the law of equilibrium, or equivalence of 
action and reaction. The development of phenomena under 
this law may be divided into three stages — the physical, the 
physiological, the intellectual and moral. The immaterial in 
man is the expansive force inherent in him. Moral and political 
phenomena are the result of the opposing forces of progress and 
preservation, and their perfection lies in the fulfilment of the 
law of equilibrium or universal harmony. This may be achieved 
in seven thousand years, when man will vanish from the world. 
In an additional five thousand, a similar equilibrium will obtain 
in the physical sphere, which will then itself pass away. In 
addition to his philosophical work, Azais studied music under 
his father, Pierre Hyacinthe Azai's (1 743-1 796), professor of 
music at Soreze and Toulouse, and composer of sacred music 
in the style of Gossec. He wrote for the Revue musicale a series 
of articles entitled Acoustique jondameniale (1831), containing 
an ingenious, but now exploded, theory of the vibration of the 
air. His other works are: Systeme universel (8 vols., 1812); 
Du Sort de I'homme (3 vols., 1820); Cours de philosophie (8 vols., 
1824), reproduced as Explication universelle (3 vols., 1826-1828); 
Jeunesse, maturity, religion, philosophie (1837); De la phrSnologie, 
du magnitisme, et de la folie (1843). 

AZALEA, a genus of popular hardy or greenhouse plants, 
belonging to the heath order (Ericaceae), and scarcely separable 
botanically from Rhododendron. The beautiful varieties now 
in cultivation have been bred from a few originals, natives of 
the hilly regions of China and Japan, Asia Minor, and the 
United States. They are perhaps unequalled as indoor decorative 
plants. They are usually increased by grafting the half-ripened 
shoots on the stronger-growing kinds, the shoots of the stock 
and the grafts being in a similarly half-ripened condition, and 
the plants being placed in a moist heat of 65°. Large plants of 
inferior kinds, if healthy, may be grafted all over with the 
choicer sorts, so as to obtain a large specimen in a short time. 
They require a rich and fibrous peat soil, with a mixture of sand 
to prevent its getting water-logged. The best time to pot azaleas 
is three or four weeks after the blooming is over. The soil 
should be made quite solid to prevent its retaining too much 
water. To produce handsome plants, they must while young 
be stopped as required. Specimens that have got leggy may be 
cut back just before growth commences. The lowest temperature 
for them during the winter is about 35°, and during their season 
of growth from 55° to 65° at night, and 75° by day, the atmo- 
sphere being at the same time well charged with moisture. They 
are liable to the attacks of thrips and red spider, which do great 
mischief if not promptly destroyed. i» 

The following are some well-known species: — A. arborescens 
(Pennsylvania) , a deciduous shrub 10-20 ft. high; A. calendulacea 
(Carolina to Pennsylvania), a beautiful deciduous shrub 2-6 ft. 
high, with yellow, red, orange and copper-coloured flowers; 
A. hispida, a North American shrub, 10-15 ft. high, flowers 
white edged with red; A. indica (China), the so-called Indian 
azalea, a shrub 3-6 ft. or more high, the original of numerous 
single and double varieties, many of the more vigorous of which 
are hardy in southern England and Ireland; A. nudifiora, a 
North American shrub, 3-4 ft. high, which hybridizes freely with 
A. calendulacea, A. pontica and others, to produce single and 



AZAMGARH— AZEGLIO 



79 



double forms of a great variety of shades; A. pontica (Levant, 
Caucasus, &c), 4-6 ft. high, with numerous varieties differing 
in the colour of the flowers and the tint of the leaves; A. sinensis 
(China and Japan), a beautiful shrub, 3-4 ft. high, with orange- 
red or yellow bell-shaped flowers, hardy in the southern half of 
England, large numbers of varieties being in cultivation under 
the name of Japanese azaleas. 

AZAMGARH, or Azimgarh, a city and district of British India, 
in the Gorakhpur division of the United Provinces. The town 
is situated on the river Tons, and has a railway station. It is 
said to have been founded about 1665 by a powerful landholder 
named Azim Khan, who owned large estates in this part of the 
country. Pop. (1901) 18,835. 

The area of the district is 2207 sq. m. It is bounded on the 
N. by the river Gogra, separating it from Gorakhpur district; 
on the E. by Ghazipur district and the river Ganges; on the S. 
by the districts of Jaunpur and Ghazipur; and on the W. by 
Jaunpur and Fyzabad. The portion of the district lying along 
the banks of the Gogra is a low-lying tract, varying considerably 
in width; south of this, however, the ground takes a slight rise. 
The slope of the land is from north-west to south-east, but the 
general drainage is very inadequate. Roughly speaking, the 
district consists of a series of parallel ridges, whose summits are 
depressed into beds or hollows, along which the rivers flow; 
while between the ridges are low-lying rice lands, interspersed 
with numerous natural reservoirs. The soil is fertile, and very 
highly cultivated, bearing magnificent crops of rice, sugar-cane 
and indigo. There are several indigo factories. A branch of 
the Bengal & North-Western railway to Azamgarh town was 
opened in 1898. In 1901 the population was 1,529,785, showing 
a decrease of 1 1 % in the decade. The district was ceded to the 
Company in 1801 by the wazirs of Lucknow. In 1857 it became 
a centre of mutiny. On the 3rd of June 1857 the 17th Regiment 
of Native Infantry mutinied at Azamgarh, murdered some of 
their officers, and carried off the government treasure to Fyzabad. 
The district became a centre of the fighting between the Gurkhas 
and the rebels, and was not finally cleared until October 1858 by 
Colonel Kelly. 

AZAN (Arabic for " announcement "), the call or summons 
to public prayers proclaimed by the Muezzin (crier) from the 
mosque twice daily in all Mahommedan countries. In small 
mosques the Muezzin at Azan stands at the door or at the side 
of the building; in large ones he takes up his position in the 
minaret. The call translated runs: "God is most great!" 
(four times), "I testify there is no God but God!" (twice), 
" I testify that Mahomet is the apostle of God!" (twice), " Come 
to prayer!" (twice), "Come to salvation!" (twice), "God is 
most great!" (twice), "There is no God but God!" To the 
morning Azan are added the words, " Prayer is better than 
sleep! " (twice). The devout Moslem has to make a set response 
to each phrase of the Muezzin. At first these are mere repetitions 
of Azan, but to the cry "Come to prayer!" the listener must 
answer, " I have no power nor strength but from God the most 
High and Great." To that of " Come to salvation! " the formal 
response is, " What God willeth will be: what He willeth not 
will not be." The recital of the Azan must be listened to with 
the utmost reverence. The passers in the streets must stand 
still, all those at work must cease from their labours, and those 
in bed must sit up. 

The Muezzin, who is a paid servant of the mosque, must stand 
with his face towards Mecca and with the points of his forefingers 
in his ears while reciting Azan. He is specially chosen for good 
character, and Azan must not be recited by any one unclean, 
by a drunkard, by the insane, or by a woman. The summons 
to prayers was at first simply " Come to prayer!" Mahomet, 
anxious to invest the call with the dignity of a ceremony, took 
counsel of his followers. Some suggested the Jewish trumpet, 
others the Christian bell, but according to legend the matter 
was finally settled by a dream: — " While the matter was under 
discussion, Abdallah, a Khazrajite, dreamed that he met a man 
clad in green raiment, carrying a bell. Abdallah sought to buy it, 
saying that it would do well for bringing together the assembly 



of the faithful. ' I will show thee a better way,' replied the 
stranger; ' let a crier cry aloud " God is most great, &c." ' On 
awaking, Abdallah went to Mahomet and told him his dream," 
and Azan was thereupon instituted. 

AZARA, DON JOSE NICHOLAS DE (1731-1804), Spanish 
diplomatist, was born in 1731 at Barbunales, Aragon, and was 
appointed in 1765 Spanish agent and procurator-general, and in 
1785 ambassador at Rome. During his long residence there he 
distinguished himself as a collector of Italian antiquities and as 
a patron of art. He was also an able and active diplomatist, 
took a leading share in the difficult and hazardous task of the 
expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain, and was instrumental in 
securing the election of Pius VI. He withdrew to Florence when 
the French took possession of Rome in 1798, but acted on behalf 
of the pope during his exile and after his death at Valence 
in 1799. He was afterwards Spanish ambassador in Paris. In 
that post it was his misfortune to be forced by his government 
to conduct the negotiations which led to the treaty of San Ilde- 
fonso, by which Spain was wholly subjected to Napoleon. Azara 
was friendly to a French alliance, but his experience showed him 
that his country was being sacrificed to Napoleon. The First 
Consul liked him personally, and found him easy to influence. 
Azara died, worn out, in Paris in 1804. His end was undoubtedly 
embittered by his discovery of the ills which the French alliance 
must produce for Spain. 

Several sympathetic notices of Azara will be found in Thiers, 
Consulat et Empire. See also Reinado de Carlos IV, by Gen. J. 
Gomez de Arteche, in the Historia General de Espana, published by 
the R. Acad, de la Historia, Madrid, 1892, &c. There is a Notice 
historique sur le Chevalier a" Azara by Bourgoing (1804). 

His younger brother, Don Felix de Azara (1746-1811), 
spent twenty years in South America as a commissioner for 
delimiting the boundary between the Spanish and Portuguese 
territories. He made many observations on the natural history 
of the country, which, together with an account of the discovery 
and history of Paraguay and Rio de la Plata, were incorporated 
in his principal work, Voyage dans I'Amerique miridionale depuis 
ij&i jusqu'en 1801, published at Paris in 1809 in French from 
his MS. by C. A. Walckenaer. 

AZARIAH, the name of several persons mentioned in the 
Old Testament. (1) One of Solomon's " princes," son of Zadok 
the priest (1 Kings iv. 2), was one of several Azariahs among the 
descendants of Levi (1 Chron. vi. 9, 10, 13, 36; 2 Chron. xxvi. 17). 
(2) The son of Nathan, a high official under King Solomon 
(1 Kings iv. 5). (3) King of Judah, son of Amaziah by his wife 
Jecholiah (2 Kings xv. 1, 2), also called Uzziah (2 Chron. xxvi. 1). 

(4) Son of Ethan and great-grandson of Judah (1 Chron. ii. 8). 

(5) Son of Jehu, of the posterity of Judah (1 Chron. ii. 38). (6) 
A prophet in the reign of Asa, king of Judah (2 Chron. xv. 1). 

(7) Two sons of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah (2 Chron. xxi. 2). 

(8) King of Judah, also called Ahaziah and Jehoahaz, son of 
Jehoram (2 Chron. xxi. 17; xxii. 1, 6). (9) The son of Jeroham, 
and (10) the son of Obed, were made " captains of hundreds " 
by Jehoiada the priest (2 Chron. xxiii. 1). (n) Son of Hilkiah 
and grandfather of Ezra the Scribe (Ezra vii. 1; Neh. vii. 7, viii. 
7, x. 2). (12) Son of Maaseiah, one of those who under the 
commission of Artaxerxes restored the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. iii. 
2 3)- ( J 3) Son of Hoshaiah, an opponent of the prophet Jeremiah 
(Jer. xliii. 2). (14) One of the companions in captivity of the 
prophet Daniel, called Abednego by Nebuchadrezzar, by whom 
with two companions he was cast into a " burning fiery furnace " 
for refusing to worship the golden image set up by that monarch 
(Dan. i. 6, iii. 8-30). 

AZAY-LE-RIDEAU, a town of western France, in the depart- 
ment of Indre-et-Loire, on the Indre, 16 m. S.W. of Tours by 
rail. Pop. (1906) 1453. The town has a fine Renaissance 
chateau, well restored in modern times, with good collections of 
furniture and pictures. 

AZEGLIO, MASSIMO TAPARELLI, Marquis d' (1798-1866), 
Italian statesman and author, was born at Turin in October 1 798, 
descended from an ancient and noble Piedmontese family. 
His father, Cesare d'Azeglio, was an officer in the Piedmontese 
army and held a high position at court; on the return of Pope 



8o 



AZERBAIJAN 



Pius VII. to Rome after the fall of Napoleon, Cesare d'Azeglio 
was sent as special envoy to the Vatican, and he took his son, 
then sixteen years of age, with him as an extra attache. Young 
Massimo was given a commission in a cavalry regiment, which 
he soon relinquished on account of his health. During his 
residence in Rome he had acquired a love for art and music, 
and he now determined to become a painter, to the horror of 
his family, who belonged to the stiff and narrow Piedmontese 
aristocracy. ' His father reluctantly consented, and Massimo 
settled in Rome, devoting himself to art. He led an abstemious 
life, maintaining himself by his painting for several years. But 
he was constantly meditating on the political state of Italy. 
In 1830 he returned to Turin, and after his father's death in 1831 
removed to Milan. There he remained for twelve years, moving 
in the literary and artistic circles of the city. He became the 
intimate of Alessandro Manzoni the novelist, whose daughter 
he married; thenceforth literature became his chief occupation 
instead of art, and he produced two historical novels, Niccold 
dei Lapi and Ettore Fieramosca, in imitation of Manzoni, and with 
pronounced political tendencies, his object being to point out 
the evils of foreign domination in Italy and to reawaken national 
feeling. In 1845 he visited Romagna as an unauthorized political 
envoy, to report on its conditions and the troubles which he 
foresaw would break out on the death of Pope Gregory XVI. 
The following year he published his famous pamphlet Degli 
ultimi cast di Romagna at Florence, in consequence of which 
he was expelled from Tuscany. He spent the next few months 
in Rome, sharing the general enthusiasm over the supposed 
liberalism of the new pope, Pius IX. ; like V. Gioberti and Balbo 
he believed in an Italian confederation under papal auspices, 
and was opposed to the Radical wing of the Liberal party. His 
political activity increased, and he wrote various other pamphlets, 
among which was I lulti di Lombardia (1848). 

On the outbreak of the first war of independence, d'Azeglio 
donned the papal uniform and took part under General Durando 
in the defence of Vicenza, where he was severely wounded. He 
retired to Florence to recover, but as he opposed the democrats 
who ruled in Tuscany, he was expelled from that country for the 
second time. He was now a famous man, and early in 1849 
Charles Albert, king of Sardinia, invited him to form a cabinet. 
But realizing how impossible it was to renew the campaign, and 
" not having the heart to sign, in such wretched internal and 
external conditions, a treaty of peace with Austria " (Corre- 
spondance politique, by E. Rendu), he refused. After the defeat 
of Novara(23rd of March 1849), Charles Albert abdicated and was 
succeeded by Victor Emmanuel II. D'Azeglio was again called 
on to form a cabinet, and this time, although the situation was 
even more difficult, he accepted, concluded a treaty of peace, 
dissolved the Chamber, and summoned a new one to ratify it. 
The treaty was accepted, and d'Azeglio continued in office for 
the next three years. While all the rest of Italy was a prey to 
despotism, in Piedmont the king maintained the constitution 
intact in the face of the general wave of reaction. D'Azeglio 
conducted the affairs of the country with tact and ability, 
improving its diplomatic relations, and opposing the claims of 
the Roman Curia. He invited Count Cavour, then a rising young 
politician, to enter the ministry in 1850. Cavour and Farini, 
also a member of the cabinet, made certain declarations in the 
Chamber (May 1852) which led the ministry in the direction of 
an alliance with Rattazzi and the Left. Of this d'Azeglio dis- 
approved, and therefore resigned office, but on the king's request 
he formed a new ministry, excluding both Cavour and Farini. 
In October, however, owing to ill-health and dissatisfaction with 
some of his colleagues, as well as for other reasons not quite clear, 
he resigned once more and retired into private life, suggesting 
Cavour to the king as his successor. 

For the next four years he lived modestly at Turin, devoting 
himself once more to art, although he also continued to take 
an active interest in politics, Cavour always consulting him on 
matters of moment. In 1855 ne was appointed director of the 
Turin art gallery. In 1859 he was given various political missions, 
including one to Paris and London to prepare the basis for a 



general congress of the powers on the Italian question. When 
war between Piedmont and Austria appeared inevitable he re- 
turned to Italy, and was sent as royal commissioner by Cavour 
to Romagna, whence the papal troops had been expelled. After 
the peace of Villafranca, d'Azeglio was recalled with orders to 
withdraw the Piedmontese garrisons; but he saw the danger of 
allowing the papal troops to reoccupy the province, and after 
a severe inner struggle left Bologna without the troops, and 
interviewed the king. The latter approved of his action, and 
said that his orders had not been accurately expressed; thus 
Romagna was saved. That same year he published a pamphlet 
in French entitled De la Politique et du droit chrilien au point 
de vue de la question italienne, with the object of inducing 
Napoleon III. to continue his pro-Italian policy. Early in i860 
Cavour appointed him governor of Milan, evacuated by the 
Austrians after the battle of Magenta, a position which he held 
with great ability. But, disapproving of the government's 
policy with regard to Garibaldi's Sicilian expedition and the 
occupation by Piedmont of the kingdom of Naples as inoppor- 
tune, he resigned office. 

The death of his two brothers in 1862 arid of Cavour in 1861 
caused Massimo great grief, and he subsequently led a com- 
paratively retired life. But he took part in politics, both as a 
deputy and a writer, his two chief subjects of interest being 
the Roman question and the relations of Piedmont (now the 
kingdom of Italy) with Mazzini and the other revolutionists. 
In his opinion Italy must be unified by means of the Franco- 
Piedmohtese army alone, all connexion with the conspirators 
being eschewed, while the pope should enjoy nominal sovereignty 
over Rome, with full spiritual independence, the capital of Italy 
being established elsewhere, but the Romans being Italian citizens 
(see his letters to E. Rendu and his pamphlet Le questioni 
urgenti). He strongly disapproved of the convention of 1864 
between the Italian government and the pope. The last few years 
of d' Azeglio's life were spent chiefly at his villa of Cannero, where 
he set to work to write his own memoirs. He died of fever on 
the 15th of January 1866. 

Massimo d'Azeglio was a very attractive personality, as well 
as an absolutely honest patriot, and a characteristic example 
of the best type of Piedmontese aristocrat. He was cautious 
and conservative; in his general ideas on the liberation of Italy 
he was wrong, and to some extent he was an amateur in politics, 
but of his sincerity there is no doubt. As an author his political 
writings are trenchant and clear, but his novels are somewhat 
heavy and old-fashioned, and are interesting only if one reads 
the political allusions between the lines. 

Besides a variety of newspaper articles and pamphlets, d'Azeglio's 
chief works are the two novels Ettore Fieramosca(i8^)a.nd Niccold dei 
£0^1(1841), and a volume of autobiographical memoirs entitled I Miei 
Ricordi, a most charming work published after his death, in 1866, but 
unfortunately incomplete. See in addition to the Ricordi, L. Carpi's 
II Risorgimento Italiano,vo\. i. pp. 288 sq . and the Souvenirs historiques 
of Constance d'Azeglio, Massimo's niece (Turin, 1884). (L. V.*) 

AZERBAIJAN (also spelt Adeebijan; the Azerbadegan of 
medieval writers, the A thropatakan and A tropatene of the ancients) , 
the north-western and most important province of Persia. lit is 
separated from Russian territory on the N. by the river Aras 
(Araxes), while it has the Caspian Sea, Gilan and Khamseh 
(Zenjan) on the E., Kurdistan on the S., and Asiatic Turkey 
on the W. Its area is estimated at 32,000 sq. m.; its population 
at 1 § to 2 millions, comprising various races, as Persians proper, 
Turks, Kurds, Syrians, Armenians, &c. The country is superior 
in fertility to most provinces of Persia, and consists of a regular 
succession of undulating eminences, partially cultivated and 
opening into extensive plains. Near the centre of the province 
the mountains of Sahand rise in an accumulated mass to the height 
cf 1 2 ,000 ft. above the sea. The highest mountain of the province 
is in its eastern part, Mount Savelan, with an elevation of 15,792 
ft., and the Talish Mountains, which run from north to south, 
parallel to and at no great distance from the Caspian, have an 
altitude of 9000 ft. The principal rivers are the Aras and Kizil 
Uzain, both receiving numerous tributaries and flowing into the 
Caspian, and the Jaghatu, Tatava, Murdi, Aji and others, which 



AZIMUTH— AZO COMPOUNDS 



81 



drain into the Urmia lake. The country to the west of the lake, 
with the districts of Selmas and Urmia, is the most prosperous 
part of Azerbaijan, yet even here the intelligent traveller laments 
the want of enterprise among the inhabitants. Azerbaijan is one 
of the most productive provinces of Persia. The orchards and 
gardens in which many villages are embosomed yield delicious 
fruits of almost every description, and great quantities, dried, 
are exported, principally to Russia. Provisions are cheap and 
abundant, but there is a lack of forests and timber trees. Lead, 
copper, sulphur, orpiment, also lignite, have been found within 
the confines of the province; also a kind of beautiful, variegated, 
translucent marble, which takes a high polish, is used in the 
construction of .palatial buildings, tanks, baths, &c, and is known 
as Maragha, or'Tabriz marble. The climate is healthy, not hot 
in summer, and cold in winter. The cold sometimes is severely 
felt by the poor classes owing to want of proper fuel, for which a 
great part of the population has no substitute except dried cow- 
dung. Snow lies oh the mountains for about eight months in the 
year, and water is everywhere abundant. The best soils when 
abundantly irrigated yield from 50- to 60-fold, and the water 
for this purpose is supplied by the innumerable streams which 
intersect the province. The natives of Azerbaijan make excellent 
soldiers, and about a third of the Persian army is composed of 
them. The province is divided into a number of administra- 
tive sub-provinces or districts, each with a hakim, governor 
or sub-governor, under the governor-general, who under the 
Kajar dynasty has always been the heir-apparent to the throne 
of Persia, assisted by a responsible minister appointed by the 
shah. The administrative divisions are as follows: — Tabriz 
and environs; Uskuh; Deh-Kharegan; Maragha; Miandoab; 
Satijbulagh; Sulduz; Urmia; Selmas; Khoi; Maku; Gerger; 
Merend; Karadagh; Arvanek; Talish; Ardebil; Mishkin; 
Khalkhal; Hashtrud; Garmrud; Afshar; Sain Kaleh; Ujan; 
Sarab. The revenue amounts to about £200,000 per annum in 
cash and kind, and nearly all of it is expended in the province 
for the maintenance of the court of the heir-apparent, the salaries 
and pay to government officials, troops, pensions, &c. (A.H.-S.) 

AZIMUTH (from the Arabic), in astronomy, the angular 
distance from the north or south point of the horizon to the foot 
of the vertical circle through a heavenly body. In the case of a 
horizontal line the azimuth is its deviation from the north or 
south direction. 

AZO (c. 1150-1230), Italian jurist. This Azo, whose name is 
sometimes written Azzo and Azzolenus, and who is occasionally 
described as Azo Soldanus, from the surname of his father, is to 
be distinguished from two other famous Italians of the same 
name, viz. Azo Lambertaccius, a canonist of the 13th century, 
professor of canon law at the university of Bologna, author of 
Quesliones in jus canonicum, and Azo de Ramenghis, a canonist of 
the 14th century, also a professor of canon law at Bologna, and 
author of Repetitiones super libro Decretorum. Few particulars 
are known as to the life of Azo, further than that he was born 
at Bologna about the middle of the 12th century, and was a 
pupil of Joannes Bassianus, and afterwards became professor 
of civil law in the university of his native town. He also 
took an active part in municipal life, Bologna, with the other 
Lombard republics, having gained its municipal independence. 
Azo occupied a very important position amongst the glossators, 
and his Readings on the Code, which were collected by his pupil, 
Alessandro de Santo Aegidio, and completed by the additions 
of Hugolinus and Odofredus, form a methodical exposition of 
Roman law, and were of such weight before the tribunals that it 
used to be said, " Chi non ha Azzo, non vada a palazzo." Azo 
gained a great reputation as a professor, and numbered amongst 
his pupils Accursius and Jacobus Balduinus. He died about 1 230. 

AZO COMPOUNDS, organic substances of the type RN:NR' 
(where R = an aryl radical and R' = a substituted alkyl, or 
aryl radical). They may be prepared by the reduction of nitro 
compounds in alkaline solution (using zinc dust and alkali, or a 
solution of an alkaline stannite as a reducing agent) ; by oxida- 
tion of hydrazo compounds; or by the coupling of a diazotized 
amine and any compound of a phenolic or aminic type, provided 



that there is a free para position in the amine or phenol. They 
may also be obtained by the molecular rearrangement of the 
diazoamines, when these are warmed with the parent base and 
its hydrochloride. This latter method of formation has been 
studied by H. Goldschmidt and R. U. Reinders (Ber., 1896, 29, 
p. 1369), who found that the reaction is monomolecular, and 
that the velocity constant of the reaction is proportional to the 
amount of the hydrochloride of the base present and also to 
the temperature, but is independent of the concentration of 
the diazoamine. The azo compounds are intensely coloured, 
but are not capable of being used as dyestuffs unless they 
contain salt-forming, acid or basic groups (see Dyeing). By 
oxidizing agents they are converted into azoxy compounds, and 
by reducing agents into hydrazo compounds or amines. 

Azo-benzene, CeHjNiNQHs, discovered by E. Mitscherlich 
in 1834, may be prepared by reducing nitrobenzene in alcoholic 
solution with zinc dust and caustic soda; by the condensation 
of nitrosobenzene with aniline in hot glacial acetic acid solution; 
or by the oxidation of aniline with sodium hypobromite. It 
crystallizes from alcohol in orange red plates which melt at 
68° C. and boil at 293 C. It does not react with acids or alkalis, 
but on reduction with zinc dust in acetic acid solution yields 
aniline. 

Amino-azo Compounds may be prepared as shown above. 
They are usually yellowish brown or red in colour, the presence 
of more amino groups leading to browner shades, whilst the 
introduction of alkylated amino groups gives redder shades. 
They usually crystallize well and are readily reduced. When 
heated with aniline and aniline hydrochloride they yield indu- 
lines (<?.».). Amino-azo-benzene, C6H 5 -N2-C6H 4 NH2, crystallizes 
in yellow plates or needles and melts at 126 C. Its constitu- 
tion, is determined by the facts that it may be prepared by 
reducing nitro-azo-benzene by ammonium sulphide and that 
by reduction with stannous chloride it yields aniline and 
meta-phenylene diamine. Diamino-azo-benzene (chrysoidine), 
CeHs-NrCeH^NHi^, first prepared by O. Witt {Ber., 1877, 
10, p. 656), is obtained by coupling phenyl diazonium chloride 
with meta-phenylene diamine. It crystallizes in red octa- 
hedra and dyes silk and wool yellow. Triamino-azo-benzene 
(meta-aminobenzene-azo-meta-phenylene diamine or Bismarck 
brown, phenylene brown, vesuvine, Manchester brown), 
NH2-C 6 H4-N2-C6H3(NH 2 )2, is prepared by the action of nitrous 
acid on meta-phenylene diamine. It forms brown crystals 
which are readily soluble in hot water, and it dyes mordanted 
cotton a dark brown. On the composition of the commercial 
Bismarck brown see E. Tauber and F. Walder {Ber., 1897, 30, 
pp. 2111, 2899; 1900, 33, p. 2116). Alkylated amino-azo-benzenes 
are also known, and are formed by the coupling of diazonium 
salts with alkylated amines, provided they contain a free para 
position with respect to the amino group. In these cases it has 
been shown by H. Goldschmidt and A. Merz {Ber., 1897, 3°> 
p. 670) that the velocity of formation of the amino-azo compound 
depends only on the nature of the reagents and not on the con- 
centration, and that in coupling the hydrochloride of a tertiary 
amine with diazobenzene sulphonic acid the reaction takes place 
between the acid and the base set free by the hydrolytic dissocia- 
tion of its salt, for the formation of the amino-azo compound, 
when carried out in the presence of different acids, takes place 
most rapidly with the weakest acid (H. Goldschmidt and F. Buss, 
Ber., 1897, 30, p. 2075). 

Methyl orange (helianthin, gold orange, Mandarin orange), 
(CH3)2N-C6H4-N2-C 6 H4S03Na, is the sodium salt of para- 
dimethylaminobenzene-azo-benzene sulphonic acid. It is an 
orange crystalline powder which is soluble in water, forming a 
yellow solution. The free acid is intensely red in colour. Methyl 
orange is used largely as an indicator. The constitution of methyl 
orange follows from the fact that on reduction by stannous 
chloride in hydrochloric acid solution it yields sulphanilic acid 
and para-aminodimethyl aniline. 

Oxyazo Compounds. — The oxyazo compounds are prepared by 
adding a solution of a diazonium salt to a cold slightly alkaline 
solution of a phenol. The diazo group takes up the para position 



82 



AZOIMIDE 



with regard to the hydroxyl group, and if this be prevented it 
then goes into the ortho position. It never goes directly into the 
meta position. 

The constitution of the oxyazo compounds has attracted much 
attention, some chemists holding that they are true azbphenols 
of the type R-N 2 -RrOH, while others look upon them as having 
a quinonoid structure, i.e. as being quinone hydrazones, type 
R-NH-N:Ri:0. The first to attack the purely chemical side 
were Th. Zincke (Ber., 1883,16, p. 2929; 1884, 17, p. 3026; 1887, 

20, p. 3171) and R. Meldola (Jour. Ckem. Sac, 1889. 55, pp. 114, 
603). Th. Zincke found that the products obtained by coupling 
a diazonium salt with a-naphthol, and by condensing phenyl- 
hydrazine with G-naphthoquinone, were identical; whilst 
Meldola acetylated the azophenols, and split the acetyl pro- 
ducts by reduction in acid solution, but obtained no satisfactory 
results. K. Auwers (Zeit. f. phys. Chem., 1896, 21, p. 355; Ber., 
1900, 33, p. i302)examined the questionfromthe physico-chemical 
standpoint by ' determining the freezing-point depressions, the 
result being that the para-oxyazo compounds give abnormal 
depressions and the ortho-oxyazo compounds give normal 
depressions; Auwers then concluded that the para compounds 
are phenolic and the ortho compounds are quinone hydrazones 
or act as such. A. Hantzsch (Ber., 1899, 32, pp. 590, 3089) con- 
siders that the oxyazo compounds are to be classed as pseudo- 
acids, possessing in the free condition the configuration of quinone 
hydrazones, their salts, however, being of the normal phenolic 
type. J. T. Hewitt (Jour. Chem. Soc., 1900, 77, pp. 99 et seq.) 
nitrated para-oxyazobenzene with dilute nitric acid and found 
that it gave a benzene-azo-ortho-nitrophenol, whereas quinones 
are not attacked by dilute nitric acid. Hewitt has also attacked 
the problem by brominating the oxyazobenzenes, and has shown 
that when the hydrobromic acid produced in the reaction is 
allowed to remain in the system, a brombenzene-azo-phenol is 
formed, whilst if it be removed (by the addition of sodium 
acetate) bromination takes place in the phenolic nucleus; con- 
sequently the presence of the mineral acid gives the azo compound 
a pseudo-quinonoid character, which it does not possess if the 
mineral fecid be removed from the sphere of the reaction. 

Para-oxyazobenzene (benzene-azo-phenol), C6H5N: N(r)-C6H4- 
OH(4), is prepared by coupling diazotized aniline with phenol 
in alkaline solution. It is an orange-red crystalline compound 
whichmeltsat 154° C. Ortho-oxyazobenzene, C6H f ,N:N(i)CoHs' 
OH(2), was obtained in small quantity by E. Bamberger 
(Ber., 1900, t,^, p. 3189) simultaneously with the para com- 
pound, from which it may be separated by distillation in a 
current of steam, the ortho compound passing over with the 
steam. It crystallizes in orange-red needles which melt at 
82-5-83° C. On reduction with zinc dust in dilute sal- 
ammoniac solution, it yields ortho-aminophenol and aniline. 
Meta-oxyazobenzene, C 6 H 5 N: N(i)C 6 H 4 -OH(3), was obtained in 
1*903 by P. Jacobson (Ber., 1903, 36, p^ 4093) by condensing 
ortho-anisidine with diazo benzene, the resulting compound 
being then diazotized and reduced by alcohol to benzene-azo- 
meta-anisole, from which meta-oxyazobenzene was obtained 
by hydrolysis with aluminium chloride. It melts at n 2-1 14° C. 
and is easily reduced to the corresponding hydrazo compound. 

Diazo- Amines. — The diazo-amines, R-N : N-NHRi, are ob- 
tained by the action of primary amines on diazonium salts; 
by the action of nitrous acid on a free primary amine, an iso- 
diazohydroxide being formed as an intermediate product which 
then condenses with the amine; and by the action of nitros- 
amines on primary amines. They are crystalline solids, usually 
of a yellow colour, which do not unite with acids; they are 
readily converted into amino-azo compounds (see above) and are 
decomposed by the concentrated halogen acids, yielding haloid 
benzenes, nitrogen and an amine. Acid anhydrides replace the 
imino-hydrogen atom by acidyl radicals, and boiling with water 
converts them into phenols. They combine with phenyl iso- 
cyanate to form urea derivatives (H. Goldschmidt, Ber., 1888, 

21, p. 2578), and on reduction with zinc dust (preferably in alco- 
holic acetic acid solution) they yield usually a hydrazine and an 
amine. Diazoamino benzene, C 6 H 5 N : N-NHC 6 H 5 , was first 



obtained by P. Griess (Ann., 1862, 121, p. 258). It crystallizes in 
yellow laminae,which melt at 96° C. and explode at slightly higher 
temperatures. It is readily soluble in alcohol,, ether and benzene. 
Diazoimino benzene, QH5N3, is also known. It may be pre- 
pared by the action of ammonia on diazobenzene perbromide; 
by the action of hydroxylamine on a diazonium sulphate (K. 
Heumann and L. Oeconomides, Ber., 1887, 20, p. 372); and by 
the action of phenylhydrazine on a diazonium sulphate. It is 
a yellow oil which boils at 59° C. (12 mm.), and possesses a 
stupefying odour. ■• It explodes when heated. Hydrochloric 
acid converts it into chloraniline, nitrogen being eliminated; 
whilst boiling sulphuric acid converts it into aminophenol. 

Azoxy Compounds, R-NO-N-R'-, are usually yellow or red 
crystalline solids which result from the reduction of nitro or 
nitroso compounds by heating them with alcoholic potash 
(preferably using methyl alcohol). They may also be obtained 
by the oxidation of azo compounds. When reduced (in acid 
solution) they yield amines; distillation with reduced iron 
gives azo compounds, and warming with ammonium sulphide 
gives hydrazo compounds. Concentrated sulphuric acid converts 
azoxybenzene into oxyazobenzene (O. Wallach, Ber., 1880, 13, 
p. 525). Azoxybenzene, (C 6 H 6 N) 2 0, crystallizes from alcohol in 
yellow needles, which melt at 36° C. On distillation, it yields 
aniline and azobenzene. Azoxybenzene is also found among 
the electro-reduction products of nitrobenzene, when the reduc- 
tion is carried out in alcoholic-alkaline solution. 

The mixed azo compounds are those in which the azo group 
•N: N- is united with an aromatic radical on the one hand, and 
with a radical of the aliphatic series on the other. The most easily 
obtained mixed azo compounds are those formed by the union 
of a diazonium salt with the potassium or sodium salt of a 
nitroparaffin (V. Meyer, Ber., 1876, 9, p. 384): 

C 6 H 6 N 2 -N0 3 + CHrCH(NC 2 )K = KN0 3 -|-C6H5N2-CH(N0 2 )CH 3 . 

Benzene-azo-nitro-ethane. 
Those not containing a nitro group may be prepared by the 
oxidation of the corresponding mixed hydrazo compounds with 
mercuric oxide. E. Bamberger (Ber., 1898, 31, p. 455) has shown 
that the nitro-alkyl derivatives behave as though they possess 
the constitution of hydrazones, for on. heating with dilute 
alkalies they split more or less readily into an alkaline nitrite 
and an acid hydrazide : 
C 6 H 5 NH-N : C(N0 2 )CH 3 +NaOH=NaN0 2 +C 6 H 6 NH-NH-CO-CH s . 

Benzene-azo-methane, C 6 H 5 -N 2 -CH3, is a yellow oil which 
boils at 1 50° C. and is readily volatile in steam. Benzene-azo- 
ethane, C 6 H5'N 2 -C 2 H 6 , is a yellow oil which boils at about 180° 
C. with more or less decomposition. On standing with 60 % 
sulphuric acid for some time, it is converted into the isomeric 
acetaldehyde-phenylhydrazone,C 6 H 5 NH-N: CH-CH 3 (Ber., 1896, 

29, P- 794)- 

The diazo cyanides, C 6 H 6 N 2 -CN, and carboxytic acids, C 6 H 5 - 
N 2 -COOH, may also be considered as mixed azo derivatives. 
Diazobenzenecyanide, QH 5 N 2 -CN, is an unstable oil, formed 
when potassium cyanide is added to a solution of a diazonium 
salt. Phenyl-azo-carboxylic acid, C 6 H 5 -N 2 COOH, is obtained 
in the form of its potassium salt when phenylsemicarbazide is 
oxidized with potassium permanganate in alkaline solution 
(J. Thiele, Ber., 1895, 28, p. 2600). It crystallizes in orange-red 
needles and is decomposed by water. The corresponding amide, 
phenyl-azo-carbonamide, C H 5 N 2 -CONH 2 , also results from the 
oxidation of phenylsemicarbazide (Thiele, loc. eit.), and forms 
reddish-yellow needles which melt at 114° C. When heated 
with benzaldehyde to 120° C. it yields diphenyloxytriazole, 
(C 6 H 5 ) 2 CN 3 C(QH). 

AZOIMIDE, or Hydrazoic Acid, N 3 H, a compound of nitrogen 
and hydrogen, first isolated in 1890 by Th. Curtius (Berichte, 
1890, 23, p. 3023). It is the hydrogen compound corresponding 
to P. Greiss' diazoimino benzene, C6H5N3, which is prepared by 
the addition of ammonia to diazobenzene perbromide. 

Curtius found that benzoyl glycollic acid gavebenzoyl hydrazine 
with hydrazine hydrate: 
C 6 H c OCO-CH 2 COOH+2N 2 H4-H 2 = H 2 0+C 6 H s CONH-NH 2 -f- 

NHrNHCHrCOOH. 



AZORES 



83 



(Ethyl benzoate may be employed instead of benzoyl glycollic 
acid for this reaction.) This compound gave a nitroso compound 
with nitrous acid, which changed spontaneously into benzoyl- 
azoimide by loss of water: 

CHsCO NH NH 2 + HONO = H 2 0+C £ H 6 CO N(NO)NH 2 . 
GHsCO-NCNO-NH^^O+CeHsCONs. 
The resulting benzoylazoimide is easily hydrolysed by boiling 
with alcoholic solutions of caustic alkalis, a benzoate of the 
alkali metal and an alkali salt of the new acid being obtained; 
the latter is precipitated in crystalline condition on standing. 

An improved method of preparation was found in the use of 
hippuric acid, which reacts with hydrazine hydrate to form 
hippuryl hydrazine, C 6 H 6 CONH-CH 2 CONH-MH 2 , and thissub- 
stance is converted by nitrous acid into diazo-hippuramide, 
C 6 H 6 CONH-CH 2 -CONH-N 2 -OH, which is hydrolysed by the 
action of caustic alkalis with the production of salts of hydrazoic 
acid. To obtain the free acid it is best to dissolve the diazo- 
hippuramide in dilute soda, warm the solution to ensure the 
formation of the sodium salt, and distil the resulting liquid 
with dilute sulphuric acid. The pure acid may be obtained 
by fractional distillation as a colourless liquid of very unpleasant 
smell, boiling at 30° C, and extremely explosive. It is soluble in 
water, and the solution dissolves many metals (zinc, iron, &c.) 
with liberation of hydrogen and formation of salts (azoimides, 
azides or hydrazoates). All the salts are explosive and readily 
interact with the alkyl iodides. In its properties it shows 
some analogy to the halogen acids, since it forms difficultly 
soluble lead, silver and mercurous salts. The metallic salts all 
crystallize in the anhydrous condition and decompose on heating, 
leaving a residue of the pure metal. The acid is a " weak " acid, 
being ionized only to a very slight extent in dilute aqueous 
solution. 

E. Noelting and E. Grandmougin (Berichte, 1891, 24, p. 2546) 
obtained azoimide from dinitraniline, C 6 H 3 (N0 2 ) 2 -NH 2 , by 
diazotization and conversion of the diazo compound into the 
perbromide, (N0 2 ) 2 C6H3-N 2 -Br 3 . This compound is then decom- 
posed by ammonia, dinitrophenylhydrazoate being formed, 
which on hydrolysis with alcoholic potash gives potassium 
hydrazoate (azide) and dinitrophenol. The solution is then 
acidified and distilled, when azoimide passes over. Somewhat 
later, they found that it could be prepared from diazobenzene 
imide, provided a nitro group were present in the ortho or para 
position to the diazo group. The para-nitro compound is dropped 
slowly into a cold solution of one part of caustic potash in ten 
parts of absolute alcohol; the solution becomes dark red in 
colour and is then warmed for two days on the water bath. After 
the greater portion of the alcohol has distilled off, the solution 
is acidified with sulphuric acid and the azoimide distilled over. 
The yield obtained is only about 40% of that required by 
theory, on account of secondary reactions taking place. Qrtho- 
nitro-diazobenzene imide only yields 30%. 

W. Wislicenus (Berichte, 1892, 25, p. 2084) has prepared the 
sodium salt by passing nitrous oxide over sodamide at high 
temperatures. The acid can also be obtained by the action of 
nitrous acid on hydrazine sulphate; by the oxidation of 
hydrazine by hydrogen peroxide and sulphuric acid (A. W. 
Browne, /. Amer. Chem. Soc, 1905, 25, p. 251), or by 
ammonium metavanadate (A. W. Browne and F. F. Shetterly, 
Abst. J.C.S., 1907, ii. p. 863). 

Ammonium azoimide, N 3 -NH 4 , may be prepared by boiling 
diazohippuramide with alcoholic ammonia, until no more 
ammonia escapes, the following reaction taking place: 
C 6 H 5 CO-NHCH 2 CONH-N 2 -OH+2NH 3 = N 3 -NH4+H 2 + 

C 6 H 6 CONH-CH 2 -CONH 2 . 
The liquid is then allowed to stand for twelve hours, and the 
clear alcoholic solution is decanted from the precipitated hip- 
puramide. To the alcoholic solution, four times its volume of 
ether is added, when the ammonium salt is precipitated. It is 
then filtered, washed with ether, and air-dried. The salt is 
readily soluble in water, and is only feebly alkaline. It is ex- 
tremely explosive. Hydrazine azoimide, N5H5, is also known. 

Chloroazoimide, Cl-N 3 , the chloride corresponding to azoimide, 



was obtained by F. Raschig (Ber., 1908, 41, p. 4194) as a 
highly explosive colourless gas on acidifying a mixture of 
sodium azide and hypochlorite with acetic or boric acid. 

AZORES (Azores), or Western Islands, an archipelago in the 
Atlantic Ocean,: belonging to the kingdom of Portugal. Pop. 
(1900) 2s6,29i.;,-area, 922 sq. m. The Azores extend in an 
oblique line from N.W. to S.E., between 36 55' and 39 55' N., 
and between 25° and 31° 16' W. They- are divided into three 
widely, severed groups, rising from a depth of more than 25 m. 
The south-eastern, group consists of St Michael's (Sao. Miguel) 
and St Mary (Santa Maria), with Formigas; the central, of 

20° Loug.W.of ^"Greenwich 2>° 




Fayal (Faial), Pico, St George (Sao Jorge) , Terceira and Graciosa; 
the north-western, of Flores and Corvo. 

The nearest continental land is Cape da Roca on the Portuguese 
coast, which lies 830 m. E. of St Michael's; while Cape Cantin, 
the nearest point on the African mainland, is more than 900 m. 
distant, and Cape Race in Newfoundland, the nearest American 
headland, is more than 1000 m. Thus the Azores are the 
farthest from any continent of all the island groups in the 
Atlantic; but they are usually regarded as belonging to Europe,: 
as their climate and flora are European in character. ; 

Physical Description.-^-The aspect of all the islands is very 
similar in general characteristics, presenting an elevated and 



84 



AZORES 



undulating outline, with little or no tableland, and rising into 
peaks, of which the lowest, that of Corvo, is 350 ft., and the 
highest that of Pico, 7612 ft. above sea-level. The lines of sea- 
coast are, with few exceptions, high and precipitous, with bases 
of accumulated masses of fallen rock, in which open bays, or 
scarcely more enclosed inlets, form the harbours of the trading 
towns. The volcanic character of the whole archipelago is 
obvious, and has been abundantly confirmed by the numerous 
earthquakes and eruptions which have taken place since its 
discovery. Basalt and scoria are the chief erupted materials. 
Hitherto Flores, Corvo and Graciosa have been quite exempt, 
and Fayal has only suffered from one eruption (1672). The 
centre of activity has for the most part been St Michael's, while 
the neighbouring island of St Mary has altogether escaped. In 
1444-1445 there was a great eruption at St Michael's, of which, 
however, the accounts that have been preserved exaggerate the 
importance. In 1522 the town of Villa Franca, at that time the 
capital of the island, was buried, with all its 6000 inhabitants, 
during a violent convulsion. In 1572 an eruption took place in 
Pico; in 1580 St George was the scene of numerous outbursts; 
and in 1614 a little town in Terceira was destroyed. In 1630, 
1652, 1656, 1755, 1852, &c, St Michael's was visited with 
successive eruptions and earthquakes, several of them of great 
violence. On various occasions, as in 1638, 1720, 1811 and 1867, 
subterranean eruptions have taken place, which have sometimes 
been accompanied by the appearance of temporary islands. Of 
these the most remarkable was thrown up in June 181 1, about 
half a league from the western extremity of St Michael's. It 
was called Sabrina by the commander of the British man-of-war 
of that name, who witnessed the phenomenon. 

Climate. — The climate is particularly temperate, but the ex- 
tremes of sensible heat and cold are increased by the humidity. 
The range of the thermometer is from 45 Fahr., the lowest known 
extreme, or 48 , the ordinary lowest extreme of January, to 82 , 
the ordinary, or 86°, the highest known extreme of July, near 
the level of the sea. Between these two points (both taken in 
the shade) there is from month to month a pretty regular grada- 
tion of increase or decrease, amounting to somewhat less than 
four degrees. In winter the prevailing winds are from the north- 
west, west and south; in summer the most frequent are the 
north, north-east and east. The weather is often extremely 
stormy, and the winds from the west and south-west render the 
navigation of the coasts very dangerous. 

Fauna. — The mammalia of the Azores are limited to the rabbit, 
weasel, ferret, rat (brown and black), mouse and bat, in addition 
to domestic animals. The game includes the woodcock, red 
partridge (introduced in the 16th century), quail and snipe. 
Owing to the damage inflicted on the crops by the multitude of 
blackbirds, bullfinches, chaffinches and green canaries, a reward 
was formerly paid for the destruction of birds in St Michael's, 
and it is said that over 400,000 were destroyed in several succes- 
sive years between 1875 and 1885. There are valuable fisheries 
of tunny, mullet and bonito. The porpoise, dolphin and whale 
are also common. Whale-fishing is a profitable industry, with 
its headquarters at Fayal, whence the sperm-oil is exported. 
Eels are found in the rivers. The only indigenous reptile is the 
lizard. Fresh-water molluscs are unknown, and near the coast 
the marine fauna is not rich; but terrestrial molluscs abound, 
several species being peculiar to the Azores. 

Flora. — The general character of the flora is decidedly 
European, no fewer than 400 out of the 478 species generally 
considered as indigenous belonging likewise to that continent, 
while only four are found in America, and forty are peculiar to 
the archipelago. Vegetation in most of the islands is remarkably 
rich, especially in grasses, mosses, and ferns, heath, juniper, and 
a variety of shrubs. Of tall-growing trees there was, till the 
19th century, an almost total lack; but the Bordeaux pine, 
European poplar, African palm-tree, Australian eucalyptus, 
chestnut, tulip-tree, elm, oak, and many others, were then 
successfully introduced. The orange, apricot, banana, lemon, 
citron, Japanese medlar, and pomegranate are the common 
fruits, and various other varieties are more or less cultivated. | 



At one time much attention was given to the growing of sugar- 
cane, but it has now for the most part been abandoned. The 
culture of indigo, introduced in the 16th century, also belongs to 
the past. A kind of fern (Dicksonia culcita) , called by the natives 
cabellinho, furnishes a silky material for the stuffing of mat- 
tresses and is exported to Brazil and Portugal. 

Population.- — The inhabitants of the islands are mostly of 
Portuguese origin, with a well-marked strain of Moorish and 
Flemish blood. There is a high birth-rate and a low average 
of infant mortality. A large proportion of the poorer classes, 
especially among the older men and women, are totally illiterate, 
but education tends to spread more rapidly than in Portugal 
itself, owing to the custom of sending children to the United 
States, where they are taught in the state schools. Negroes, 
mulattoes, English, Scottish and Irish immigrants are present 
in considerable numbers, especially in Fayal and St Michael's. 
The total number of resident foreigners in 1900 was 1490. 

Government. — The Azores are subdivided into three adminis- 
trative districts named after their chief towns, i.e. Ponta 
Delgada, the capital of St Michael's; Angra, or Angra do 
Heroismo, the capital of Terceira; and Horta, the capital of 
Fayal. St Michael's and St Mary are included in the district 
of Ponta Delgada; Terceira, St George and Graciosa, in that 
of Angra; Pico, Fayal, Flores and Corvo, in that of Horta. 
Four members are returned by Ponta Delgada to the parliament 
in Lisbon, while each of the other districts returns two members. 
Roman Catholicism is the creed of the majority, and Angra is 
an episcopal see. For purposes of military administration the 
islands form two commands, with their respective headquarters 
at Angra and Ponta Delgada. Besides the frequent and regular 
services of mails which connect the Azores with Portugal and 
other countries, there is a cable from Lisbon to Villa Franca do 
Campo, in St Michael's, and thence to Pico, Fayal, St George 
and Graciosa. Fayal is connected with Waterville, in Ireland, 
by a cable laid in 1901. At Angra and Ponta Delgada there are 
meteorological stations. The principal seaports are Angra 
(pop. 1900, 10,788), Ponta Delgada (17,620), and Horta (6574). 
Trade. — The trade of the Azores, long a Portuguese monopoly, 
is now to a great extent shared by the United Kingdom and 
Germany, and is chiefly carried in British vessels. Textiles are 
imported from Portugal; coal from Great Britain; sugar from 
Germany, Madeira and the United States; stationery, hardware, 
chemicals, paints, oils, &c, from the United Kingdom and 
Germany. The exports consist chiefly of fruit, wine, natural 
mineral waters and provisions. The trade in pineapples is 
especially important. No fewer than 940,000 pineapples were 
exported in 1902 and 1903, going in almost equal quantities to 
London and Hamburg. The fruit is raised under glass. Pottery, 
cotton fabrics, spirits, straw hats and tea are produced in the 
district of Ponta Delgada; linen and woollen goods, cheese, 
butter, soap, bricks and tiles, in that of Angra; baskets, mats, 
and various ornamental articles made from straw, osier, and the 
pith of dried fig-wood, in that of Horta. 

The largest and most populous of the Azores is St Michael's, 
which has an area of 297 sq. m., and in 1900 had 12 1,340 inhabit- 
ants. Graciosa (pop. 8385; area, 17 sq. m.) and St George 
(16,177; 40 sq. m.) form part of the central group. Graciosa 
is noteworthy for the beauty of its scenery. Its chief towns are 
Santa Cruz de Graciosa (2185) and Guadalupe (2717). The chief 
towns of St George are Ribeira Seca (2817) and Velas (2009). 

History.— It does not appear that the ancient Greeks and 
Romans had any knowledge of the Azores, but from the number 
of Carthaginian coins discovered in Corvo it has been supposed 
that the islands must have been visited by that adventurous 
people. The Arabian geographers, Edrisi in the 12th century, 
and Ibn-al-Wardi in the 14th, describe, after the Canaries, nine 
other islands in the Western Ocean, which are in all probability 
the Azores. This identification is supported by various con- 
siderations. The number of islands is the same ; the climate 
under which they are placed by the Arabians makes them north 
of the Canaries; and special mention is made of the hawks or 
buzzards, which were sufficiently numerous at a later period to 



AZOTH— -AZOXIMES 



85 



give rise to the present name (Port. A f or, a hawk) . The Arabian 
writers represent them as having been populous, and as having 
contained cities of some magnitude; but they state that the 
inhabitants had been greatly reduced by intestine warfare. The 
Azores are first found distinctly marked in a map of 1351, the 
southern group being named the Goat Islands (Cabreras); the 
middle group, the Wind or Dove Islands (De Ventura sive de 
Columbis); and the western, the Brazil Island (De Brail)— the 
word Brazil at that time being employed for any red dye-stuff. 
In a Catalan map of the year 1375 Corvo is found as Corvi Marini, 
and Flores as Li Conigi; while St George is already designated 
San Zorze. It has been conjectured that the discoverers were 
Genoese, but of this there is not sufficient evidence. It is plain; 
however, that the so-called Flemish discovery by van der Berg 
is only worthy of the name in a very secondary sense. According 
to the usual account, <he was driven on the islands in 1432, and 
the news excited considerable interest at the court of Lisbon. 
The navigator, Gonzalo Velho Cabral — not to be confounded 
with his greater namesake, Pedro Alvarez Cabral — was sent to 
prosecute the discovery. Another version relates that Prince 
Henry the Navigator of Portugal had in his possession a map in 
which the islands were laid down, and that he sent out Cabral 
through confidence in its accuracy. The map had been presented 
to him by his brother, Dom Pedro, who had travelled as far as 
Babylon. Be this as it may, Cabral reached the island, which 
he named Santa Maria, in 1432, and in 1444 took possession of 
St Michael's. The other islands were all discovered by 1457. 
Colonization had meanwhile been going on prosperously; and 
in 1466 Fayal was presented by Alphonso V. to his aunt, Isabella, 
the duchess of Burgundy. An influx of Flemish settlers followed, 
and the islands became known for a time as the Flemish Islands. 
From 1580 to 1640 they were subject, like the rest of the 
Portuguese kingdom, to Spain. At that time the Azores were 
the grand rendezvous for the fleets on their voyage home from 
the Indies; and hence they became a theatre of that maritime 
warfare which was carried on by the English under Queen 
Elizabeth against the Peninsular powers. One such expedition, 
which took place in 1591, led to the famous sea-fight off Flores, 
between the English ship " Revenge," commanded by Sir Richard 
Grenville, and a Spanish fleet of fifty-three vessels. Under the 
active administration of the marquis de Pombal (1699-1782), con- 
siderable efforts were made for the improvement of the Azores, 
but the stupid and bigoted government which followed rather 
tended to destroy these benefits. Towards the beginning of the 
19th century, the possession of the islands, was contested by 
the claimants for the crown of Portugal. The adherents of the 
constitution, who supported against Miguel the rights of Maria 
(II.) da Gloria, obtained possession of Terceira in 1829, where 
they succeeded in maintaining themselves, and after various 
struggles, Queen Maria's authority was established over all the 
islands. She resided at Angra from 1830 to 1833. 

For a general account of the islands, see The Azores, by W. F. 
Walker (London, 1886), and Madeira and the Canary Islands, with 
the Azores, -by A. S. Brown (London, 1901). On the fauna and flora 
of the islands, the following books by H. Drouet are useful: — 
Elements de la faune acoreenne (Paris, 1861); Mollusques marins 
des ties Azores (1858), Letlres acoreennes (1862), and Catalogue de la 
flore des ties Acores, prScede de Vitineraire d'une voyage dans cet 
archipel (1866). The progress of Azorian commerce is best shown 
in the British and American consular reports. For history, see 
La Conquista de las Azores en 1583, by C. Fernandez Duro (Madrid, 
1886), and Histoire de la decouverte des ties Azores et de Vorigine de 
lew dSnomination d'iles flamandes, by J. Mees (Ghent, 1901). 

AZOTH, the name given by the alchemists to mercury, and 
by Paracelsus to his universal remedy. 

AZOTUS, the name given by Greek and Roman writers to 
Ashdod, an ancient city of Palestine, now represented by a few 
remains in the little village of % Esdud, in the governmental 
district of Acre. It was situated about 3 m. inland from the 
Mediterranean, on the famous military route between Syria and 
Egypt, about equidistant (18 m.) from Joppa and Gaza. As 
one of the five chief cities of the Philistines and the seat of the 
worship of Dagon (1 Sam. v.; cf. 1 Mace. x. 83), it maintained, 
down even to the days of the Maccabees, a vigorous though 



somewhat intermittent independence against the power of the 
Israelites, by whom it was nominally assigned to the territory of 
Judah. In 711 B.C. it was captured by the Assyrians (Is. xx. 1), 
but soon regained its power, and was strong enough in the 
next century to resist the assaults of Psammetichus, king of 
Egypt, for twenty-nine years (Herod, ii. 157). Restored by the 
Roman Gabinius from the ruins to which it had been reduced 
by the Jewish wars (1 Mace. v. 68, x. 77, xvi. 10), it was presented" 
by Augustus to Salome, the sister of Herod. The only New 
Testament reference is in Acts viii. 40. Ashdod became the 
seat of a bishop early in the Christian era, but seems never to 
have attained any importance as a town. The Mount Azotus 
of 1 Mace. ix. 15, where Judas Maccabeus fell, is possibly the 
rising ground on which the village stands. A fine Saracenic 
khan is the principal relic of antiquity at 'Esdud. 

AZOV, or Asov (in Turkish, Asak), a town of Russia, in the 
government of the Don Cossacks, on the left bank of the southern 
arm of the Don, about 20 m. from its mouth. The ancient 
Tanais lay some 10 m. to the north. In the 13th century the 
Genoese had a factory here which they called Tana. Azov was 
long a place of great military and commercial importance. 
Peter the Great obtained possession of it after a protracted 
siege in 1696, but in 1711 restored it to the Turks; in 1739 it 
was finally united to the Russian empire. Since then it has 
greatly declined, owing to the silting up of its harbour and the 
competition of Taganrog. Its population, principally engaged 
in the fisheries, numbered 25,124 in 1900. 

AZOV, SEA OF, an inland sea of southern Europe, communi- 
cating with the Black Sea by the Strait of Yenikale, or Kerch, 
the ancient Bosporus Cimmerius. To the Romans it was known 
as the Palus Maeotis, from the name of the neighbouring people, 
who called it in their native language Temarenda, or Mother of 
Waters. It was long supposed to possess direct communication 
with the Northern Ocean. In prehistoric times a connexion with 
the Caspian Sea existed; but since the earliest historical times 
no great change has taken place in regard to the character or 
relations of the Sea of Azov. It lies between 45° 20' and 47 18' 
N. lat:, and between 35° and 39 E. long., its length from south- 
west to north-east being 230 m., and its greatest breadth no. 
The area runs to 14,515 sq. m. It generally freezes from 
November to the middle of April. The Don is its largest and, 
indeed, its only very important affluent. Near the mouth of 
that river the depth Of the sea varies from 3 to 10 ft., and the 
greatest depth does not exceed 45 ft. Of recent years, too, the 
level has been constantly dropping, for the surface lies 4! ft. 
higher than the surface of the Black Sea. Fierce and continuous 
winds from the east prevail during July and August, and in the 
latter part of the year those from the north-east and south-east 
are not unusual; a great variety of currents is thus produced. 
The water is for the most part comparatively fresh, but differs 
considerably in this respect according to locality and current. 
Fish are so abundant that the Turks describe it as Baluk-deniz, 
or Fish Sea. To the west, separated from the main basin by the 
long narrow sand-spit of Arabat, lie the remarkable lagoons and 
marshes known as the Sivash, or Putrid Sea; here the water 
is intensely salt. The Sea of Azov is of great importance 
to Russian commerce; along its shores st-and the cities of 
Taganrog, Berdyansk, Mariupol and Yenikale. 

AZOXIMES (furo [a.b.] diazoles), a class of organic compounds 

which contain the ring system n ^CH^ - They may be 
prepared by converting nitriles into amidoximes by the action 
of hydroxylamine, the amidoximes so formed being then acylated 
by acid chlorides or anhydrides. From these acyl derivatives 
the elements of water are removed, either by simple heating 
or by boiling their aqueous solution; this elimination is accom- 
panied by the formation of the azoxime ring. Thus 

NH2OH ,„ ^ u boil with 

C 6 H 6 CN- »C 6 H 5 -C<fN-OH ^ 

\ y*tiz propionic anhydride 
[c 6 H 6 C<N-0-COC 2 H 5 j_ >C6H6 . G /N.Ox c . C2H6 _ 



86 



AZTECS— AZYMITES 



Azoximes can also be produced from a-benzil dioxime by the 
" Beckmann " change. Most of the azoximes are very volatile' 
substances, sublime readily, and are easily soluble in water, 
alcohol and benzene. 

For detailed descriptions, see F. Tieraann (Ber., 1885, 18, 
p. 1059), O. Schulz {Ber., 1885, 18, pp. 1084, 2459), and G. Miiller 
{Ber., 1886, 19, p. 1492) ; also Annual Reports of the Chemical Society). 

AZTECS (from the Nahuatl word azilan, " place of the 
Heron/' or " Heron " people), the native name of one of the 
tribes that occupied the tableland of Mexico on the arrival of 
the Spaniards in America. It has been very frequently employed 
as equivalent to the collective national title of Nahuatlecas or 
Mexicans. The Aztecs came, according to native tradition, 
from a country to which they gave the name of Aztlan, usually 
supposed to lie towards the north-west, but the satisfactory 
localization of it is one of the greatest difficulties in Mexican 
history. The date of the exodus from Aztlan is equally un- 
determined, being fixed by various authorities in the nth and 
by others in the 12 th century. One Mexican manuscript gives 
a date equivalent to a.d. 1164. They gradually increased their 
influence among other tribes, until, by union with the Toltecs, 
who occupied the tableland before them, they extended their 
empire to an area of from 18,000 to 20,00c square leagues. 
The researches of Humboldt gave the first clear insight into the 
early periods of their history. See Mexico; Nahuatlan Stock. 

AZUAGA, a town of western Spain, in the province of Badajoz, 
on the Belmez-Fuente del Arco railway. Pop. (1900) 14,192. 
Azuaga is the central market for the live-stock of the broad up- 
land pastures watered by the Matachel, a left-hand tributary 
of the Guadiana, and by the Bembezar, a right-hand tributary 
of the Guadalquivir. Coarse woollen goods and pottery are 
manufactured in the town. 

AZUAY (sometimes written Assuay), a province of Ecuador, 
bounded N. by the province of Cafiar, E. by Oriente, S. by Loja, 
and W. by El Oro. It was formerly called Cuenca, and formed 
part of the department of Azuay, which also included the province 
of Loja. Azuay is an elevated mountainous district with a great 
variety of climates and products; among the latter are silver, 
quicksilver, wheat, Indian corn, barley, cattle, wool, cinchona 
and straw hats. The capital is Cuenca. 

AZUNI, DOMENICO ALBERTO (1749-1827), Italian jurist, 
was born at Sassar, in Sardinia, in 1749. He studied law at 
Sassari and Turin, and in 1782 was made judge of the consulate 
at Nice. In 1 786-1 788 he published his Dizionario Universale 
Ragionato delta Giurisprudenza Mercantile. In 1795 appeared 
his systematic work on the maritime law of Europe, Sistema 
Universale del Principii del Diritto Maritimo dell' Europa, which 
he afterwards recast and translated into French. In 1806 he 
was appointed one of the French commission engaged in. drawing 
up a general code of commercial law, and in the following year 
he proceeded to Genoa as president of the court of appeal. After 
the fall of Napoleon in 1814, Azuni lived for a time in retirement 
at Genoa, till he was invited to Sardinia by Victor Emmanuel I., 
and appointed judge of the consulate at Cagliari, and director 
of the university library. He died at Cagliari in 1827. Azuni 
also wrote numerous pamphlets and minor works, chiefly on 
maritime law, an important treatise on the origin and progress 
of maritime law (Paris, 1810), and an historical, geographical 
and political account of Sardinia (1799, enlarged 1802). 

AZURARA, GOMES EANNES DE (?-i474>, the second 
notable Portuguese chronicler in order of date. He adopted the 
career of letters in middle life. He probably entered the royal 
library as assistant to Fernao Lopes (q.v.) during the reign of 
King Duarte (1433-1438), and he had sole charge of it in 1452. 
His Chronicle of the Siege and Capture of Ceuta, a supplement to 
the Chronicle of King John I., by Lopes, dates from 1450, and 
three years later he completed the first draft of the Chronicle of 
the Discovery and Conquest of Guinea, our authority for the early 
Portuguese voyages of discovery down the African coast and 
in the ocean, more especially for those undertaken under the 
auspices of Prince Henry the Navigator. It contains some 
account of the life work of that prince, and has a biographical as 
well as a geographical interest. On the 6th of June 1454 Azurara 



became chief keeper of the archives and royal chronicler in 
succession to Fernao Lopes. In 1456 King Alphonso V. com- 
missioned him to write the history of Ceuta, " the land-gate of 
the East," under the governorship of D. Pedro de Menezes, from 
its capture in 1415 until 1437, and he had it ready in 1463. A 
year afterwards the king charged him with a history of the deeds 
of D. Duarte de Menezes, captain of Alcacer, and, proceeding to 
Africa, he spent a twelvemonth in the town collecting materials 
and studying the scenes of the events he was to describe, and in 
1468 he completed the chronicle. Alphonso corresponded with 
Azurara on terms of affectionate intimacy, and no less than three 
commendas of the order of Christ rewarded his literary services. 
He has little of the picturesque ingenuousness of Lopes, and 
loved to display his erudition by quotations and philosophical 
reflections, showing that he wrote under the influence of the first 
Renaissance. Nearly all the leading classical, early Christian 
and medieval writers figure in his pages, and he was acquainted 
with the notable chronicles and romances of Europe and had 
studied the best Italian and Spanish authors. In addition, he 
had mastered the geographical system of the ancients and their 
astrology. As an historian he is laborious, accurate and con- 
scientious, though his position did not allow him to tell the 
whole truth about his hero, Prince Henry. 

His works include: (1) Chronica del Rei D. Joam I. Terceira 
parte em que se content a tomada de Ceuta (Lisbon, 1644) ; (2) Chronica 
do Descobrimento e Conquista de Guine (Paris, 1841; Eng. version 
in 2 vols, issued by the Hakluyt Society, London, 1896-1899); 
(3) Chronica do Conde D. Pedro {de Menezes), printed in the Ineditos 
de Historia Portugueza, vol. ii. (Lisbon, 1792) ; (4) Chronica do Conde 
D. Duarte de Menezes, printed in the Ineditos, vol. iii. (Lisbon, 1793). 
The preface to the English version of the Chronicle of Guinea contains 
a full account of the life and writings of Azurara and cites all the 
authorities. (E. Pr.) 

AZURE (derived, through the Romance languages, from the 
Arabic al-lazward, for the precious stone lapis lazuli, the initial 
/ having dropped), the lapis lazuli; and so its colour, blue. 

AZURITE, or Chessylite, a mineral which is a basic copper 
carbonate, 2CuC0 3 - Cu(OH) 2 . In its vivid blue colour it contrasts 
strikingly with the emerald-green malachite, also a basic copper 
carbonate, but containing rather more water and less carbon 
dioxide. It was known to Pliny 
under the name caeruleum, and 
the modern name azurite (given 
by F. S. Beudant in 1824) also 
has reference to the azure-blue 
colour; the name chessylite, also 
in common use, is of later date 
(1852), and is from the locality, 
Chessy near Lyons, which has supplied the best crystallized 
specimens of the mineral. Crystals of azurite belong to the 
monoclinic system; they have a vitreous lustre and are trans- 
lucent. The streak is blue, but lighter than the colour of the 
mineral in mass. Hardness 35-4; sp. gr. 3-8. 

Azurite occurs with malachite in the upper portions of deposits 
of copper ore, and owes its origin to the alteration of the sulphide 
or of native copper by water containing carbon dioxide and 
oxygen. It is thus a common mineral in all copper mines, and 
sometimes occurs in large masses, as in Arizona and in South 
Australia, where it has been worked as an ore of copper, of 
which element it contains 55%. Being less hydrated than 
malachite it is itself liable to alteration into this mineral, and 
pseudomorphs of malachite after azurite are not uncommon. 
Occasionally the massive material is cut and polished for decora- 
tive purposes, though the application in this direction is far less 
extensive than that of malachite. (L. J. S.) 

AZYMITES (Gr. &-, without; fuju^, leaven), a name given 
by the Orthodox Eastern to the Western or Latin Church, 
because of the latter's use of unleavened bread in the Eucharist, 
a practice which arose in the 9th century and is also observed 
by Armenians and Maronites following the Jewish passover 
custom. The Orthodox, Church strenuously maintains its 
point, arguing that the very name bread, the holiness of the 
mystery, and the example of Jesus and the early church alike, 
testify against the use of unleavened bread in this connexion. 




B— BAADER 



87 



BThis letter corresponds to the second symbol in the 
Phoenician alphabet, and appears in the same position 
in all the European alphabets, except those derived, like 
the Russian, from medieval Greek, in which the pronun- 
ciation of this symbol had changed from b to v. A new form had 
therefore to be invented for the genuine b in Slavonic, to which 
there was, at the period when the alphabet was adopted, no cor- 
responding sound in Greek. The new symbol, which occupies the 
second position, was made by removing the upper loop of B, 
thus producing a symbol somewhat resembling an ordinary lower- 
case b. The old B retained the numerical value of the Greek 
as 2, and no numerical value was given to the new symbol. In 
the Phoenician alphabet the earliest forms are ^ ^ or more 
rounded 9' The rounded form appears also in the earliest 
Aramaic (see Alphabet). Like some other alphabetic symbols 
it was not borrowed by Greek in its original form. In the very 
early rock inscriptions of Thera (700-600 B.C.), written from 
right to left; it appears in a form resembling the ordinary Greek 
X; this form apparently arose from writing the Semitic symbol 
upside down. Its form in inscriptions of Melos, Selinus, Syracuse 
and elsewhere in the 6th and 5th centuries suggests the influence 
of Aramaic forms in which the head of the letter is opened, */. 
The Corinthian J"IJj U1 and *Z, (also at Corcyra) and the P J~* 
of Byzantine coins are other adaptations of the same symbol. 
The form C which it takes in the alphabets of Naxos, Delos and 
other Ionic islands at the same period is difficult to explain. 
Otherwise its only variation is between pointed and rounded 
loops (U and B). The sound which the symbol represents is 
the voiced stop made by closing the lips and vibrating the vocal 
chords (see Phonetics). It differs from p by the presence of 
vibration of the vocal chords and from m because the nasal 
passage as well as the lips is closed. When an audible emission 
of breath attends its production the aspirate bh is formed. This 
sound was frequent in the pro-ethnic period of the Indo-European 
languages and survived into the Indo- Aryan languages. Accord- 
ing to the system of phonetic changes generally known as 
" Grimm's law," an original b appears in English as p, an original 
bh as b. An original medial p preceding the chief accent of the 
word also appears as 6 in English and the other members of the 
same group. It is not certain that any English word is descended 
from an original word beginning with b, though it has been 
suggested that peg is of the same origin as the Latin baculum 
and the Greek @aKTpov. When the lips are not tightly closed 
the sound produced is not a stop, but a spirant like the English 
111. In Late Latin there was a tendency to this spirant pro- 
nunciation which appears as early as the beginning of the 2nd 
century A.D.; by the 3rd century b and consonantal u are in- 
extricably confused. When this consonantal u (English w as seen 
in words borrowed very early from Latin like wall and wine) 
passed into the sound of English v (labio-dental) is not certain, 
but Germanic words borrowed into Latin in the 5th century a.d. 
have in their Latin representation gu- for Germanic w-, guisa- 
corresponding to English wise and reborrowed indirectly as guise. 
The earliest form of the name of the symbol which we can 
reach is the Hebrew beth, to which the Phoenician must have 
been closely akin, as is shown by the Greek fiijra, which is 
borrowed from it with a vowel affixed. (P. Gi.) 

BAADER, FRANZ XAVER VON (1765-1841), German 
philosopher and theologian, born on the 27th of March 1765 at 
Munich, was the third son of F. P. Baader, court physician to the 
elector of Bavaria. His brothers were both distinguished — the 
elder, Clemens, as an author; the second, Joseph (1763-1835), as 
an engineer. Franz studied medicine at Ingolstadt and Vienna, 
and for a short time assisted his father in his practice. This life 
he soon found uncongenial, and decided on becoming a mining 
engineer. He studied under Abraham Gottlob Werner at 
Freiberg, travelled through several of the mining districts in 
north Germany, and for four years, 1 792-1 796, resided in 



England. There he became acquainted with the works of Jakob 
Boehme, and with the ideas of Hume, Hartley and Godwin, 
which were extremely distasteful to him. The mystical specula- 
tions of Meister Eckhart, Saint Martin, and above all those of 
Boehme, were more in harmony with his mode of thought. In 
1796 he returned from England, and in Hamburg became 
acquainted with F. H. Jacobi, with whom he was for years on 
terms of friendship. He new learned something of Schelling, and 
the works he published during this period were manifestly 
influenced by that philosopher. Yet Baader is no disciple of 
Schelling, and probably gave out more than he received. Their 
friendship continued till about the year 1822, when Baader's 
denunciation of modern philosophy in his letter to the emperor 
Alexander I. of Russia entirely alienated Schelling. 

All this time Baader continued to apply himself to his pro- 
fession of engineer. He gained a prize of 12,000 gulden (about 
£1000) for his new method of employing Glauber's salts instead 
of potash in the making of glass. From 1817 to 1820 he held the 
post of superintendent of mines, and was raised to the rank of 
nobility for his services. He retired in 1820, and soon after 
published one of the best of his works, Fermenla Cognilionis, 
6 parts, 1822-1825, in which he combats modern philosophy 
and recommends the study of Boehme. In 1826, when the new 
university was opened at Munich, he was appointed professor 
of philosophy and speculative theology. Some of the lectures 
delivered there he published under the title, Speculative Dogmatik, 
4 parts, 1827-1836. In 1838 he opposed the interference in civil 
matters of the Roman Catholic Church, to which he belonged, 
and in consequence was, during the last three years of his life, 
interdicted from lecturing on the philosophy of religion. He died 
on the 23rd of May 1841. 

It is difficult to summarize Baader's philosophy, for he himselt 
generally gave expression to his deepest thoughts in obscure 
aphorisms, or mystical symbols and analogies (see Ed. Zeller's 
Ges. d. deut. Phil. 732, 736). Further, he has no systematic works; 
his doctrines exist for the most part in short detached essays, in 
comments on the writings of Boehme and Saint Martin, or in his 
extensive correspondence and journals. At the same time there 
are salient points which mark the outline of his thought. Baader 
starts from the position that human reason by itself can never reach 
the end it aims at, and maintains that we cannot throw aside the 
presuppositions of faith, church and tradition. His point of view 
may be described as Scholasticism; for, like the scholastic doctors, 
he believes that theology and philosophy are not opposed sciences, 
but that reason has to make clear the truths given by authority and 
revelation. But in his attempt to draw still closer the realms of 
faith and knowledge he approaches more nearly to the mysticism 
of Eckhart, Paracelsus and Boehme. Our existence depends on the 
fact that we are cognized by God {cogitor ergo cogito et sum). All 
self-consciousness is at the same time God-consciousness ; our know* 
ledge is never mere scientia, it is invariably con-scientia — a knowing 
with, consciousness of, or participation in God. Baader's philosophy 
is thus essentially a theosophy. God is not to be conceived as mere 
abstract Being (substantia), but as everlasting process, activity 
(actus). Of this process, this self-generation of God, we may dis- 
tinguish two aspects — the immanent or esoteric, and the emanent 
or exoteric. God has reality only in so far as He is absolute spirit, 
and only in so far as the primitive will is conscious of itself can it 
become spirit at all. But in this very cognition of self is involved the 
distinction of knower and known, from which proceeds the power 
to become spirit. This immanent process of self-consciousness, 
wherein indeed a trinity of persons is not given but only rendered 
possible, is mirrored in, and takes place through, the eternal and 
impersonal idea or wisdom of God, which exists beside, though not 
distinct from, the primitive will. Concrete reality or personality 
is given to this divine Ternar, as Baader calls it, through nature, the 
principle of self-hood, of individual being, which is eternally and 
necessarily produced by God. Only in nature is the trinity of persons 
attained. These processes, it must be noticed, are not to be conceived 
as successive, or as taking place in time; they are to be looked at 
sub specie aeternitatis, as the necessary elements or moments in the 
self-evolution of the divine Being. Nor is nature to be confounded 
with created substance, or with matter as it exists in space and time ; 
it is pure non-being, the mere otherness (alter itas) of God — his shadow, 
desire, want, or desiderium sui, as it is called by mystical writers. 
Creation, itself a free and non-temporal act of God's love and will, 
cannot be speculatively deduced, but must be accepted as an historic 



88 



BAAL 



fact. Created beings were originally of three orders — the intelligent 
or angels; the non-intelligent natural existences; and man, who 
mediated between these two orders. Intelligent beings are endowed 
with freedom; it is possible, but not necessary, that they should 
fall. Hence the fact of the fall is not a speculative but an historic 
truth. The angels fell through pride — through desire to raise them- 
selves to equality with God; man fell by lowering himself to the 
level of nature. Only after the fall of man begins the creation of 
space, time and matter, or of the world as we now know it ; and the 
motive of this creation was the desire to afford man an opportunity 
for taking advantage of the scheme of redemption, for bringing forth 
in purity the image of God according to which he has been fashioned. 
The physical philosophy and anthropology which Baader, in con- 
nexion with this, unfolds in various works, is but little instructive, 
and coincides in the main with the utterances of Boehme. In nature 
and in man he finds traces of the dire effects of sin, which has 
corrupted both and has destroyed their natural harmony. As 
regards ethics, Baader rejects the Kantian or any autonomic system 
of morals. Not obedience to a moral law, but realization in ourselves 
of the divine life is the true ethical end. But man has lost the power 
to effect this by himself; he has alienated himself from God, and 
therefore no ethical theory which neglects the facts of sin and re- 
demption is satisfactory or even possible. The history of man and 
of humanity is the history of the redeeming love of God. The means 
whereby we put ourselves so in relation with Christ as to receive 
from Him his healing virtue are chiefly prayer and the sacraments 
of the church; mere works are never sufficient. Man in his social 
relations is under two great institutions. One is temporal, natural 
and limited — the state; the other is eternal, cosmopolitan and 
universal — the church. In the state two things are requisite : first, 
common submission to the ruler, which can be secured or given only 
when the state is Christian, for God alone is the true ruler of men; 
and, secondly, inequality of rank, without which there can be no 
organization. A despotism of mere power and liberalism, which 
naturally produces socialism, are equally objectionable. The ideal 
state is a civil community ruled by a universal or Catholic church, 
the principles of which are equally distinct from mere passive pietism, 
or faith which will know nothing, and from the Protestant doctrine, 
which is the very radicalism of reason. 

Baader is, without doubt, among the greatest speculative theo- 
logians of modern Catholicism, and his influence has extended itself 
even beyond the precincts of his own church. Among those whom 
he influenced were R. Rothe, Julius Muller and Hans L. Markensen. 

His works were collected and published by a number of his 
adherents — F. Hoffman, J. Hamberger, E. v. Schaden, Lutterbeck, 
von Osten-Sacken and Schliiter — Baader' s sammtliche Werke 
(16 vols., 1851-1860). Valuable introductions by the editors are pre- 
fixed to the several volumes. Vol. xv. contains a full biography; 
vol. xvi. an index, and an able sketch of the whole system by 
Lutterbeck. See F. Hoffmann, Vorhalle zur spekulativen Lehre 
Baader's (1836) ; Grundziige der Societdts-Philosophie Franz Baader "s 
(1837) ; Philosophische Schriften (3 vols., 1868-1872) ; Die Weltalter 
(1868); Biographie und Briefwechsel (Leipzig, 1887); J. Hamberger, 
Cardinalpunkte der Baaderschen Philosophic (1855) ; Fundamental- 
begriffe von F. B.'s Ethik, Politik, u. Religions-Philosophic (1858); 
J. A. B. Lutterbeck, Philosophische Standpunkte Baaders (1854); 
Baader s Lehre vom Weltgebdude (1866). The most satisfactory 
surveys are those given by Erdmann, Versuch einer Gesch. d. neuern 
Phil. iii. 2, pp. 583-636; J. Claassen, Franz von Baaders Leben und 
theosophische Werke (Stuttgart, 1886-1887), and Franz von Baaders 
Gedanken iiber Stoat und Gesellschaft (Gtitersloh, 1890) ; Otto 
Pfleiderer, Philosophy of Religion (vol. ii., Eng. trans. 1887) ; R. 
Falckenberg, History of Philosophy, pp. 472-475 (trans. A. C. Arm- 
strong, New York, 1893) ; Reichel, Die Sozietdtsphilosophie Franz 
v. Baaders (Tubingen, 1901); Kuno Fischer, Zur hundertjdhrigen 
Geburtstagfeier Baaders (Erlangen, 1865). 

BAAL, a Semitic word, which primarily signifies lord, owner 
or inhabitant, 1 and then, in accordance with the Semitic way of 
looking at family and religious relations, is specially appropriated 
to express the relation of a husband to his wife and of the deity 
to his worshipper. In the latter usage it indicated not that the 
god was the lord of the worshipper, but rather the possessor of, 
or ruler in, some place or district. In the Old Testament it is 
regularly written with the article, i.e. " the Baal "; and the baals 
of different tribes or sanctuaries were not necessarily conceived 
as identical, so that we find frequent mention of Baalim, or 
rather " the Baalim " in the plural. That the Israelites even 
applied the title of Baal to Yahweh himself is proved by the 
occurrence of such names as Jerubbaal (Gideon), Eshbaal (one 
of Saul's sons) and Beeliada (a son of David, 1 Chron. xiv. 7). 
The last name appears in 2 Sam. v. 16 as Eliada, showing that El 

1 Cf. its use as a noun of relation, e.g. a ba'al of hair, " a hairy 
man " (2 Kings i. 8), b. of wings, " a winged creature," and in the 
plural, b. of arrows, " archers " (Gen. xlix. 23), b. of oath, " con- 
spirators " (Neh. vi. 18). 



(God) was regarded as equivalent to Baal; cf. also the name 
Be'aliah, " Yahweh is baal or lord," which survives in 1 Chron. 
xii. 5. However, when the name Baal was exclusively appropri- 
ated to idolatrous worship (cf. Hos. ii. 16 seq.), abhorrence for 
the unholy word was marked by writing bdsheth (shameful 
thing) for baal in compound proper names, and thus we get the 
usual forms Ishbosheth, Mephibosheth. 

The great difficulty which has been felt by investigators in 
determining the character and attributes of the god Baal mainly 
arises from the original appellative sense of the word, and 
many obscure points become clear if we remember that when a 
title becomes a proper name it may be appropriated by different 
peoples to quite distinct deities. Baal being originally a title, 
and not a proper name, the innumerable baals could be distin- 
guished by the addition of the name of a place or of some special 
attribute. 2 Accordingly, the baals are not to be regarded 
necessarily as local variations of one and the same god, like the 
many Virgins or Madonnas of Catholic lands, but as distinct 
numina. Each community could speak of its own baal, although 
a collection of allied communities might share the same cult, 
and naturally, since the attributes ascribed to the individual 
baals were very similar, subsequent syncretism was facilitated. 

The Baal, as the head of each worshipping group, is the source 
of all the gifts of nature (cf. Hos. ii. 8 seq., Ezek. xvi. 19); as 
the god of fertility all the produce of the soil is his, and his 
adherents bring to him their tribute of first-fruits. He is the 
patron of all growth and fertility, and, by the " uncontrolled 
use of analogy characteristic of early thought," the Baal is the 
god of the productive element in its widest sense. Originating 
probably, in the observation of the fertilizing effect of rains 
and streams upon the receptive and reproductive soil, baalism 
becomes identical with the grossest nature-worship. Joined with 
the baals there are naturally found corresponding female figures 
known as Ashtaroth, embodiments of Ashtoreth (see Astarte; 
Ishtar). In accordance with primitive notions of analogy, 3 
which assume that it is possible to control or aid the powers of 
nature by the practice of " sympathetic magic " (see Magic), the 
cult of the baals and Ashtaroth was characterized by gross 
sensuality and licentiousness. The fragmentary allusions to 
the cult of Baal Peor (Num. xxv., Hos. ix. 10, Ps. cvi. 28 seq.) 
exemplify the typical species of Dionysiac orgies that prevailed. 4 
On the summits of hills and mountains flourished the cult of the 
givers of increase, and "under every green tree" was practised 
the licentiousness which in primitive thought was held to secure 
abundance of crops (see Frazer, Golden Bough, 2nd ed. vol. ii. pp. 
204 sqq.). Human sacrifice (Jer. xix. 5), the burning of incense 
(Jer. vii. 9), violent and ecstatic exercises, ceremonial acts of 
bowing and kissing, the preparing of sacred mystic cakes, appear 
among the offences denounced by the Israelite prophets, and 
show that the cult of Baal (and Astarte) included the character- 
istic features of heathen worship which recur in various parts 
of the Semitic world, although attached to other names. 6 

By an easy transition the local gods of the streams and springs 
which fertilized the increase of the fields became identified with 

2 Compounds with geographical terms (towns, mountains), e.g. 
Baal of Tyre, of Lebanon, &c, are frequent; see G. B. Gray, Heb. 
Proper Names, pp. 124-126. Baal-berith or El-berith of Shechem 
(Judg. ix. 4, 46) is usually interpreted to be the Baal or God of the 
covenant, but whether of covenants in general or of a particular 
covenant concluded at Shechem is disputed. The BaX/tapicws (near 
Beirut) apparently presided over dancing; another compound (in 
Cyprus) seems to represent a Baal of healing. On the " Baal of 
flies " see Beelzebub. 

3 The general analogy shows itself further in the idea of the deity 
as the husband (ba'al) of his worshippers or of the land in which they 
dwell. The Astarte of Gabal (Byblus) was regularly known as the 
ba'alath (fern, of baal), her real name not being pronounced (perhaps 
out of reverence). 

4 See further Clermont-Ganneau, Pal. Explor. Fund Quart. Stat., 
1901, pp. 239, 369 sqq.'; Biichler, Rev. d' etudes juives, 1901, 
pp. 125 seq. 

6 The extent to which elements of heathen cult entered into 
purer types of religion is illustrated in the worship of Yahweh. 
The sacred cakes of Astarte and old holy wells associated with hei 
cult were later even transferred to the worship of the Virgin (Ency. 
Bib. col. 3993; Rouvier, in Bull. ArchSol., 1900, p. 170). 



BAALBEK 



8< 



the common source of all streams, and proceeding along this line 
it was possible for the numerous baals to be regarded eventually 
as mere forms of one absolute deity. Consequently, the Baal 
could be identified with some supreme power of nature, e.g. the 
heavens, the sun, the weather or some planet. The particular 
line of development would vary in different places, but the change 
from an association of the Baal with earthly objects to heavenly 
is characteristic of a higher type of belief and appears to be 
relatively later. The idea which has long prevailed that Baal 
was properly a sky-god affords no explanation of the local 
character of the many baals; on the other hand, on the theory 
of a higher development where the gods become heavenly or 
astral beings, the fact that ruder conceptions of nature were 
still retained (often in the unofficial but more popular forms of 
cult) is more intelligible. 

A specific Baal of the heavens appears to have been known 
among the Hittites in the time of Rameses II., and considerably 
later, at the beginning of the 7th century, it was the title of one 
of the gods of Phoenicia. In Babylonia, from a very early 
period, Baal became a definite individual deity, and was identified 
with the planet Jupiter. This development is a mark of superior 
culture and may have been spread through Babylonian influence. 
Both Baal and Astarte were venerated in Egypt at Thebes and 
Memphis in the XlXth Dynasty, and the former, through the 
influence of the Aramaeans who borrowed the Babylonian 
spelling Bel, ultimately became known as the Greek Belos who 
was identified with Zeus. 

Of the worship of the Tyrian Baal, who is also called Melkart 
(king of the city), and is often identified with the Greek Heracles, 
but sometimes with the Olympian Zeus, we have many accounts 
in ancient writers, from Herodotus downwards. He had a magni- 
ficent temple in insular Tyre, founded by Hiram, to which gifts 
streamed from all countries, especially at the great feasts. The 
solar character of this deity appears especially in the annual feast 
of his awakening shortly after the winter solstice (Joseph. C. Apion. 
i. 18). At Tyre, as among the Hebrews, Baal had his symbolical 
pillars, one of gold and one of smaragdus, which, transported by 
phantasy to the farthest west, ate still familiar to us as the Pillars of 
Hercules. The worship of the Tyrian Baal was carried to all the 
Phoenician colonies. 1 His name occurs as an element in Cartha- 
ginian proper names (Hannibal, Hasdrubal, &c,), and a tablet found 
at Marseilles still survives to inform us of the charges made by the 
priests of the temple of Baal for qffering sacrifices. 

The history of Baalism among the Hebrews is obscured by the 
difficulty of determining whether the false worship which the 
prophets stigmatize is the heathen worship of Yahweh under a 
conception, and often with rites, which treated him as a local 
nature god; or whether Baalism was consciously recognized 
to be distinct from Yahwism from the first. Later religious 
practice was undoubtedly opposed to that of earlier times, and 
attempts were made to correct narratives containing views 
which had come to be regarded as contrary to the true worship 
of Yahweh. The Old Testament depicts the history of the people 
a? a series of acts of apostasy alternating with subsequent 
penitence and return to Yahweh, and the question whether this 
gives effect to actual conditions depends upon the precise 
character of the elements of Yahweh worship brought by the 
Israelites into Palestine. This is still under dispute. There is 
strong evidence at all events that many of the conceptions are 
contrary to historical fact, and the points of similarity between 
native Canaanite cult and Israelite worship are so striking that 
only the persistent traditions of Israel's origin and of the work of 
Moses compel the conclusion that the germs of specific Yahweh 
worship existed from his day. The earliest certain reaction 
against Baalism is ascribed to the reign of Ahab, whose marriage 
with Jezebel gave the impulse to the introduction of a particular 
form of the cult. In honour of his wife's god, the king, following 
the example of Solomon, erected a temple to the Tyrian Baal 
(seeabove). This, however, did not prevent him from remaining 
& follower of Yahweh, whose prophets he still consulted, and 

1 The sanctuary of Heracles at Daphne near Antioch was properly 
that of the Semitic Baal, and at Amathus Jupiter Hospes takes the 
place of Heracles or Malika, in which the Tyrian Melkart is to be 
recognized (W. R. Smith, Rel. Sent. 2nd ed. pp. 178, 376). See 
further Phoenicia. 



whose protection he still cherished when he named his sons 
Ahaziah and Jehoram (" Yah[weh] holds," " Y. is high "). 
The antagonism of Elijah was not against Baalism in general; 
but against the introduction of a rival deity. But by the time 
of Hosea (ii. 16 seq.) a further advance was marked, and the use 
of the term " Baal " was felt to be dangerous to true religion. 
Thus there gradually grew up a tendency to avoid the term, 
and in accordance with the idea of Ex. xxiii. 13, it was replaced 
by the contemptuous bosheth, " shame " (see above). However, 
the books of Deuteronomy and Jeremiah (cf. also Zeph. i. 4) 
afford complete testimony for the prevalence of Baalism as late 
as the exile, but prove that the clearest distinction was then 
drawn between the pure worship of Yahweh the god of Israel 
and the inveterate and debased cults of the gods of the land. 
(See further Hebrew Religion; Prophet.) 
'•■ Bibliography. — W. Robertson Smith, Relig. Semites, 2nd ed. pp. 
93-1 13 (against his theory of the introduction of Baal among the Arabs 
see M. J. Lagrange, Etudes d. relig. sem. pp. 83-98). For the reading 
"Baal " in the Amarna tablets (Palestine, about 1400 B.C.) see 
Knudtzon, Beitr. 2. Assyriol. (1901), pp. 320 seq., 415; other cunei- 
form evidence in E. Schrader's Keilinsch. u. Alte Test. 3rd ed. p. 357 
(by H. Zimmern; see also his Index, sub voce). On Baal-Shamem 
(B. of the heavens) M. Lidzbarski's monograph (Ephemeris, i. 243- 
260, ii. 120) is invaluable, and this work, with his Handbuck d. nord- 
semit. Epigraphik, contains full account of the epigraphical material. 
See Baethgen, Beitr. 2. semit. Religionsgesch. pp. 17-32; also the 
articles on Baal by E. Meyer in Roscher's Lexikon, and G. F. Moore 
in Ency. Bib. (On Beltane fires and other apparent points of con- 
nexion with Baal it may suffice to refer to Aug. Fick, Vergleich. 
Wbtterbuch, who derives the element bel from an old Celtic root 
meaning shining, &c.) (W. R. S. ; S. A. C.) 

BAALBEK (anc. Heliopolis) , a town of the Buka'a (Coelesyria) , 
altitude 3850 ft., situated E. of the Litani and near the parting 
between its waters and those of the Asi. Pop. about 5000, 
including 2000 Metawali and 1000 Christians (Maronite and 
Orthodox). Since 1902 Baalbek has been connected by railway 
with Rayak (Rejak) on the Beirut-Damascus line, and since 1907 
with Aleppo. It is" famous for its temple ruins of the Roman 
period, before which we have no record of it, certain though it be 
that Heliopolis is a translation of an earlier native name, in which 
Baal was an element. It has been suggested, but without good 
reason, that this name was the Baalgad of Josh. xi. 17. 

Heliopolis was made a colonia probably by Octavian (coins of 
1st century A.D.), and there must have been a Baal temple there 
in which Trajan consulted the oracle. The foundation of the 
present buildings, however, dates from Antoninus Pius, and their 
dedication from Septimius Severus, whose coins first show the 
two temples. The great courts of approach were not finished 
before the reigns of Caracalla and Philip. In commemoration, no 
doubt, of the dedication of the new sanctuaries, Severus conferred 
the jus Italicum on the city. The greater of the two temples was 
sacred to Jupiter (Baal), identified with the Sun, with whom 
were associated Venus and Mercury as ovfiPwuoi. 0eot. The 
lesser temple was built in honour of Bacchus (not the Sun, as 
formerly believed). Jupiter-Baal was represented locally as a 
beardless god in long scaly drapery, holding a whip in his right 
hand and lightning and ears of corn in his left. Two bulls 
supported him. In this guise he passed into European worship 
in the 3rd and 4th centuries a.d. The extreme licence of the 
Heliopolitan worship is often animadverted upon by early 
Christian writers, and Constantine, making an effort to curb the 
Venus cult, built a basilica. Theodosius erected another, with 
western apse, in the main court of the Jupiter temple. 

When Abu Ubaida (or Obaida) attacked the place .after the 
Moslem capture of Damascus (a.d. 635), it was still an opulent 
city and yielded a rich booty. It became a bone of contention 
between the various Syrian dynasties and the caliphs first of 
Damascus, then of Egypt, and in 748 was sacked with great 
slaughter. In 1090 it passed to the Seljuks, and in 1134 to 
Jenghiz Khan; but after 1145 it remained attached to Damascus 
and was captured by Saladin in 1175. The Crusaders raided its 
valley more than once, but never took the city. Three times 
shaken by earthquake in the 12th century, it was dismanded by 
Hulagu in 1260. But it revived, and most of its fine Moslem 
mosque and fortress architecture, still extant, belongs to the 



9° 



BAARN 



reign of Sultan Kalaun (1282) and the succeeding century, during 
which Abulfeda describes it as a very strong place. In 1400 
Timur pillaged it, and in 1517 it passed, with the rest of Syria, to 
the Ottoman dominion. But Ottoman jurisdiction was merely 
nominal in the Lebanon district, and Baalbek was really in 
the hands of the Metawali (see Lebanon), who retained it 
against other Lebanon tribes, until " Jezzar " Pasha, the rebel 
governor of the Acre province, broke their power in the last half 
of the 1 8th century. The anarchy which succeeded his death in 
1804 was only ended by the Egyptian occupation (1832). With 
the treaty of London (1840) Baalbek became really Ottoman, and 
since the settlement of the Lebanon (1864) has attracted great 
numbers of tourists. 




BAALBEK \ 



Scale of Yards % 

d 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 \ 



Roman Work. \ 

*# 
» Byzantine or Early Christian Work \ 

tatsu Work 



~-SITe i OF«STE^>S"' 



Af Ler Puchstein, with permission of Georg Reimer 



Emery Walker sc. 



The ruins were brought to European notice by Pierre Belon in 
I555j though previously visited, in 1507, by Martin von Baum- 
garten. Much damaged by the earthquake of 1 7 59, they remained 
a wilderness of fallen blocks till 1901, when their clearance was 
undertaken by the German Archaeological Institute and entrusted 
to the direction of Prof. O. Puchstein. They lie mainly on the 
ancient Acropolis, which has been shored up with huge walls to 
form a terrace raised on vaults and measuring about 1100 ft. 
from E. to W. The Propylaea lie at the E. end, and were 
approached by a flight of steps now quarried away. These 
propylaea formed a covered hall, or vestibule, about 35 ft. deep, 
flanked with towers richly decorated within and without (much 
damaged by Arab reconstruction). Columns stood in front, 
whose bases still exist and bear the names of Antoninus Pius and 
Julia Domna. Hence, through a triple gateway in a richly 
ornamented screen, access is gained to the first or Hexagonal 
Court, which measures about 250 ft. from angle to angle. It is 
now razed almost to foundation level; but it can be seen that it 
was flanked with halls each having four columns in front. A 



portal on the W., 50 ft. wide, flanked by lesser ones 10 ft. wide 
(that on the N. is alone preserved), admitted to the Main Court, 
in whose centre was the High Altar of Burnt Sacrifice. This 
altar and a great tank on the N. were covered by the foundations 
of Theodosius' basilica and not seen till the recent German 
clearance. The Main Court measures about 440 ft. from E. to W. 
and 370 ft. from N. to S., thus covering about 3! acres. It had a 
continuous fringe of covered halls of various dimensions and 
shapes, once richly adorned with statues and columnar screens. 
Some of these halls are in fair preservation. Stairs on the W. led 
up to the temple of Jupiter-Baal, now much ruined, having only 
6 of the 54 columns of its peristyle erect. Three fell in the 
earthquake of 1 7 59 . Those still standing are Nos. 1 r to 1 6 in the 
southern rank. Their bases and shafts are not finished, though 
the capitals and rich entablature seem completely worked. They 
have a height of 60 ft. and diameter of 75 ft., and are mostly 
formed of three blocks. The architrave is threefold and bears a 
frieze with lion-heads, on which rest a moulding and cornice. 

The temple of Bacchus stood on a platform of its own formed 
by a southern projection of the Acropolis. It was much smaller 
than the Jupiter temple, but is better preserved. The steps of 
the E. approach were intact up to 1688. The temple was 
peripteral with 46 columns in its peristyle. These were over 
52 ft. in height and of the Corinthian order, and supported an 
entablature 7 ft. high with double frieze, connected with the 
cella walls by a coffered ceiling, which contained slabs with heads 
of gods and emperors. Richard Burton, when consul-general at 
Damascus in 1870, cleared an Arab screen out of the vestibule, 
and in consequence the exquisite doorway leading into the cella 
can now be well seen. On either side of it staircases constructed 
within columns lead to the roof. The cracked door-lintel, which 
shows an eagle on the soffit, was propped up first by Burton, and 
lately, more securely, by the Germans. The cella, now ruinous, 
had inner wall-reliefs and engaged columns, which supported 
rich entablatures. 

The vaults below the Great Court of the Jupiter Temple, 
together with the supporting walls of the terrace, are noticeable. 
In the W. wall of the latter occur the three famous megaliths, 
which gave the name Trilithon to the Jupiter temple in Byzantine 
times. These measure from 63 to 64 ft. in length and 13 ft. in 
height and breadth, and have been raised 20 ft. above the ground. 
They are the largest blocks known to have been used in actual 
construction, but are excelled by another block still attached to 
its bed in the quarries half a mile S.W. This is 68 ft. long by 14 ft. 
high and weighs about 1500 tons. For long these blocks were 
supposed, even by European visitors, to be relics of a primeval 
race of giant builders. 

In the town, below the Acropolis, on the S.E. is a small temple 
of the late imperial age, consisting of a semicircular cella with a 
peristyle of eight Corinthian columns, supporting a projecting 
entablature. The cella is decorated without with a frieze, and 
within with pillars and arcading. This temple owes its preserva- 
tion to its use as a church of St Barbara, a local martyr, also 
claimed by the Egyptian Heliopolis. Hence the building is 
known as Barbarat al-atika. Considerable remains of the N. 
gate of the city have also been exposed. 

Bibliography. — These vast ruins, more imposing from their 
immensity than pleasing in detail, have been described by scores of 
travellers and tourists; but it will be sufficient here to refer to the 
following works: — (First, discoverers) M. von Baumgarten, Pere- 
grinaiio in . . . Syridm (1594); P. Belon, De admirabili operum 
antiquorum praestantia (1553); and Observations, &c. (1555). 
(Before earthquake of 1759) R. Wood, Ruins of Baalbec (1757). 
(Before excavation) H. Frauberger, Die Akropolis von Baalbek 
(1892). (After excavation) O. Puchstein, Ftihrer durch die Ruinen 
v. Baalbek (1905), (with Th. v. Liipke) Ansichten, &c. (1905). See 
also R. Phene Spiers, Quart. Stat. Pal. Exp. Fund, 1904, pp. 58-64, 
and the Builder, 11 Feb. 1905. (D. G. H.) 

BAARN, a small town in the province of Utrecht, Holland, 
5 m. by rail E. of Hilversum, at the junction of a branch line to 
Utrecht. Like Hilversum it is situated in the midst of pictur- 
esque and wooded surroundings, and is a favourite summer re- 
sort of people from Amsterdam. The Baarnsche Bosch, or wood, 
stretches southward to Soestdyk, where there is a royal country- 



BABADAG^BABENBERG 



9i 



seat, originally acquired by the state in 1795. Louis Bonaparte, 
king of Holland, who was very fond of the spot, formed a zoo- 
logical collection here which was removed to Amsterdam in 180a. 
In 18 1 6 the estate was presented by the nation to the prince of 
Orange (afterwards King William II.) in recognition of his 
services at the battle of Quatre Bras. Since then the palace and 
grounds have been considerably enlarged and beautified. Close 
to Baarn in the south-west were formerly situated the ancient 
castles of Drakenburg and Drakenstein, and at Vuursche there 
is a remarkable dolmen. 

BABADA6, or Babatag, a town in the department of Tulcea, 
Rumania; situated on a small lake formed by the river Taitza 
among the densely wooded highlands of the northern Dobrudja. 
Pop. (1900) about 3500. The Taitza lake is divided only by a 
strip of marshland from Lake Razim, a broad landlocked sheet 
of water which opens on the Black Sea. Babadag is a market 
for the wool and mutton of the Dobrudja. It was founded by 
Bayezid I., sultan of the Turks from 1389 to 1403. It occasion- 
ally served as the winter headquarters of the Turks in their wars 
with Russia, and was bombarded by the Russians in 1854. 

BABBA6E, CHARLES (1792-1871), English mathematician 
and mechanician, was born on the 26th of December 1792 at 
Teignmouth in Devonshire. He was educated at a private school, 
and afterwards entered St Peter's College, Cambridge, where he 
graduated in 1814. Though he did not compete in the mathe- 
matical tripos, he acquired a great reputation at the university. 
In the years 1815-1817 he contributed three papers on the 
" Calculus of Functions " to the Philosophical Transactions, and 
in 1816 was made a fellow of the Royal Society. Along with 
Sir John Herschel and George Peacock he laboured to raise the 
standard of mathematical instruction in England, and especially 
endeavoured to supersede the Newtonian by the Leibnitzian 
notation in the infinitesimal calculus. Babbage's attention 
seems to have been very early drawn to the number and im- 
portance of the errors introduced into astronomical and other 
calculations through inaccuracies in the computation of tables. 
He contributed to the Royal Society some notices on the relation 
between notation and mechanism; and in 1822, in a letter to 
Sir H. Davy on the application of machinery to the calculation 
and printing of mathematical tables, he discussed the principles 
of a calculating engine, to the construction of which he devoted 
many years of his life. Government was induced to grant its 
aid, and the inventor himself spent a portion of his private fortune 
in the prosecution of his undertaking. He travelled through 
several of the countries of Europe, examining different systems 
of machinery; and some of the results of his investigations were 
published in the admirable little work, Economy of Machines 
and Manufactures (1834). The great calculating engine was 
never completed; the constructor apparently desired to adopt 
a new principle when the first specimen was nearly complete, 
to make it not a difference but an analytical engine, and the 
government declined to accept the further risk (see Calculating 
Machines) . From 1828 to 1839 Babbage was Lucasian professor 
of mathematics at Cambridge. He contributed largely to several 
scientific periodicals, and was instrumental in founding the 
Astronomical (1820) and Statistical (1834) Societies. He only 
once endeavoured to enter public life, when, in 1832, he stood 
unsuccessfully for the borough of Finsbury. During the later 
years of his life he resided in London, devoting himself to the 
construction of machines capable of performing arithmetical 
and even algebraical calculations. He died at London on the 
18th of October 1871. He gives a few biographical details in 
his Passages from the Life of a Philosopher (1864), a work which 
throws considerable light upon his somewhat peculiar character. 
His works, pamphlets and papers were very numerous; in the 
Passages he enumerates eighty separate writings. Of these the 
most important, besides the few already mentioned, are Tables of 
Logarithms (1826); Comparative View of the Various Institutions 
for the Assurance of Lives (1826); Decline of Science in England 
(1830); Ninth Bridge-water Treatise (1837); The Exposition of 
1851 (1851). 

See Monthly Notices, Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 32. 



BABEL, the native name of the city called Babylon (q.v.) by the 
Greeks, the modern Hillah. It means "gate of the god," not"gate 
of the gods," corresponding to the Assyrian Bab-ili. According 
to Gen. xL 1-9 (J), mankind, after the deluge, travelled from the 
mountain of the East, where the ark had rested, and settled in 
Shinar. Here they attempted to build a city and a tower whose 
top might reach unto heaven, but were miraculously prevented 
by their language being confounded. In this way the diversity 
of human speech and the dispersion of mankind were accounted 
for; and in Gen. xi. 9 (J) an etymology was found for the name 
of Babylon in the Hebrew verb bdlal, " toconfuse or confound," 
Babel being regarded as a contraction of Balbel. In Gen. x. 10 it 
is said to have formed part of the kingdom of Nimrod. 

The origin of the story has not been found in Babylonia. The 
tower was no doubt suggested by one of the temple towers of 
Babylon. W. A. Bennet (Genesis, p. 169; cf. Hommel in Hastings' 
Dictionary of the Bible) suggests E-Saggila, the great temple 
of Merodach (Marduk). The variety of languages and the dis- 
persion of mankind were regarded as a curse, and it is probable 
that, as Prof. Cheyne (Encyclopaedia Biblica, col. 411) says, there 
was an ancient North Semitic myth to explain it. The event 
was afterwards localized in Babylon. The myth, as it appears 
in Genesis, is quite polytheistic and anthropomorphic. According 
to Cornelius Alexander (frag. 10) and Abydenus (frags. 5 and 6) 
the tower was overthrown by the winds; according to Yaqut 
(i, 448 f.) and the Lisan el-' Arab (xiii. 72) mankind were swept 
together by winds into the plain afterwards called " Babil," 
and were scattered again in the same way (see further D. B. 
Macdonald in the Jewish Encyclopaedia) . A tradition similar 
to that of the tower of Babel is found in Central America. Xelhua, 
one of the seven giants rescued from the deluge, built the great 
pyramid of Cholula in order to storm heaven. The gods, how- 
ever, destroyed it with fire and confounded the language of the 
builders. Traces of a somewhat similar story have also been 
met with among the Mongolian Tharus in northern India 
(Report of the Census of Bengal, 1872, p. 160), and, according 
to Dr Livingstone, among the Africans of Lake Ngami. The 
Esthonian myth of " the Cooking of Languages " (Kohl, Reisen 
in die Ostseeprovinzen, ii. 251-255) may also be compared, as 
well as the Australian legend of the origin of the diversity of 
speech (Gerstacker, Reisen, vol. iv. pp. 381 seq.). 

BAB-EL-MANDEB (Arab, for " The Gate of Tears "), the strait 
between Arabia and Africa which connects the Red Sea (q.v.) 
with the Indian Ocean. It derives its name from the dangers 
attending its navigation, or, according to an Arabic legend, 
from the numbers who were drowned by the earthquake which 
separated Asia and Africa. The distance across is about 20 m. 
from Ras Menheli on the Arabian coast to Ras Siyan on the 
African. The island of Perim (q.v.), a British possession, divides 
the strait into two channels, of which the eastern, known as the 
Bab Iskender (Alexander's Strait), is 2 m. wide and 16 fathoms 
deep, while the western, or Dact-el-Mayun, has a width of about 
16 m. and a depth of 170 fathoms. Near the African coast lies 
a group of smaller islands known as the " Seven Brothers." 
There is a surface current inwards in the eastern channel, but a 
strong under-current outwards in the western channel. 

BABENBERG, the name of a Franconian family which held 
the duchy of Austria before the rise of the house of Habsburg. 
Its earliest known ancestor was one Poppo, who early in the 
9th century was count in Grapfeld. One of his sons, Henry, 
called margrave and duke in Franconia, fell fighting against the 
Normans in 886; another, Poppo, was margrave in Thuringia 
from 880 to 892, when he was deposed by the German king Arnulf . 
The family had been favoured by the emperor Charles the Fat, 
but Arnulf reversed this policy in favour of the rival family of 
the Conradines. The leaders of the Babenbergs were the three 
sons of Duke Henry, who called themselves after their castle of 
Babenberg on the upper Main, round which their possessions 
centred. The rivalry between the two families was intensified 
by their efforts to extend their authority in the region of the 
middle Main, and this quarrel, known as the " Babenberg feud," 
came to a head at the beginning of the 10th century during the 



9 2 



BABER 



troubled reign of the German king, Louis the Child. Two of 
the Babenberg brothers were killed, and the survivor Adalbert 
was summoned before the imperial court by the regent Hatto I., 
archbishop of Mainz, a partisan of the Conradines. He refused 
to appear, held his own for a time in his castle at Theres 
against the king's forces, but surrendered in 906, and in spite of 
a promise of safe-conduct was beheaded. From this time the 
Babenbergs lost their influence in Franconia; but in 976 Leopold, 
a member of the family who was a count in the Donnegau, is 
described as margrave of the East Mark, a district not more 
than 60 m. in breadth on the eastern frontier of Bavaria which 
grew into the duchy of Austria. Leopold, who probably received 
the mark as a reward for his fidelity to the emperor Otto II. 
during the Bavarian rising in 976, extended its area at the expense 
of the Hungarians, and was succeeded in 994 by his son 
Henry I. Henry, who continued his father's policy, was followed 
in 1018 by his brother Adalbert and in 1055 by his nephew 
Ernest, whose marked loyalty to the emperors Henry III. and 
Henry IV. was rewarded by many tokens of favour. The 
succeeding margrave, Leopold II., quarrelled with Henry IV., 
who was unable to oust him from the mark or to prevent the 
succession of his son Leopold III. in 1096. Leopold supported 
Henry, son of Henry IV., in his rising against his father, but was 
soon drawn over to the emperor's side, and in 1106 married his 
daughter Agnes, widow of Frederick I., duke of Swabia. He 
declined the imperial crown in 1125. His zeal in founding 
monasteries earned for him his surname " the Pious," and 
canonization by Pope Innocent VIII. in 1485. He is regarded 
as the patron saint of Austria. One of Leopold's sons was Otto, 
bishop of Freising (g.v.). His eldest son, Leopold IV., became 
margrave in 1136, and in 1139 received from the German king 
Conrad III. the duchy of Bavaria, which had been forfeited by 
Duke Henry the Proud. Leopold's brother Henry (surnamed 
Jasomirgott from his favourite oath, " So help me God!") was 
made count palatine of the Rhine in 1140, and became margrave 
of Austria on Leopold's death in 1 141. Having married Gertrude, 
the widow of Henry the Proud, he was invested in 1143 with the 
duchy of Bavaria, and resigned his office as count palatine. In 
1 147 he went on crusade, and after his return renounced Bavaria 
at the instance of the new king Frederick I. As compensation 
for this, Austria, the capital of which had been transferred to 
Vienna in 1 146, was erected into a duchy. The second duke was 
Henry's son Leopold I., who succeeded him in 1177 and took 
part in the crusades of 1 1 8 2 and 1 1 90. In Palestine he quarrelled 
with Richard I., king of England, captured him on his home- 
ward journey and handed him over to the emperor Henry VI. 
Leopold increased the territories of the Babenbergs by acquiring 
Styria in H92 1 under the will of his kinsman Duke Ottakar IV. 
He died in 1194, and Austria fell to one son, Frederick, and 
Styria to another, Leopold; but on Frederick's death in 1198 
they were again united by Duke Leopold II., surnamed " the 
Glorious." The new duke fought against the infidel in Spain, 
Egypt and Palestine, but is more celebrated as a lawgiver, a 
patron of letters and a founder of towns. Under him Vienna 
became the centre of culture in Germany and the great school 
of Minnesingers (q.v.). His later years were spent in strife 
with his son Frederick, and he died in 1230 at San Germano, 
whither he had gone to arrange the peace between the emperor 
Frederick II. and Pope Gregory IX. His son Frederick II. 
followed as duke, and earned the name of " Quarrelsome " by 
constant struggles with the kings of Hungary and Bohemia 
and with the emperor. He deprived his mother and sisters 
of their possessions, was hated by his subjects on account of his 
oppressions, and in 1236 was placed under the imperial ban and 
driven from Austria. Restored when the emperor was excom- 
municated, he treated in vain with Frederick for the erection of 
Austria into a kingdom. He was killed in battle in 1246, when 
the male line of the Babenbergs became extinct. The city of 
Bamberg grew up around the ancestral castle of the family. 

See G. Juritsch, Geschichte der Babenberger und ihrer Lander 
(Innsbruck, 1894); M. Schmitz, Oesterreichs Scheyern-Wittelsbacher 
oder die Dynaslie der Babenberger (Munich, 1880). 



BABER, or Babas (1483-1530), a famous conqueror of India 
and founder of the so-called Mogul dynasty. His name was 
Zahir ud-din- Mahomet, and he was given the surname of Baber, 
meaning the tiger. Born on the 14th of February 1483, he was 
a descendant of Timur, and his father, Omar Sheik, was king of 
Ferghana, a district of what is now Russian Turkestan. Omar 
died in 1495, and Baber, though only twelve years *of age, 
succeeded to the throne. An attempt made by his uncles to 
dislodge him proved unsuccessful, and no sooner was the young 
sovereign firmly settled than he began to meditate an extension 
of his own dominions. In 1497 he attacked and gained possession 
of Samarkand, to which he always seems to have thought he 
had a natural and hereditary right. A rebellion among his 
nobles robbed him of his native kingdom, and while marching 
to recover it his troops deserted him, and he lost Samarkand 
also. After some reverses he regained both these places, but in 
1501 his most formidable enemy, Shaibani (Sheibani) Khan, 
ruler of the Uzbegs, defeated him in a great engagement and 
drove him from Samarkand. For three years he wandered about 
trying in vain to recover his lost possessions; at last, in 1504, 
he gathered some troops, and crossing the snowy Hindu Kush 
besieged and captured the strong city of Kabul. By this 
dexterous stroke he gained a new and wealthy kingdom, and 
completely re-established his fortunes. In the following year 
he united with Hussain Mirza of Herat against Shaibani. The 
death of Hussain put a stop to this expedition, but Baber spent 
a year at Herat, enjoying the pleasures of that capital. He 
returned to Kabul in time to quell a formidable rebellion, but 
two years later a revolt among some of the leading Moguls 
drove him from his city. He was compelled to take to flight 
with very few companions, but his great personal courage and 
daring struck the army of his opponents with such dismay that 
they again returned to their allegiance and Baber regained his 
kingdom. Once again, in 1510, after the death of Shaibani, he 
endeavoured to obtain possession of his native country. He 
received considerable aid from Shah Ismael of Persia, and in 
1511 made a triumphal entry into Samarkand. But in 1514 he 
was utterly defeated by the Uzbegs and with difficulty reached 
Kabul. He seems now to have resigned all hopes of recovering 
Ferghana, and as he at the same time dreaded an invasion of 
the Uzbegs from the west, his attention was more and more 
drawn towards India. Several preliminary incursions had been 
already made, when in 1521 an opportunity presented itself for 
a more extended expedition. Ibrahim, emperor of Delhi, had 
made himself detested, even by his Afghan nobles, several of 
whom called upon Baber for assistance. He at once assembled 
his forces, 12,000 strong, with some pieces of artillery and 
marched into India. Ibrahim, with 100,000 soldiers and numer- 
ous elephants, advanced against him. The great battle was 
fought at Panipat on the 21st of April 1526, when Ibrahim 
was slain and his army routed. Baber at once took possession 
of Agra. A still more formidable enemy awaited him; the 
Rana Sanga of Mewar collected the enormous force of 210,000 
men, with which he moved against the invaders. On all sides 
there was danger and revolt, even Baber's own soldiers, worn 
out with the heat of this new climate, longed for Kabul. By 
vigorous measures and inspiriting speeches he restored their 
courage, though his own heart was nearly failing him, and in his 
distress he abjured the use of wine, to which he had been addicted. 
At Kanwaha, on the 10th of March 1527, he won a great victory 
and made himself absolute master of northern India. The 
remaining years of his life he spent in arranging the affairs and 
revenues of his new empire and in improving his capital, Agra. 
He died on the 26th of December 1530 in his forty-eighth year. 
Baber was above the middle height, of great strength and an ad- 
mirable archer and swordsman. His mind was as well cultivated 
as his bodily powers; he wrote well, and his observations are 
generally acute and accurate; he was brave, kindly and generous. 

Full materials for his life are found in his Memoirs, written by 
himself (translated into English by Leyden and Erskine (London, 
1826); abridged in Caldecott, Life of Baber (London, 1844). See 
also Lane-Poole, Baber (Rulers of India Series), 1899. 



BABEUF 



93 



BABEUF, FRANCOIS NOEL (1760-1797), known as Gracchus 
Babeuf, French political agitator and journalist, was born at 
Saint Quentin on the 23rd of November 1 760. His father, Claude 
Babeuf, had deserted the French army in 1738 and taken service 
under Maria Theresa, rising, it is said, to the rank of major. 
Amnestied in 1755 he returned to France, but soon sank into 
dire poverty, being forced to earn a pittance for his wife and 
family as a day labourer. The hardships endured by Babeuf 
during early years do much to explain his later opinions. He 
had received from his father the smatterings of a liberal education, 
but until the outbreak of the Revolution he was a domestic 
servant, and from 1785 occupied the invidious office of com- 
missaire d terrier, his function being to assist the nobles and 
priests in the assertion of their feudal rights as against the 
unfortunate peasants. On the eve of the Revolution Babeuf 
was in the employ of a land surveyor at Roye. His father had 
died in 1780, and he was now the sole support, not only of his 
wife and two children, but of his mother, brothers and sisters. 
In the circumstances it is not surprising that he was the life and 
soul of the malcontents of the place. He was an indefatigable 
writer, and the first germ of his future socialism is contained in 
a letter of the 21st of March 1787, one of a series — mainly on 
literature — addressed to the secretary of the Academy of Arras. 
In 1789 he drew up the first article of the cahier of the electors 
of the bailliage of Roye, demanding the abolition of feudal 
rights. Then, from July to October, he was in Paris super- 
intending the publication of his first work: Cadastre perpeluel, 
didii a Vassemblee nationale, Van 1289 et le premier de la liberti 
franqaise, which was written in 1787 and issued in 1790. The 
same year he published a pamphlet against feudal aids and the 
gabelle, for which he was denounced and arrested, but provision- 
ally released. In October, on his return to Roye, he founded 
the Correspondant picard, the violent character of which cost him 
another arrest. In November he was elected a member of the 
municipality of Roye, but was expelled. In March 1791 he was 
appointed commissioner to report on the national property 
(Mens nationaux) in the town, and in September 1792 was elected 
a member of the council-general of the department of the Somme. 
Here, as everywhere, the violence of his attitude made his 
position intolerable to himself and others, and he was soon 
transferred to the post of administrator of the district of 
Montdidier. Here he was accused of fraud for having sub- 
stituted one name for another in a deed of transfer of national 
lands. It is probable that his fault was one of negligence only; 
but, distrusting the impartiality of the judges of the Somme, 
he fled to Paris, and on the 23rd of August 1793 was condemned 
in contumaciam to twenty years' imprisonment. Meanwhile 
he had been appointed secretary to the relief committee (comiti 
des subsistances) of the commune of Paris. The judges of Amiens, 
however, pursued him with a warrant for his arrest, which 
took place in Brumaire of the year II. (1794). The court of 
cassation quashed the sentence, through defect cf form, but 
sent Babeuf for a new trial before the Aisne tribunal, by which 
he was acquitted on the 18th of July. 

Babeuf now returned to Paris, and on the 3rd of September 
1 794 published the first number of his Journal de la liberie de la 
presse, the title of which was altered on the 5 th of October to 
Le Tribun du peuple. The execution of Robespierre on the 28th 
of July had ended the Terror, and Babeuf — now self-styled 
"■ Gracchus " Babeuf — defended the men of Thermidor and 
attacked the fallen terrorists with his usual violence. But he 
also attacked, from the point of view of his own socialistic 
theories, the economic outcome of the Revolution. This was 
an attitude which had few supporters, even in the Jacobin club, 
and in October Babeuf was arrested and sent to prison at Arras. 
Here he came under the influence of certain terrorist prisoners, 
notably of Lebois, editor of the Journal de I'Sgalite, afterwards 
of the Ami du peuple, papers which carried on the traditions of 
Marat. He emerged from prison a confirmed terrorist and con- 
vinced that his Utopia, fully proclaimed to the world in No. 33 of 
his Tribun, could only be realized through the restoration of the 
constitution of 1793. He was now in open conflict with the 



whole trend of public opinion. In February 1795 he was again 
arrested, and the Tribun du peuple was solemnly burnt in 
the Theatre des Bergeres by the jeunesse dorSe, the young 
men whose mission it was to bludgeon Jacobinism out of the 
streets and cafes. But for the appalling economic conditions 
produced by the fall in the value of assignats, Babeuf might 
have shared the fate of other agitators who were whipped into 
obscurity. 

It was the attempts of the Directory to deal with this economic 
crisis that gave Babeuf his real historic importance. The new 
government was pledged to abolish the vicious system by which 
Paris was fed at the expense of all France, and the cessation of 
the distribution of bread and meat at nominal prices was fixed 
for the 20th of February 1796. The announcement caused the 
most wide-spread consternation. Not only the workmen and 
the large class of idlers attracted to Paris by the system, but 
rentiers and government officials, whose incomes were paid in 
assignats on a scale arbitrarily fixed by the government, saw 
themselves threatened with actual starvation. The government 
yielded to the outcry that arose; but the expedients by which 
it sought to mitigate the evil, notably the division of those ' 
entitled to relief into classes, only increased the alarm and the 
discontent. The universal misery gave point to the virulent 
attacks of Babeuf on the existing order, and at last gained 
him a hearing. He gathered round him a small circle of his im- 
mediate followers known as the Sociiti des Ugaux, soon merged 
with the rump of the Jacobins, who met at the Pantheon; 
and in November 1795 he was reported by the police to be 
openly preaching " insurrection, revolt and the constitution 

of I793-" ' 

For a time the government, while keeping itself informed of his 
activities, left him alone; for it suited the Directory to let the 
socialist agitation continue, in order to frighten the people from 
joining in any royalist movement for the overthrow cf the 
existing regime. Moreover the mass of the ouvriers, even of 
extreme views, were repelled by Babeuf 's blood thirstiness; 
and the police agents reported that his agitation was making 
many converts — for the government. The Jacobin club of the 
Faubourg Saint-Antoine refused to admit Babeuf and Lebois, on 
the ground that they were " Sgorgeurs." With the development 
of the economic crisis, however, Babeuf's influence increased. 
After the club of the Pantheon was closed by Bonaparte, on the 
27th of February 1796, his aggressive activity redoubled. In 
Ventose and Germinal he published, under the nom de plume of 
" Lalande, soldat de la patrie," a new paper, the Eclaireur du 
peuple, ou le dtjenseur de vingl-cinq millions d'opprimis, which 
was hawked clandestinely from group to group in the streets of 
Paris. At the same time No. 40 of the Tribun excited an immense 
sensation. In this he praised the authors of the September 
massacres as " deserving well of their country," and declared 
that a more complete " September 2nd " was needed to annihilate 
the actual government, which consisted of " starvers, blood- 
suckers, tyrants, hangmen, rogues and mountebanks." The 
distress among all classes continued to be appalling; and in 
March the attempt of the Directory to replace the assignats 
(q.v.) by a new issue of mandats created fresh dissatisfaction 
after the breakdown of the hopes first raised. A cry went up 
that national bankruptcy had been declared, and thousands of the 
lower class of ouvrier began to rally to Babeuf's flag. On the 4th 
of April it was reported to the government that 500,000 people 
in Paris were in need of relief. From the nth Paris was pla- 
carded with posters headed Analyse de la doctrine de Babceuf (sic), 
tribun du peuple, of which the opening sentence ran: " Nature 
has given to every man the right to the enjoyment of an equal 
share in all property," and which ended with a call to restore 
the constitution of 1 793. Babeuf's song Mourant defaim, mouranl 
de froid (Dying of hunger, dying of cold), set to a popular air, 
began to be sung in the caf6s, with immense applause; and 
reports were current that the disaffected troops in the camp of 
Grenelle were ready to join an emeule against the government. 
The Directory thought it time to act; the bureau central had 
accumulated through its agents, notably the ex-captain Georges 



94 



BABIISM 



Grisel, who had been initiated into Babeuf's society, complete 
evidence of a conspiracy for an armed rising fixed for Floreal 22, 
year IV. (nth of May 1796), in which Jacobins and socialists 
were combined. On the 10th of May Babeuf was arrested 
with many of his associates, among whom were A. Darthe and 
P. M. Buonarroti, the ex-members of the Convention, Robert 
Lindet, J. A. B. Amar, M. G. A. Vadier and Jean Baptiste 
Drouet, famous as the postmaster of Saint-Menehould who 
had arrested Louis XVI., and now a member of the Council 
of Five Hundred. 

The coup was perfectly successful. The last number of the 
Tribun appeared on the 24th of April, but Lebois in the Ami du 
peuple tried to incite the soldiers to revolt, and for a while there 
were rumours of a military rising. The trial of Babeuf and his 
accomplices was fixed to take place before the newly constituted 
high court of justice at Vendome. On Fructidor 10 and n (27th 
and 28th of August), when the prisoners were removed from 
Paris, there were tentative efforts at a riot with a view to rescue, 
but these were easily suppressed. The attempt of five or six 
hundred Jacobins (7th of September) to rouse the soldiers at 
Grenelle met with no better success. The trial of Babeuf and 
the others, begun at Vendome on the 20th of February 1797, 
lasted two months. The government for reasons of their own 
made the socialist Babeuf the leader of the conspiracy, though 
more important people than he were implicated; and his own 
vanity played admirably into their hands. On Prairial 7 (26th 
of April 1797) Babeuf and Darthe were condemned to death; 
some of the prisoners, including Buonarroti, were exiled; the 
rest, including Vadier and his fellow-conventionals, were 
acquitted. Drouet had succeeded in making his escape, according 
to Barras, with the connivance of the Directory. Babeuf and 
Darthe were executed at Vendome on Prairial 8 (1797). 

Babeuf's character has perhaps been sufficiently indicated 
above. He was a type of the French revolutionists, excitable, 
warm-hearted, half-educated, who lost their mental and moral 
balance in the chaos of the revolutionary period. Historically, 
his importance lies in the fact that he was the first to propound 
socialism as a practical policy, and the father of the movements 
which played so conspicuous a part in the revolutions of 1848 
and 1871. 

See V. Advielle, Hist, de Gracchus Babeuf et de Babouvisme (2 vols., 
Paris, 1884); P. M. Buonarroti, Conspiration, pour I'egalite, dite 
de Babeuf (2 vols., Brussels, 1828; later editions, 1850 and 1869), 
English translation by Bronterre O'Brien (London, 1836); Cam- 
bridge Modern History, vol. viii.; Adolf Schmidt, Pariser Zustdnde 
wahrend der Revolutionszeit von ifSg-1800 (Jena., 1874). French 
trans, by P. Viollet, Paris pendant la Revolution d'apres les rapports 
de la police .secrete, 1789-1800 (4 vols., 1880-1894); A. Schmidt, 
Tableaux de la Revolution francaise, &c. (Leipzig, 1 867-1 870), a 
collection of reports of the secret police on which the above work 
is based. A full report of the trial at Venddme was published in 
four volumes at Paris in 1797, Debats du proces, &c. (W. A. P.) 

BABllSM, the religion founded in Persia in a.d. 1844-1845 
by Mirza 'Ali Muhammad of Shiraz, a young Sayyid who was 
at that time not twenty-five years of age. Before his "manifesta- 
tion " {zuhur), of which he gives in the Persian Bay&n a date 
corresponding to 23rd May 1844, he was a disciple of Sayyid 
Kazim of Rasht, the leader of the Shaykhis, a sect of extreme 
Shi'ites characterized by the doctrine (called by them Rukn-i- 
rdbi', " the fourth support ") that at all times there must exist 
an intermediary between the twelfth Imam and his faithful 
followers. This intermediary they called " the perfect Shi'ite," 
and his prototype is to be found in the four successive Bdbs or 
" gates " through whom alone the twelfth Imam, during the 
period of his " minor occultation " (Ghaybat-i-sughrd, a.d. 874- 
940), held communication with his partisans. It was in this 
sense, and not, as has been often asserted, in the sense of " Gate of 
God " or " Gate of Religion," that the title Bdb was understood 
and assumed by Mirza' Ali Muhammad; but, though still generally 
thus styled by non-Babis, he soon assumed the higher title of Nuqla 
(" Point "), and the title Bdb, thus left vacant, was conferred on 
his ardent disciple, Mulla Husayn of Bushrawayh. 

The history of the Babis, though covering a comparatively 
short period, is 'so full of incident and the particulars now available 



are so numerous, that the following account purports to be 9nly 
the briefest sketch. The Bab himself was in captivity first at 
Shiraz, then at Maku, and lastly at Chihrfq, during the greater 
part of the six years (May 1844 until July 1850) of his brief 
career, but an active propaganda was carried on by his disciples, 
which resulted in several serious revolts against the government, 
especially after the death of Muhammad Shah in September 1848. 
Of these risings the first (December 1848-July 1849) took place 
in Mazandaran, at the ruined shrine of Shaykh Tabarsi, near 
Barfurush, where the Babis, led by Mulla. Muhammad 'Ali of 
Barfurush and Mulla Husayn of Bushrawayh (" the first who 
believed"), defied the shah's troops for seven months before 
they were finally subdued and put to death. The revolt at 
Zanjan in the north-west of Persia, headed by Mulla, Muhammad 
'Ali Zanjani, also lasted seven or eight months (May-December 
1850), while a serious but less protracted struggle was waged 
against the government at Niriz in Fars by Aga, Sayyid Yahya 
of Niriz. Both revolts were in progress when the Bab, with one 
of his devoted disciples, was brought from his prison at Chihrfq to 
Tabriz and publicly shot in front of the arg or citadel. The 
body, after being exposed for some days, was recovered by the 
Babis and conveyed to a shrine near Tehran, whence it was 
ultimately removed to Acre in Syria, where it is now buried. 
For the next two years comparatively little was heard of the 
Babis, but on the 15th of August 1852 three of them, acting on 
their own initiative, attempted to assassinate Nasiru'd-Din Shah 
as he was returning from the chase to his palace at Niyavaran. 
The attempt failed, but was the cause of a fresh persecution, 
and on the 31st of August 1852 some thirty Babis, including 
the beautiful and talented poetess Qurratu'l-'Ayn, were put to 
death in Tehran with atrocious cruelty. Another of the victims 
of that day was Hajji Mirza Jani of Kashan, the author of the 
oldest history of the movement from the Babi point of view. 
Only one complete MS. of his invaluable work (obtained by 
Count Gobineau in Persia) exists in any public library, the 
Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris. The so-called " New History " 
(of which an English translation was published at Cambridge 
in 1893 by E. G, Browne) is based on Mirza Janf's work, but 
many important passages which did not accord with later Babi 
doctrine or policy have been suppressed or modified, while some 
additions have been made. The Bab was succeeded on his 
death by Mirza. Yahya. of Nur (at that time only about twenty 
years of age), who escaped to Bagdad, and, under the title of 
Subh-i-Ezcl (" the Morning of Eternity "), became the pontiff of 
the sect. He lived, however, in great seclusion, leaving the direc- 
tion of affairs almost entirely in the hands of his elder half- 
brother (born 12th November 1817), Mirza Husayn 'Ali, entitled 
Bahd' ulldh (" the Splendour of God "), who thus gradually 
became the most conspicuous and most influential member of 
the sect, though in the Iqdn, one of the most important polemical 
works of the Babis, composed in 1858-1859, he still implicitly 
recognized the supremacy of Subh-i-Ezel. In 1863, however, 
Baha declared himself to be " He whom God shall manifest " 
(Man Yuz-hiruhu'lldh, with prophecies of whose advent the 
works of the Bab are filled), and called on all the Babis to recog- 
nize his claim. The majority responded, but Subh-i-Ezel and 
some of his faithful adherents refused. After that date the 
Babis divided into two sects, Ezelis and Baha'is, of which the 
former steadily lost and the latter gained ground, so that in 1908 
there were probably from half a million to a million of the latter, 
and at most only a hundred or two of the former. In 1863 the 
Babis were, at the instance of • the Persian government, removed 
from Bagdad to Constantinople, whence they were shortly 
afterwards transferred to Adrianople. In 1868 Baha and his 
followers were exiled to Acre in Syria, and Subh-i-Ezel with his 
few adherents to Famagusta in Cyprus, where he was still living 
in 1908. Baha'u'llah died at Acre on the 16th of May 1892. 
His son 'Abbas Efendi (also called 'Abdu'1-Baha, " the servant 
of Baha '") was generally recognized as his successor, but another 
of his four sons, Muhammad 'Ali, put forward a rival claim. 
This caused a fresh and bitter schism, but 'Abbas Efendi steadily 
gained ground, and there could be little doubt as to his eventual 



B&BINGTOM 



95 



triumph. The controversial literature connected with this latest 
schism is abundant, not only in Persian* but in English, for since 
1900 many Americans have adopted the religion of Baha. The 
original apostle of America was Ibrahim George Khayru'llah, 
who began his propaganda at the Chicago Exhibition and later 
supported the claims of Muhammad "All. Several Persian 
missionaries, including the aged and learned Mirza Abu'1-Fazl of 
Gulpayagan, were thereupon despatched to America by 'Abbas 
Efendi, who was generally accepted by the American Baha'is as 
" the Master." The American press contained many notices of 
the propaganda and its success. An interesting article on the 
subject, by Stoyan Krstoff Vatralsky of Boston, Mass., entitled 
" Mohammedan Gnosticism in America," appeared in the 
American Journal of Theology for January 1902, pp. 57-58. 

A correct understanding of the doctrines of the early Babis 
(now represented by the Ezelfs) is hardly possible save to one who 
is conversant with the theology of Islam and its developments, 
and especially the tenets of the Shi'a. The Babis are Muham- 
madans only in the sense that the Muhammadans are Christians 
or the Christians Jews; that is to say, they recognize Muhammad 
(Mahomet) as a true prophet and the Qur'an (Koran) as a re- 
velation, but deny their finality. Revelation, according to their 
view, is progressive, and no revelation is final, for, as the human 
race progresses, a fuller measure of truth, and ordinances more 
suitable to the age, are vouchsafed. The Divine Unity is incom- 
prehensible, and can be known only through its Manifestations; 
to- recognize the Manifestation of the cycle in. which he lives is 
the supreme duty of man. Owing to the enormous volume and 
unsystematic character of the Babi scriptures, and the absence 
of anything resembling church councils, the doctrine on many 
important points (such, as the future life) is undetermined and 
vague. The resurrection of the body is denied, but some form 
of personal immortality is generally, though not universally, 
accepted. Great importance was attached to the mystical values 
of letters and numbers, especially the numbers 18 and 19 (" the 
number of the unity") and 19 2 = 361 ("the number. of all 
things ") . In general, the Bab's doctrines most closely resembled 
those of the Isma'flis and Hurufis. In the hands of Baha, the 
aims of the sect became much more practical and ethical, and 
the wilder pantheistic tendencies and metaphysical hair-splittings 
of the early Babis almost disappeared. The intelligence, integrity 
and morality of the Babis are high, but their efforts to improve 
the social position of woman have been much exaggerated. 
They were in no way concerned (as was at the time falsely alleged) 
in the assassination of Nasiru'd-Din Shah in May 1896. Of 
recent persecutions of the sect the two most notable took place 
at Yazd, one in May 1891, and another of greater ferocity in 
June 1903. Some account of the latter is given by Napier 
Malcolm in his book Five Years in a Persian Town (London,i905), 
pp. 87-89 and 186. In the constitutional movement in Persia 
(1907) the Babis, though their sympathies are undoubtedly 
with the reformers, wisely refrained from outwardly identifying 
themselves with that party, to whom their open support, by 
alienating the orthodox mujtahids and mullds, would have proved 
fatal. Here, as in all their actions, they clearly obeyed orders 
issued from headquarters. 

Literature. — The literature of the sect is very voluminous, but 
mostly in manuscript. The most valuable public collections in 
Europe are at St Petersburg, London (British Museum) and Paris 
(Bibliotheque Nationale), where two or three very rare MSS. 
collected by Gobineau, including the precious history of the Bab's 
contemporary, Hajji Mirza Jani of Kashan, are preserved. For the 
bibliography up to 1889, see vol. ii. pp. 173-21 1 pf the Traveller's 
Narrative, written to illustrate the Episode of the Bab, a Persian 
work composed by Baha's son, 'Abbas. Efendi, edited, translated 
and annotated by E. G. Browne (Cambridge, 1891). More recent 
works are: — Browne, The New History of the Bab (Cambridge, 1893).; 
and " Catalogue and Description of the 27 Babi Manuscripts," 
Journal of R. Asiat. Soc. (July and October 1892); Andreas, Die 
Bdbi's in Persian (1896); Baron Victor Rosen, Collections scien- 
tifiques de I'Institut des Langues orientales, vol. i. (1877), pp. 179-212 ; 
vol. iii. (1886), pp. 1-51; vol. vi. (1891), pp. 141-255; ' Manuscrits 
Babys"; and other important articles in Russian by the same 
scholar; and by Captain A. G. Toumansky in the Zapiski vostochnava 
otdyeleniya Imperatorskava Russkava Archeologicheskava Obshchestva 



(vols. iv;-xii., St Petersburg, 1890-1900) ; also, an excellent edition 
by Toumansky, with Russian translation, notes and introduction, 
of the Kitdb-i-Aqdas (the most important of Baha's works), &c. 
(St Petersburg, 1899). Mention should also be made of an Arabic 
history of the Babis (unsympathetic but well-informed) written by 
a Persian, Mirza Muhammad Mahdi Khan, Za'imu'd-Duwla, printed 
in Cairo in a. it. 1321 ( = A.D. 1903-1904). Of the works composed 
in English for the American converts the most important are:^ 
Bahd'u'lldh (The Glory of God), by Ibrahim Khayru'llah, assisted 
by Howard MacNutt (Chicago, 1900) ; The Three Questions (n.d.) 
and Facts for Bahdists (1901), by the same; Life and Teachings of 
'Abbas Efendi, by Myron H. Phelps, with preface by E. G. Browne 
(New York, 1903); Isabella Brittingham, The Revelations of 
Bahd?u'lldh, in a Sequence of Four Lessons (1902); Laura Clifford 
Burney, Some Answered. Questions Collected [in Acre, 1904-1906] and 
Translated from the Persian of "Abdu'l-Balui [i.e. 'Abbas Efendi] 
(London, 1908). _ In French, A. L. M. Nicolas (first dragoman at 
the French legation at Tehran) has published several important 
translations, viz. Le Livre des sept preuves de la mission du Bab (Paris, 
1902); Le Livre de la certitude (1904); and Le Beydn arabe (1905); 
and there are other notable works by H. Dreyfus, an adherent of the 
Babi faith. Lastly, mention should be made of a remarkable but 
scarce little tract by Gabriel Sacy, printed at Cairo in June 1902, 
artd entitled Du regne de Dieu et de V A gneau, connu sous le nam de 
Babysme. (E. G. B.) 

BABINGTON, ANTHONY (1561-1586), English conspirator, 
son of Henry Babington of Dethick in Derbyshire, and of Mary, 
daughter of George, Lord Darcy, was born in October 1561, and 
was brought up secretly a Roman Catholic. As a youth he served 
at Sheffield as page to Mary queen of Scots, for whom he early 
felt an ardent devotion. In 1580 he came to London, attended 
the court of Elizabeth, and joined the secret society formed that 
year supporting the Jesuit missionaries. In 1582 after the 
execution of Father Campion he withdrew to Dethick, and 
attaining his majority occupied himself for a short time with the 
management of his estates. Later he went abroad and became 
associated at Paris with Mary's supporters who were planning 
her release with the help of Spain, and on his return he was 
entrusted with letters for her. In April 1586 he became, with 
the priest John Ballard, leader of a plot to murder Elizabeth and 
her ministers, and organize a general Roman Catholic rising in 
England and liberate M'ary. The conspiracy was regarded by 
Mendoza, the Spanish ambassador, one of its chief instigators, 
and also by Walsingham, as the most dangerous of recent years; 
it included, in its general purpose of destroying the government, 
a large number of Roman Catholics, and had ramifications all 
over the country. Philip II. of Spain, who ardently desired the 
success of an enterprise " so Christian, just and advantageous 
to the holy Catholic faith," 1 promised to assist with an expedition 
directly the assassination of the queen was effected. Babington's 
conduct was marked by open folly and vanity. Desirous of some 
token of appreciation from Mary for his services, he entered into 
a long correspondence with her, which was intercepted by the 
spies of Walsingham. On the 4th of August Ballard was seized 
and betrayed his comrades, probably under torture. Babington 
then applied for a passport abroad, for the ostensible purpose of 
spying upon the refugees, but in reality to organize the foreign 
expedition and secure his own safety. The passport being 
delayed, he offered to reveal to Walsingham a dangerous con- 
spiracy, but the latter sent no reply, and meanwhile the ports 
were closed and none allowed to leave the kingdom for some days. 
He was still allowed his liberty, but one night while supping 
with Walsingham's servant he observed a memorandum of the 
minister's concerning himself, fled to St John's Wood, where he 
was joined by some of his companions, and after disguising 
himself succeeded in reaching Harrow, where he was sheltered 
by a recent convert to Romanism. Towards the end of August 
he was discovered and imprisoned in the Tower. On the 13th 
and 14th of September he was tried with Ballard and five others 
by a special commission; when he confessed his guilt, but strove 
to place all the blame upon Ballard. All were condemned to 
death for high treason. On the 19th he wrote to Elizabeth 
praying for mercy, and the same day offered £1000 for procuring 
his pardon; and on the 20th, having disclosed the cipher used 
in the correspondence between himself and Mary, he was execute'd 

1 Cata., of Slate Papers Simancas, iii. 606, Mendoza to Philip. 



96 



BABINGTON-^-BABRIUS 



with the usual barbarities in Lincoln's Inn Fields. The detection 
of the plot led to Mary's own destruction. There is no positive 
documentary proof in Mary's own hand that she had knowledge 
of the intended assassination of Elizabeth, but her circumstances, 
together with the tenour of her correspondence with Babington, 
place her complicity beyond all reasonable doubt. 

BABINGTON, CHURCHILL (1821-1889), English classical 
scholar and archaeologist, was born at Roecliffe, in Leicestershire, 
on the 1 1 th of March 1 8 2 1 . He was educated by his father till he 
was seventeen, when he was placed under the tuition of Charles 
Wycliffe Goodwin, the orientalist and archaeologist. He entered 
St John's College, Cambridge, in 1839, and graduated B.A. in 
1843, being seventh in the first class of the classical tripos and a 
senior optime. In 1845 he obtained the Hulsean Prize for his 
essay The Influence of Christianity in promoting the Abolition of 
Slavery in Europe. In 1846 he was elected to a fellowship and 
took orders. He proceeded to the degree of M.A. in 1846 and 
D.D. in 1879. From 1848 to 1861 he was vicar of Horningsea, near 
Cambridge, and from 1866 to his death on the 12th of January 
1889, vicar of Cockfield in Suffolk. From 1865 to 1880 he held 
the Disney professorship of archaeology at Cambridge. In his 
lectures, illustrated from his own collections of coins and vases, 
he dealt chiefly with Greek and Roman pottery and numismatics. 
Dr Babington was a many-sided man and wrote on a variety 
of subjects. His early familiarity with country life gave him a 
taste for natural history, especially botany and ornithology. 
He was also an authority on conchology. He was the author of 
the appendices on botany (in part) and ornithology in Potter's 
History and Antiquities of Chamwood Forest (1842); Mr 
Macaiday's Character of the Clergy . . . considered (1849), a 
defence of the clergy of the 17 th century, which received the 
approval of Mr Gladstone, against the strictures of Macaulay. 
He also brought out the editio princeps of the speeches of 
Hypereides Against Demosthenes (1850), On Behalf of Lycophron 
and Euxenippus.(i&53), and his Funeral Oration (1858). It was 
by his edition of these speeches from the papyri discovered at 
Thebes (Egypt) in 1847 and 1856 that Babington's fame as a 
Greek scholar was made. In 1855 he published an edition 
of Bencfizio della Morte di Cristo, a remarkable book of the 
Reformation period, attributed to Paleario, of which nearly all 
the copies had been destroyed by the Inquisition. Babington's 
edition was a facsimile of the editio princeps published at Venice 
in 1543, with Introduction and French and English versions. 
He also edited the first two volumes of Higden's Polychronicon 
(1858) and Bishop Pecock's Repressor of Overmuch Blaming of the 
Clergy (i860), undertaken at the request of the Master of the 
Rolls; Introductory Lecture on Archaeology (1865); Roman 
Antiquities found at Rougham [1872]; Catalogue of Birds of 
Suffolk (1884-1886); Flora of Suffolk (with W. M. Hind, 1889), 
and (1855, 1865) some inscriptions found in Crete by T. A. B. 
Spratt, the explorer of the island. In addition to contributing 
to various classical and scientific journals, he catalogued the 
classical MSS. in the University Library and the Greek and 
English coins in the Fitzwilliam museum. 

BABIRUSA (" pig-deer "), the Malay name of the wild swine 
of Celebes and Buru, which has been adopted in zoology as the 
scientific designation of this remarkable animal (the only repre- 
sentative of its genus), in the form of Babirusa alfurus. The 
skin is nearly naked, and very rough and rugged. The total 
number of teeth is 34, with the formula i.f . c.\. p.\. m.\. The 
molars, and more especially the last, are smaller and simpler than 
in the pigs of the genus Sus, but the peculiarity of this genus is 
the extraordinary development of the canines, or tusks, of the 
male. These teeth are ever-growing, long, slender and curved, 
and without enamel. Those of the upper jaw are directed 
upwards from their bases, so that they never enter the mouth, 
but pierce the skin of the face, thus resembling horns rather than 
teeth; they curve backwards, downwards, and finally often 
forwards again, almost or quite touching the forehead. Dr A. R. 
Wallace remarks that " it is difficult to understand what can be 
the use of these horn-like teeth. Some of the old writers supposed 
that they served as hooks by which the creature could rest its 



head on a branch. But the way in which they usually diverge 
just over and in front of the eye has suggested the more probable 
idea, that they serve to guard these organs from thorns and 
spines while hunting for fallen fruits among the tangled thickets 
of rattans and other spiny plants. Even this, however, is not 
satisfactory, for the female, who must seek her food in the same 
way, does not possess them. I should be inclined to believe 
rather that these tusks were once useful, and were then worn 




Old Male Babirusa (Babirusa alfurus). 

down as fast as they grew, but that changed conditions of life 
have rendered them unnecessary, and they now develop into a 
monstrous form, just as the incisors of the beaver and rabbit will 
go on growing if the opposite teeth do not wear them away. In 
old animals they reach an enormous size, and are generally 
broken off as if by fighting." On this latter view we may regard 
the tusks of the male babirusa as examples of redundant develop- 
ment, analogous to that of the single pair of lower teeth in some 
of the beaked whales. Unlike ordinary wild pigs, the babirusa 
produces uniformly coloured young. (See Swine.) (R. L.*) 

BABOON (from the Fr. babuin, which is itself derived 
from Babon, the Egyptian deity to whom it was sacred) , properly 
the designation of the long-muzzled, medium-tailed Egyptian 
monkey, scientifically known as Papio anubis; in a wider sense 
applied to all the members of the genus Papio (formerly known 
as Cynocephalus) now confined to Africa and Arabia, although 
in past times extending into India. Baboons are for the most 
part large terrestrial monkeys with short or medium-sized tails, 
and long naked dog-like muzzles, in the truncated extremity of 
which are pierced the nostrils. As a rule, they frequent barren 
rocky districts in large droves, and are exceedingly fierce and 
dangerous to approach. They have large cheek-pouches, large 
naked callosities, often brightly coloured, on the buttocks, and 
short thick limbs, adapted rather to walking than to climbing. 
Their diet includes practically everything eatable they can 
capture or kill. The typical representative of the genus is the 
yellow baboon (P. cynocephalus, or babuin), distinguished by 
its small size and grooved muzzle, and ranging from Abyssinia 
to the Zambezi. The above-mentioned anubis baboon, P. anubis 
(with the subspecies neumanni, pruinosus, heuglini and doguera), 
ranging from Egypt all through tropical Africa, together with 
P. sphinx, P. olivaceus, the Abyssinian P. lydekkeri, and the 
chacma, P. porcarius of the Cape, represent the subgenus 
Choeropithecus. The named Arabian baboon, P. hamadryas of 
North Africa and Arabia, dedicated by the ancient Egyptians 
to the god Thoth, and the South Arabian P. arabicus, typify 
Hamadryas; while the drill and mandrill of the west coast, 
P. leucophaeus and P. maimon, constitute the subgenus Maimon. 
The anubis baboons, as shown by the frescoes, were tamed by 
the ancient Egyptians and trained to pluck sycamore-figs from 
the trees. (See Primates; Chacma; Drill; Gelada and 
Mandrill). (R. L.*) 

BABRIUS, author of a collection of fables written in Greek. 
Practically nothing is known of him. He is supposed to have 
been a Roman, whose gentile name was possibly Valerius, 
living in the East, probably in Syria, where the fables seem first 



BABU— BABY-FARMING 



97 



to have gained popularity. The address to "a son of King 
Alexander " has caused much speculation, with the result that 
dates varying between the 3rd century B.C. and the 3rd century 
a.d. have been assigned to Babrius. The Alexander referred to 
may have been Alexander Severus (a.d. 222-235), who was fond 
of having literary men of all kinds about his court. " The son of 
Alexander " has further been identified with a certain Branchus 
mentioned in the fables, and it is suggested that Babrius may 
have been his tutor; probably, however, Branchus is a purely 
fictitious name. There is no mention of Babrius in ancient 
writers before the beginning of the 3rd century A.D., and his 
language and style seem to show that he belonged to that period. 
The first critic who made Babrius more than a mere name was 
Richard Bentley, in his Dissertation on the Fables of Aesop. In 
a careful examination of these prose Aesopian fables, which 
had been handed down in various collections from the time of 
Maximus Planudes, Bentley discovered traces of versification, 
and was able to extract a number of verses which he assigned to 
Babrius. Tyrwhitt {Be Babrio, 1776) followed up the researches 
of Bentley, and for some time the efforts of scholars were directed 
towards reconstructing the metrical original of the prose fables. 
In 1842 M. Minas, a Greek, the discoverer of the Philosophoumena 
of Hippolytus, came upon a MS. of Babrius in the convent of St 
Laura on Mount Athos, now in the British Museum. This MS. 
contained 123 fables out of the supposed original number, 160. 
They are arranged alphabetically, but break off at the letter O. 
The fables are written in choliambic, i.e. limping or imperfect 
iambic verse, having a spondee as the last foot, a metre originally 
appropriated to satire. The style is extremely good, the expres- 
sion being terse and pointed, the versification correct and elegant, 
and the construction of the stories is fully equal to that in the 
prose versions. The genuineness of this collection of the fables 
was generally admitted by scholars. In 1857 Minas professed to 
have discovered at Mount Athos another MS. containing 94 
fables and a preface. As the monks refused to sell this MS., he 
made a copy of it, which was sold to the British Museum, and 
was published in 1859 by SirG. Cornewall Lewis. This, however, 
was soon proved to be a forgery. Six more fables were brought 
to light by P. Knoll from a Vatican MS. (edited by A. Eberhard, 
Analecta Babriana, 1879). 

Editions. — Boissonade (1844) ; Lachmann (1845) ; Schneider 
(1853); Eberhard (1876); Gitlbauer (1882); Rutherford (1883); 
Knoll, Fabularum Babrianarum Paraphrasis Bodleiana (1877) ; 
Feuillet (1890); Desrousseaux (1890); Passerat (1892); Croiset 
(1892); Crusius (1897). See also Mantels, t)ber die Fabeln des B. 
(1840); Crusius, De Babrii Aetate (1879); Ficus, De Babrii Vita 
(1889); j. Weiner, Quaestiones Babrianae (1891); Conington, 
Miscellaneous Writings, ii. 460-491 ; Marchiano, Babrio (1899) ; Fusci, 
Babrio (1901) ; Christoffersson, Studia de Fabulis Babrianis (1901). 
There are translations in English by Davies (i860) and in French 
by Leveque (1890), and in many other languages. 

BABU, a native Indian clerk. The word is really a term of 
respect attached to a proper name, like " master " or " Mr," 
and Babu-ji is still used in many parts of India, meaning " sir "; 
but without the suffix the word itself is now generally used 
contemptuously as signifying a semi-literate native, with a 
mere veneer of modern education. 

BABY-FARMING, 1 a term meaning generally the taking in of 
infants to nurse for payment, but usually with an implication 
of improper treatment. Previous to the year 1871 the abuse 
of the practice of baby-farming in England had grown to an 
alarming extent, while the trials of Margaret Waters and Mary 
Hall called attention to the infamous relations between the 
lying-in houses and the baby-farming houses of London. The 
evil was, no doubt, largely connected with the question of 
illegitimacy, for there was a wide-spread existence of baby- 
farms where children were received without question on payment 
of a lump sum. Such children were nearly all illegitimate, and 
in these cases it was to the pecuniary advantage of the baby- 
farmer to hasten the death of the child. It had become also 
the practice for factory operatives and mill-hands to place out 

1 Baby is a diminutive or pet form of " babe," now chiefly used 
in poetry or scriptural language. " Babe " is probably a form of 
the earlier baban, a reduplicated form of the infant sound ba. 

iti. 4 



their children by the day, and since in many cases the children 
were looked upon as a burden and a drain on their parents' 
resources, too particular inquiry was not always made as to the 
mode in which the children were cared for. The form was gone 
through too of paying a ridiculously insufficient sum for the 
maintenance of the child. In 187 1 the House of Commons 
found it necessary to appoint a select committee " to inquire a.s 
to the best means of preventing the destruction of the lives of 
infants put out to nurse for hire by their parents." " Improper 
and insufficient food," said the committee, " opiates, drugs, 
crowded rooms, bad air, want of cleanliness, and wilful neglect 
are sure to be followed in a few months by diarrhoea, convulsions 
and wasting away." These unfortunate children were nearly 
all illegitimate, and the mere fact of their being hand-nursed, 
and not breast-nursed, goes some way (according to the experir 
ence of the Foundling hospital and the Magdalene home) to, 
explain the great mortality among them. Such children, when 
nursed by their mothers in the workhouse, generally live. The 
practical result of the committee of 1871 was the act of 1872, 
which provided for the compulsory registration of all houses 
in which more than one child under the age of one year 
were received for a longer period than twenty-four hours. Nq 
licence was granted by the justices of the peace, unless the house 
was suitable for the purpose, and its owner a person of good 
character and able to maintain the children. Offences against 
the act, including wilful neglect of the children even in a suitable 
house, were punishable by a fine of £5 or six months' imprison- 
ment with or without hard labour. In 1896 a select committee 
of the House of Lords sat and reported on the working of this 
act. In consequence of this report the act of 1872 was repealed 
and superseded by the Infant Life Protection Act 1897, which 
did away with the system of registration and substituted for it 
one of notice to a supervening authority. By the act all persons, 
retaining or receiving for hire more than one infant under the 
age of five had to give written notice of the fact to the local 
authority. The local authorities were empowered to appoint 
inspectors, and required to arrange for the periodical inspection 
of infants so taken in, while they could also fix the number of 
infants which might be retained. By a special clause any person, 
receiving an infant under the age of two years for a sum of 
money not exceeding twenty pounds had to give notice of the 
fact to the local authority. If any infants were improperly kept, 
the inspector might obtain an order for their removal to a work- 
houseorplace of safety until restored to their parents orguardians, 
or otherwise legally disposed of. The act of 1897 was repealed 
and amended by the Children Act 1908, which codified the law 
relating to children, and added many new provisions. This act 
is dealt with in the article Children, Law relating to. 

In the United States the law is noticeably strict in most 
states. In Massachusetts, a law of 1891 directs that "every 
person who receives for board, or for the purpose of procuring 
adoption, an infant under the age of three years shall use diligence 
to ascertain whether or not such infant is illegitimate, and if he 
knows or has reason to believe it to be illegitimate shall forthwith 
notify the State Board of Charity of the fact of such reception; 
and said board and its officers or agents may enter and inspect 
any building where they may have reason to believe that any 
such illegitimate infant is boarded, and remove such infaat 
when, in *heir judgment, such removal is necessary by reason 
of neglect, abuse or other causes, in order to preserve the 
infant's life, and such infant so removed shall be in the custody 
cf said Board of Charity, \>hich shall make provision therefor 
according to law." The penal code of the state of New York 
requires a licence for baby-farming to be issued by the board of 
health of the city or town where such children are boarded or 
kept, and " every person so licensed must keep a register wherein 
he shall enter the names and ages of all such children, and of all 
children born on such premises, and the names and residences 
of their parents, as far as known, the time of reception and the 
discharge of such children, and the reasons therefor, and also a 
correct register of every child under five years of age who is 
given out, adopted, taken away, or indentured from such place 



9 8 



BABYLON 



to or by any one, together with the name and residence of the 
person so adopting " (Pen. Code, § 288, subsec. 4). 

Persons neglecting children may be prosecuted under § 289 
of the N.Y. penal code, which provides that any person who 
" wilfully causes or permits the life or limb of any child, actually 
or apparently under the age of sixteen years, to be endangered, 
or its health to be injured, or its morals to become depraved 
... is guilty oi a misdemeanour." 

In Australia particular care has been taken by most of the 
states to prevent the evils of baby-farming. In South Australia 
there is a State Children's Council, which, under the State 
Children Act of 1895, has large powers with respect to the 
oversight of infants under two years boarded out by their 
mother. " Foster-mothers," as the women who take in infants 
as boarders are called, must be licensed, while the number of 
children authorized to be kept by the foster-mother is fixed by 
licence; every licensed foster-mother must keep a register 
containing the name, age and place of birth of every child 
received by her, the names, addresses and description of the 
parents, or of any person other than the parents from or to 
whom the child was received or delivered over, the date of 
receipt or delivery over, particulars of any accident to or illness 
of the child, and the name of the medical practitioner (if any) 
by whom attended. In New South Wales the Children's Protec- 
tion Act of 1892, with the amendments of 1902, requires the 
same state supervision over the homes in which children are 
boarded out, with licensing of foster-mothers. In Victoria an 
act was passed in 1890 for " making better provision for the 
protection of infant life." In New Zealand, there is legislation 
to the same effect by the " Adoption of Children Act 1895 " 
and the "Infant Life Protection Act 1896." 

BABYLON (mod. Hillak), an ancient city on the left bank of 
the Euphrates, about 70 m. S. of Bagdad. " Babylon " is the 
Greek form of Babel or Bab-ili, " the gate of the god " (some- 
times incorrectly written "of the gods"), which again is the 
Semitic translation of the original Sumerian name Ka-dimirra. 
The god was probably Merodach or Marduk (q.v.), the divine 
patron of the city. In an inscription of the Kassite conqueror 
Gaddas the name appears as Ba-ba-lam, as if from the Assyrian 
babalu, " to bring "; another foreign Volksetymologie is found in 
Genesis xi. 9, from balbal, " to confound." A second name of 
the city, which perhaps originally denoted a separate village or 
quarter, was Su-ahna, and in later inscriptions it is often repre- 
sented ideographically by E-ki, the pronunciation and meaning 
of which are uncertain. One of its oldest names, however, was 
Din-tir, of which the poets were especially fond; Din-tir signifies 
in Sumerian " the life of the forest," though a native lexicon 
translates it " seat of life." Uru-azagga, " the holy city," was 
also a title sometimes applied to Babylon as to other cities in 
Babylonia. Ka-dimirra, the Semitic Bab-ili, probably denoted 
at first E-Saggila, " the house of the lofty head," the temple 
dedicated to Bel-Merodach, along with its immediate surround- 
ings. Like the other great sanctuaries of Babylonia the temple 
had been founded in pre-Semitic times, and the future Babylon 
grew up around it. Since Merodach was the son of Ea, the 
culture god of Eridu near Ur on the Persian Gulf, it is possible 
that Babylon was a colony of Eridu. Adjoining Babylon was a 
town called Borsippa (q.v.). 

The earliest mention of Babylon is in a dated tablet of the 
reign of Sargon of Akkad (3800 B.C.), who is stated to have built 
sanctuaries there to Anunit and Ae (or Ea), and H. Winckler 
may be right in restoring a mutilated passage in the annals of 
this king so as to make it mean that Babylon owed its name to 
Sargon, who made it the capital of his empire. If so, it fell back 
afterwards into the position of a mere provincial town and re- 
mained so for centuries, until it became the capital of " the first 
dynasty of Babylon " and then of Khammurabi's empire (2250 
B.C.). From this time onward it continued to be the capital of 
Babylonia and the holy city of western Asia. The claim to 
supremacy in Asia, however real in fact, was not admitted 
de jure until the claimant had " taken the hands " of Bel- 
Merodach at Babylon, and thereby been accepted as his adopted 



son and the inheritor of the old Babylonian empire. It was this 
which made Tiglath-pileser III. and other Assyrian kings so 
anxious to possess themselves of Babylon and so to legitimize 
their power. Sennacherib alone seems to have failed in securing 
the support of the Babylonian priesthood; at all events he never 
underwent the ceremony, and Babylonia throughout his reign 
was in a constant state of revolt which was finally suppressed 
only by the complete destruction of the capital. In 689 b.c. its 
walls, temples and palaces were razed to the ground and the 
rubbish thrown into the Arakhtu, the canal wHich bordered 
the earlier Babylon on the south. The act shocked the religious 
conscience of western Asia; the subsequent murder of Senna- 
cherib was held to be an expiation of it, and his successor Esar- 
haddon hastened to rebuild the old city, to receive there his 
crown, and make it his residence during part of the year. On 
his death Babylonia was left to his elder son Samas-sum-yukin, 
who eventually headed a revolt against his brother Assur-bani-pal 
of Assyria. Once more Babylon was besieged by the Assyrians 
and starved into surrender. Assur-bani-pal purified the city 
and celebrated a " service of reconciliation," but did not venture 
to " take the hands " of Bel. In the subsequent overthrow of 
the Assyrian empire the Babylonians saw another example of 
divine vengeance. 

With the recovery of Babylonian independence under Nabo- 
polassar a new era of architectural activity set in, and his son 
Nebuchadrezzar made Babylon one of the wonders of the ancient 
world. It surrendered without a struggle to Cyrus, but two 
sieges in the reign of Darius Hystaspis, and one in the reign of 
Xerxes, brought about the destruction of the defences, while the 
monotheistic rule of Persia allowed the temples to fall into decay. 
Indeed part of the temple of E-Saggila, which like other ancient 
temples served as a fortress, was intentionally pulled down by 
Xerxes after his capture of the city. Alexander was murdered 
in the palace of Nebuchadrezzar, which must therefore have been 
still standing, and cuneiform texts show that, even under the 
Seleucids, E-Saggila was not wholly a ruin. The foundation of 
Seleucia in its neighbourhood, however, drew away the popula- 
tion of the old city and hastened its material decay. A tablet 
dated 275 b.c. states that on the 12th of Nisan the inhabitants of 
Babylon were transported to the new town, where a palace was 
built as well as a temple to which the ancient name of E-Saggila 
was given. With this event the history of Babylon comes 
practically to an end, though more than a century later we find 
sacrifices being still performed in its old sanctuary. 

Our knowledge of its topography is derived from the classical 
writers, the inscriptions of Nebuchadrezzar, and the excavations 
of the Deutsche Orientgesellschaft, which were begun in 1899. 
The topography is necessarily that of the Babylon of Nebuchad- 
rezzar; the older Babylon which was destroyed by Sennacherib 
having left few, if any, traces behind. Most of the existing 
remains lie on the E. bank of the Euphrates, the principal being 
three vast mounds, the Babil to the north, the Qasr or " Palace " 
(also known as the Mujelliba) in the centre, and the Ishan 
'Amran ibn 'Ali, with the outlying spur of the Jumjuma, to 
the south. Eastward of these come the Ishan el-Aswad or 
" Black Mound " and three lines of rampart, one of which en- > 
closes the Babil mound on the N. and E. sides, while a third 
forms a triangle with the S.E. angle of the other two. W. of the 
Euphrates are other ramparts and the remains of the ancient 
Borsippa. 

We learn from Herodotus and Ctesias that the city was built 
on both sides of the river in the form of a square, and enclosed 
within a double row of lofty walls to which Ctesias adds a third. 
Ctesias makes the outermost wall 360 stades (42 m.) in circum- 
ference, while according to Herodotus it measured 480 stades 
(56 m.), which would include an area of about 200 sq. m. The 
estimate of Ctesias is essentially the same as that of Q. Curtius 
(v. 1. 26), 368 stades, and Clitarchus (ap. Diod. Sic. ii. 7), 365 
stades; Strabo (xvi. 1. 5) makes it 385 stades. But even the 
estimate of Ctesias, assuming the stade to be its usual length, 
would imply an area of about 100 sq. m. According to Herodotus 
the height of the walls was about 335 ft. and their width 85 ft,; 



BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA 



99 



according to Ctesias the height was about 300 ft. The measure- 
ments seem exaggerated, but we must remember that even in 
Xenophon's time (Anab. iii. 4. 10) the ruined wall of Nineveh 
was still 150 ft high, and that the spaces between the 250 towers 
of the wall of Babylon (Ctes. 417, ap. Diod. ii. 7) were broad 
enough to let a four-horse chariot turn (Herod, i. 179). The clay 
dug from the moat served to make the bricks of the wall, which 
had 100 gates, all of bronze, with bronze lintels and posts. The 
two inner enclosures were faced with enamelled tiles and repre- 
sented hunting-scenes. Two other walls ran along the banks 
of the Euphrates and the quays with which it was lined, 
each containing 25 gates which answered to the number of 
streets they led into. Ferry-boats plied between the landing- 
places of the gates, and a movable drawbridge (30 ft. broad), 
supported on stone piers, joined the two parts of the city together. 

The account thus given of the walls must be grossly exaggerated 
and cannot have been that of an eye-witness. Moreover, the 
two-walls — Imgur-Bel, the inner wall, and Nimitti-Bel, the outer 
— which enclosed the city proper on the site of the older Babylon 
have been confused with the outer ramparts (enclosing the whole 
of Nebuchadrezzar's city), the remains of which can still be 
traced to the east. According to Nebuchadrezzar, Imgur-Bel 
was built in the form of a square, each side of which measured 
"30 aslu by the great cubit"; this would be equivalent, if 
Professor F. Hommel is right, to 2400 metres. Four thousand 
cubits to the east the great rampart was built " mountain high," 
which surrounded both the old and the new town; it was pro- 
vided with a moat, and a reservoir was excavated in the triangle 
on the inner side of its south-east corner, the western wall of 
which is still visible. The Imgur-Bel of Sargon's time has been 
discovered by the German excavators running south of the Qasr 
from the Euphrates to the Gate of Ishtar. 

The German excavations have shown that the Qasr mound 
represents both the old palace of Nabopolassar, and the new 
palace adjoining it built by Nebuchadrezzar, the wall of which 
he boasts of having completed in 1 5 days. They have also laid 
bare the site of the " Gate of Ishtar " on the east side of the mound 
and the little temple of Nin-Makh (Beltis) beyond it, as well as 
the raised road for solemn processions (A-ibur-sabu) which led 
from the Gate of Ishtar to E-Saggila and skirted the east side of 
the palace. The road was paved with stone and its walls on 
either side lined with enamelled tiles, on which a procession of 
lions is represented. North of the mound was a canal, which 
seems to have been the Libilkhegal of the inscriptions, while 
on the south side was the Arakhtu, " the river of Babylon," 
the brick quays of which were built by Nabopolassar. 

The site of E-Saggila is still uncertain. The German ex- 
cavators assign it to the 'Amran mound, its tower having stood 
in a depression immediately to the north of this, and so place 
it south of the Qasr; but E. Lindl and F. Hommel have put 
forward strong reasons for considering it to have been north of 
the latter, on a part of the site which has not yet been explored. 
A tablet copied by George Smith gives us interesting details as 
to the plan and dimensions of this famous temple of Bel; a 
plan based on these will be found in HommePs Grundriss der 
Geographic und Geschichte des alien Orients, p. 321. There were 
three courts, the outer or great court, the middle court of 
Ishtar and Zamama, and the inner court on the east side 
of which was the tower of seven stages (known as the House 
of the Foundation of Heaven and Earth), 90 metres high 
according to Hommel's calculation of the measurements in 
the tablet; while on the west side was the temple proper 
of Merodach and his wife Sarpanit or Zarpanit, as well as 
chapels of Anu, Ea and Bel on either side of it. A winding 
ascent led to the summit of the tower, where there was a chapel, 
containing, according to Herodotus, a couch and golden table 
(for the showbread),but no image. The golden image of Merodach 
40 ft. high, stood in the temple below, in the sanctuary called 
E-Kua or " House of the Oracle," together with a table, a mercy- 
seat and an altar — all of gold. The deities whose chapels were 
erected within the precincts of the temple enclosure were re- 
garded as forming his court. Fifty-five of these chapels existed 



altogether in Babylon, but some of them stood independently 
in other parts of the city. 

There are numerous gates in the walls both of E-Saggila 
and of the city, the names of many of which are now known. 
Nebuchadrezzar says that he covered the walls of some of 
them with blue enamelled tiles " on which bulls and dragons 
were pourtrayed," and that he set up large bulls and serpents 
of bronze on their thresholds. 

The Babil mound probably represents the site of a palace built 
by Nebuchadrezzar at the northern extremity of the city walls 
and attached to a defensive outwork 60 cubits in length. Since 
H. Rassam found remains of irrigation works here it might well 
be the site of the Hanging Gardens. These consisted, we are 
told, of a garden of trees and flowers, built on the topmost of a 
series of arches some 75 ft. high, and in the form of a square, 
each side of which measured 400 Greek ft. Water was raised 
from the Euphrates by means of a screw (Strabo xvi. 1. 5; 
Diod. ii. 10. 6). In the Jumjuma mound at the southern ex- 
tremity of the old city the contract and other business tablets 
of the Egibi firm were found. 

See C. J. Rich, Memoir on the Ruins of Babylon (1816), and 
Collected Memoirs (1839); A. H. Layard, Nineveh and Babylon 
(1853); C. P. Tiele, De Hoofdtempel van Babel (1886); A. H. Sayce, 
Religion of the Ancient Babylonians, App. ii. (1887); C. J. Ball in 
Records of the Past (new ser. iii. 1890); Mittheilungen der deutschen 
Orientgesellschaft (1899^1906) ; F. Delitzsch, Im Lande des einstigen 
Paradieses (1903) ; F. H. Weissbach, Das Stadtbild von Babylon 
(1904); F. Hommel, Grundriss der Geographie und Geschichte des 
alien Orients (1904). (A. H. S.) 

BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA. I. Geography— Geographic- 
ally as well as ethnologically and historically, the whole district 
enclosed between the two great rivers of western Asia, the Tigris 
and Euphrates, forms but one country. The writers of antiquity 
clearly recognized this fact, speaking of the whole under the 
general name of Assyria, though Babylonia, as will be seen, 
would have been a more accurate designation. It naturally falls 
into two divisions, the northern being more or less mountainous, 
while the southern is flat and marshy; the near approach of the 
two rivers to one another, at a spot where the undulating plateau 
of the north sinks suddenly into the Babylonian alluvium, tends 
to separate them still more completely. In the earliest times of 
which we have any record, the northern portion was included in 
Mesopotamia; it was definitely marked off as Assyria only after 
the rise of the Assyrian monarchy. With the exception of Assur, 
the original capital, the chief cities of the country, Nineveh, 
Calah and Arbela, were all on the left bank of the Tigris. The 
reason of this preference for the eastern bank of the Tigris was 
due to its abundant supply of water, whereas the great Meso- 
potamian plain on the western side had to depend upon the 
streams which flowed into the Euphrates. This vast flat, the 
modern El-Jezireh, is about 250 miles in length, interrupted 
only by a single limestone range, rising abruptly out of the plain, 
and branching off from the Zagros mountains under the names 
of Sarazur, Hamrin and Sinjar. The numerous remains of old 
habitations show how thickly this level tract must once have 
been peopled, though now for the most part a wilderness. North 
of the plateau rises a well-watered and undulating belt of country, 
into which run low ranges of limestone hills, sometimes arid, 
sometimes covered with dwarf-oak, and often shutting in, 
between their northern and north-eastern flank and the main 
mountain'-line from which they detach themselves, rich plains 
and fertile valleys. Behind them tower the massive ridges of the 
Niphates and Zagros ranges, where the Tigris and Euphrates take 
their rise, and which cut off Assyria from Armenia and Kurdistan. 

The name Assyria itself was derived from that of the city of 
Assur (q.v.) or Asur, now Qal'at Sherqat (Kaleh Shergat), which 
stood on the right bank of the Tigris, midway between the 
Greater and the Lesser Zab. It remained the capital long after 
the Assyrians had become the dominant power in western Asia, 
but was finally supplanted by Calah (Nimrud), Nineveh (Nebi 
Yunus and Kuyunjik) , and Dur-Sargina (Khorsabad) , some 60 m. 
farther north (see Nineveh). 

In contrast with the arid plateau of Mesopotamia, stretched the 



IOO 



BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA 



rich alluvial plain of Chaldaea, formed by the deposits of the two 
great rivers by which it was enclosed. The soil was extremely 
fertile, and teemed with an industrious population. Eastward 
rose the mountains of Elam, southward were the sea-marshes and 
the Kalda or Chaldaeans and other Aramaic tribes, while on the 
west the civilization of Babylonia encroached beyond the banks 
of the Euphrates, upon the territory of the Semitic nomads (or 
Suti). Here stood Ur (Mugheir, more correctly Muqayyar) the 
earliest capital of the country; and Babylon, with its suburb, 
Borsippa (Birs Nimrud), as well as the two Sipparas (the 
Sepharvaim of Scripture, now Abu Habba), occupied both the 
Arabian and Chaldaean sides of the river (see Babylon). The 
Arakhtu, or " river of Babylon," flowed past the southern side 
of the city, and to the south-west of it on the Arabian bank lay 
the great inland freshwater sea of Nejef, surrounded by red 
sandstone cliffs of considerable height, 40 m. in length and 35 in 
breadth in the widest part. Above and below this sea, from 
Borsippa to Kufa, extend the famous Chaldaean marshes, where 
Alexander was nearly lost (Arrian, Exp. Al. vii. 22; Strab. xvi. 
1, § 12); but these depend upon the state of the Hindiya canal, 
disappearing altogether when it is closed. 

Eastward of the Euphrates and southward of Sippara, Kutha 
and Babylon were Kis (Ukaimir, 9 m. E. of Hillah), Nippur 
(Nijfer) — where stood the great sanctuary of El-lil, the older 
Bel — Uruk or Erech (Warka) and Larsa (Senkera) with its temple 
of the sun-god, While eastward of the Shatt el-Hai, probably the 
ancient channel of the Tigris, was Lagash (Tello), which played 
an important part in early Babylonian history. The primitive 
seaport of the country, Eridu, the seat of the worship of Ea the 
culture-god, was a little south of Ur (at Abu Shahrain or Nowawis 
on the west side of the Euphrates). It is now about 130 m. 
distant from the sea; as about 46 in. of land have been formed 
by the silting up of the shore since the foundation of Spasinus 
Charax (Muhamrah) in the time of Alexander the Great, or some 
115 ft. a year, the city would have been in existence at least 6000 
years ago. The marshes in the south like the adjoining desert 
were frequented by Aramaic tribes; of these the most famous 
were the Kalda or Chaldaeans who under Merodach-baladan 
made themselves masters of Babylon and gave their name in 
later days to the whole population of the country. The combined 
stream of the Euphrates and Tigris as it flowed through the 
marshes was known to the Babylonians as the nar marrali, " the 
salt river" (cp. Jer. 1. 21), a name originally applied to the 
Persian Gulf. 

The alluvial plain of Babylonia was called Edin, the Eden of 
Gen. ii., though the name was properly restricted to " the plain " 
on the western bank of the river where the Bedouins pastured 
the flocks of their Babylonian masters. This " bank " or kisad, 
together with the corresponding western bank of the Tigris 
(according to Hommel the modern Shatt el-Hai), gave its name 
to the land of Chesed, whence the Kasdim of the Old Testament. 
In the early inscriptions of Lagash the whole district is known as 
Gu-Edinna, the Sumerian equivalent of the Semitic Kisad Edini. 
The coast-land was similarly known as Gu-abba (Semitic Kisad 
tamtim) , the " bank of the sea." A more comprehensive name of 
southern Babylonia was Kengi, "the land," or Kengi Sumer, " the 
land of Sumer," for which Sumer alone came afterwards to be 
used. Sumer has been supposed to be the original of the Biblical 
Shinar; but Shinar represented northern rather than southern 
Babylonia, and was probably the Sankhar of the Tell el-Amarna 
tablets (but see Sumer). Opposed to Kengi and Sumer were 
Urra (Uri) and Akkad or northern Babylonia. The original 
meaning of Urra was perhaps " clayey soil," but it came to 
signify " the upper country " or " highlands," kengi being " the 
lowlands." In Semitic times Urra was pronounced Uri and 
confounded with uru, "city"; as a geographical term, however, 
it was replaced by Akkadu (Akkad), the Semitic form of AgadS— 
written Akkattim in the Elamite inscriptions — the name of the 
elder Sargon's capital, which must have stood close to Sippara, 
if indeed it was not a quarter of Sippara itself. The rise of 
Sargon's empire was doubtless the cause of this extension of 
the name of Akkad; from henceforward, in the imperial title, 



" Sumer and Akkad " denoted the whole of Babylonia. After 
the Kassite conquest of the country, northern Babylonia came to 
be known as Kar-Duniyas, " the wall of the god Duniyas," from 
a line of fortification similar to that built by Nebuchadrezzar 
between Sippara and Opis, so as to defend his kingdom from 
attacks from the north. As this last was " the Wall of Semiramis " 
mentioned by Strabo (xi. 14. 8), Kar-Duniyas may have repre- 
sented the Median Wall of Xenophon (Anab. ii. 4. 12), traces of 
which were found by F. R. Chesney extending from Faluja to 
Jibbar. 

The country was thickly studded with towns, the sites of which 
are still represented by mounds, though the identification of most 
of them is still doubtful. The latest to be identified are Bismya, 
between Nippur and Erech, which recent American excavations 
have proved to be the site of Udab (also called Adab and Usab) 
and the neighbouring Fara, the site of the ancient Kisurra. The 
dense population was due to the elaborate irrigation of the 
Babylonian plain which had originally reclaimed it from a 
pestiferous and uninhabitable swamp and had made it the 
most fertile country in the world. The science of irrigation and 
engineering seems to have been first created in Babylonia, which 
was covered by a network of canals, all skilfully planned and 
regulated. The three chief of them carried off the waters of the 
Euphrates to the Tigris above Babylon, — the Zabzallat canal 
(or Nakr Sarsar) running from Faluja to Ctesiphon, the Kutha 
canal from Sippara to Madain, passing Tell Ibrahim or Kutha on 
the way, and the King's canal or Ar-Malcha between the other 
two. This last, which perhaps owed its name to Khammurabi, 
was conducted from the Euphrates towards Upi or Opis, which 
has been shown by H. Winckler {Altorientalische Forschungen, ii. 
pp. 509 seq.) to have been close to Seleucia on the western side 
of the Tigris. The Pallacopas, called Pallukkatu in the Neo- 
Babylonian texts, started from Pallukkatu or Faluja, and running 
parallel to the western bank of the Euphrates as far as Iddaratu 
or Teredon (?) watered an immense tract of land and supplied a 
large lake near Borsippa. B . Meissner may be right in identifying 
it with " the Canal of the Sun-god " of the early texts. Thanks 
to this system of irrigation the cultivation of the soil was highly 
advanced in Babylonia. According to Herodotus (i. 193) wheat 
commonly returned two hundred-fold to the sower, and occasion- 
ally three hundred-fold. Pliny (H. N. xviii. 17) states that it 
was cut twice, and afterwards was good keep for sheep, and 
Berossus remarked that wheat, sesame, barley, ochrys, palms, 
apples and many kinds of shelled fruit grew wild, as wheat still 
does in the neighbourhood of Anah. A Persian poem celebrated 
the 360 uses of the palm (Strabo xvi. 1. 14), and Ammianus 
Marcellinus (xxiv. 3) says that from the point reached by Julian's 
army to the shores of the Persian Gulf was one continuous forest 
of verdure. 

II. Classical Authorities. — Such a country was naturally fitted 
to be a pioneer of civilization. Before the decipherment of the 
cuneiform texts our knowledge of its history, however, was 
scanty and questionable. Had the native history of Berossus 
survived, this would not have been the case; all that is known 
of the Chaldaean historian's work, however, is derived from 
quotations in Josephus, Ptolemy, Eusebius and the Syncellus. 
The authenticity of his list of 10 antediluvian kings who reigned 
for 120 sari or 432,000 years, has been partially confirmed by the 
inscriptions; but his 8 postdiluvian dynasties are difficult to 
reconcile with the monuments, and the numbers attached to 
them are probably corrupt. It is different with the 7th and 8th 
dynasties as given by Ptolemy in the Almagest, which prove to 
have been faithfully recorded: — 

1. Nabonassar (747 B.C.) 14 years 

2. Nadios 2 „ 

3. Khinziros and Poros (Pul) 5 „ 

4. Ilulaeos 5 i> • 

5. Mardokempados (Merodach-Baladan) . 12 „ 

6. Arkeanos (Satgon) 5 „ 

7. Interregnum 2 ,, 

8. Hagisa 1 month 

9. Belibos (702 B.C.) 3 years 

10. Assaranadios (Assur-nadin-sum) . . . 6 „ 



BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA 



1 01 



, II. RegebeloS- . • . > ■ • • • . •'• • iyear 
12. Mesesimordakos . . . .... . 4 years 

" 13. Interregnum . 8 „ 

14. Asaridinos (Esar-haddon) . . . . . 13 ,, 

: 15. Saosdukhinos (Savul-sum-yukin) . . . . 20 „ 
i6. Sineladanos (Assur-bani-pal) . . . ....... r .22 ■„ . 

The account of Babylon given by Herodotus is not that of an 
eye-witness, and his historical notices are meagre and untrust- 
worthy. He was controverted by Ctesias, who, however, has 
mistaken mythology for history, and Greek romance owed to 
him its Ninus and Semiramis, its Ninyas and Sardanapalus. The 
only ancient) authority of value on Babylonian and Assyrian 
history is the' Old Testament. 

III. Modern Discovery. .-*- The excavations of iP: E. Botta and 
A. H. Layard at Nineveh opened up a new world, coinciding 
as they did with the successful decipherment of the cuneiform 
system of writing. Layard's discovery of the library of Assur- 
bani-pal put the materials for reconstructing the ancient life 
and history of Assyria and Babylonia into the hands of scholars. 
He also was the first to excavate in Babylonia, where C. J. Rich 
had already done useful topographical work. Layard's excava- 
tions in this latter; country were continued by W. K. Lof tus, who 
also opened trenches at Susa, as well as by J. Oppert on behalf 
of the trench government. 1 But it was only in the last quarter 
of the 19th century that anything like systematic exploration 
was attempted. After the death of George Smith at Aleppo in 
1876, an expedition was sent by the British Museum (1877- 
1879), under the conduct of Hormuzd Rassam, to continue his 
work at Nineveh and its neighbourhood. Excavations in the 
mounds of Balawat, called Imgur-Bel by the Assyrians, 15 m. 
east of Mosul, resulted in the discovery of a small temple dedi-> 
cated to the god of dreams by Assur-nazir-pal III. (883 B.C.), 
containing a stone coffer or ark in which were two inscribed tables 
of alabaster of rectangular shape, as well as of a palace which 
had been destroyed by the Babylonians but restored by Shal- 
maneser II: (858 B.C.). From the latter came the bronze gates 
with hammered reliefs, which are now in the British Museum. 
The remains of a palace of Assur-nazir-pal III. at Nimrud 
(Calah) were also excavated, and hundreds of enamelled tiles 
were disinterred. Two years later (1880-1881) Rassam was sent 
to Babylonia, where he discovered the site of the temple of the 
sun-god of Sippara at Abu-Habba, and so fixed the position of 
the two Sipparas or Sepharvaim. Abu-Habba lies south-west of 
Bagdad, midway between the Euphrates and Tigris, on the 
south side of a canal, which may once have represented the main 
stream of the Euphrates, Sippara of ! the goddess Anunit, now 
Dir, being on its opposite bank. 

Meanwhile (1877-1881) the French consul, de Sarzec, had been 
excavating at Tello, the ancient Lagash, and bringing to light 
monuments of the pre-Semitic age, which included the diorite 
statues of Gudea now in the Louvre, the stone of which, accord- 
ing to the inscriptions upon them, had been brought from 
Magan, the Sinaitic peninsula. The subsequent excavations of de 
Sarzec in Tello and its neighbourhood carried the history of the 
city back to at least 4000 B.C., and a collection of more than 
30,000 tablets has been found, which were arranged on shelves in 
the time of Gudea (c.2700 B.C.). In 1886-1887 a German expedi- 
tion under Dr Koldewey explored the cemetery of El Hibba 
(immediately to the south of Tello), and for the first time made 
Us acquainted with the burial customs of ancient Babylonia. 
Another German expedition, on a large scale, was despatched 
by the Or.ientgesellschaft in 1899 with the object of exploring 
the ruins of Babylon; the palace of Nebuchadrezzar and the 
great processional road were laid bare, and Dr W. Andrae 
subsequently conducted excavations at Qal'at Sherqat, the site 
of Assur. Even the Turkish government has not held aloof 
from the work of exploration, and the Museum at Constantinople 
is filled with the tablets discovered by Dr V. Scheil in 1897 on 
the site of Sippara. J. de Morgan's exceptionally important 
work at Susa lies outside the limits of Babylonia; not so, 
however, the American excavations (1903-1904) under E. J. Banks 
at Bismya (Udab),, and those of the university of Pennsylvania 
at Niffer (see Nippur) first begun in 1889, where Mr J.H. Haynes 



has systematically and patiently uncovered the remains of the 
great temple of El-lil, removing layer after layer of debris and 
cutting sections in the ruins down to the virgin soil. Midway in 
the mound is a platform of large bricks stamped with the names 
of Sargon of Akkad and his son Naram-Sin (3800 B.C.); a& th£ 
debris above them is 34 ft. thick, the topmost stratum being not 
later than the Parthian era (H. V. Hilprecht, The Babylonian 
Expedition, i. 2, p. 23), it is calculated that the debris underneath 
the pavement, 30 ft. thick, must represent a period of about 
3000 years, more especially as older constructions had to be 
levelled before the pavement was laid. In the deepest part of 
the excavations, however, inscribed clay tablets and fragments 
of stone vases are still found, though the cuneiform characters 
upon them are of a very archaic type, and sometimes even 
retain their primitive pictorial forms. 

IV. Chronology? — -The later chronology of Assyria has long 
been fixed, thanks to the lists of limmi, or archons, who gave 
their names in succession to their years of office. Several copies 
of these lists from the library of Nineveh are in existence, the 
earliest of which goes back to 911 B.C., while the latest comes 
down to the middle of the reign of Assur-bani-pal.' The beginning 
of a king's reign is noted in the lists, and in some, of them the 
chief events of the year are added to the name of its ar.cjh.on, 
Assyrian chronology is, therefore, certain from 911 B.C. to 666,,. 
and an eclipse of the sun which is stated to have been visible 
in the month Sivan, 763 B.C., is one that has been calculated to 
have taken place on the 15th of June of that year. The system 
of reckoning time by Ummi was of Assyrian origin, and recent 
discoveries have made it clear that it went back to the first 
days of the monarchy. Even in the distant colony at Kara 
Euyuk near Kaisariyeh (Caesarea) in Cappadocia cuneiform 
tablets show that the Assyrian settlers used it in the 15th 
century B.C. In Babylonia a different system was adopted. 
Here the years were dated by the chief events that distinguished 
them, as was also the case in Egypt in the epoch of the Old 
Empire. What the event should be was determined by the 
government and notified to all its officials; one of these notices, 
sent to the Babylonian officials in Canaan in the reign of Samsu- 
iluna, the son of Khammurabi, has been found in the Lebanon: 
A careful register of the dates was kept, divided into reigns, 
from which dynastic lists were afterwards compiled, giving the 
duration of each king's reign as well as that of the several 
dynasties. Two of these dynastic compilations have been 
discovered, unfortunately in an imperfect state. 2 In addition 
to the chronological tables, works of a more ambitious and 
literary character were also attempted of the nature of chronicles. 
One of these is the so-called" Synchronous History of Assyria 
and Babylonia/' consisting of brief notices, written by an 
Assyrian, of the occasions on which the kings of the two countries 
had entered into relation, hostile or otherwise, with one another; 
a second is the Babylonian Chronicle- discovered by Dr Th. G. 
Pinches, which gave a synopsis of Babylonian history from a 
Babylonian point of view, and was compiled in the reign of 
Darius. It is interesting to note that its author says of the 
battle of Khalule, which we know from the Assyrian inscriptions 
to have taken place in 691 or 690 B.C., that he does " not know 
the year " when it was fought: the records of Assyria had been 
already lost, even in Babylonia. The early existence of an' 
accurate system of dating is not surprising; it was necessitated 
by the fact that Babylonia was a great trading community, in 
which it was not only needful that commercial and legal docu- 
ments should be dated, but also that it should be possible to refer 
easily to the dates of former business transactions. The Baby- 
lonian and Assyrian kings had consequently no difficulty in 

1 For a survey of the chronological systems adopted by different 
modern scholars, see below, section viii. " Chronological Systems." 

2 The compiler of the more complete one seems to have allowed 
himself liberties. At all events he gives 30 years of reign to Sin- 
muballidh instead of the 20 assigned to him in a list of dates drawn 
up at the time of Ammi-zadok's accession, 55 years to Khammurabi 
instead of 43, and 35 years to Sarnsu-'iluna instead of 38, while he 
omits altogether the seven years' reign of the Assyrian king Tukulti- 
In-aristi at Babylon: ' 



102 



BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA 



determining the age of their predecessors or of past events. 
Nabonidus (Nabunaid) , who was more of an antiquarian than a 
politician, and spent his time in excavating the older temples 
of his country and ascertaining the names of their builders, 
tells us that Naram-Sin, the son of Sargon of Akkad, lived 3200 
years before himself (i.e. 3750 B.C.), and Sagarakti-suryas 800 
years; and we learn from Sennacherib that Shalmaneser I. 
reigned 600 years earlier, and that Tiglath-pileser I. fought 
with Merodach-nadin-akhi (Marduk-nadin-akhe) of Babylon 
418 years before the campaign of 689 B.C.; while, according to 
Tiglath-pileser I., the high-priest Samas-Hadad, son of Isme- 
Dagon, built the temple of Anu and Hadad at Assur 701 years 
before his own time. Shalmaneser I. in his turn states that the 
high-priest Samas-Hadad, the son of Bel-kabi, governed Assur 
580 years previously, and that 159 years before this the high- 
priest Erisum was reigning there. The raid of the Elamite king 
Kutur-Nakhkhunte is placed by Assur-bani-pal 1635 years before 
his own conquest of Susa, and Khammurabi is said by Nabonidus 
to have preceded Burna-buryas by 700 years. 

V. History. — In the earliest period of which we have any 
knowledge Babylonia was divided into several independent 

states, the limits of which were denned by canals and 
Sumerian boundary stones. Its culture may be traced back to 
period. two main centres, Eridu in the . south and Nippur 

in the north. But the streams of civilization which 
flowed from them were in strong contrast. El-lil, around whose 
sanctuary Nippur had grown up, was lord of the ghost-land, and 
his gifts to mankind were the spells and incantations which the 
spirits of good or evil were compelled to obey. The world which 
he governed was a mountain; the creatures whom he had made 
lived underground. Eridu, on the other hand, was the home of 
the culture-god Ea, the god of light and beneficence, who 
employed his divine wisdom in healing the sick and restoring 
the dead to life. Rising each morning from his palace in the 
deep, he had given man the arts and sciences, the industries 
and manners of civilization. To him was due the invention of 
writing, and the first law-book was his creation. Eridu had 
once been a seaport, and it was doubtless its foreign trade and 
intercourse with other lands which influenced the development 
of its culture. Its cosmology was the result of its geographical 
position: the earth, it was believed, had grown out of the 
waters of the deep, like the ever-widening coast at the mouth 
of the Euphrates. Long before history begins, however, the 
cultures of Eridu and Nippur had coalesced. While Babylon 
seems to have been a colony of Eridu, Ur, the immediate neigh- 
bour of Eridu, must have been colonized from Nippur, since its 
moon-god was the son of El-lil of Nippur. But in the admixture 
of the two cultures the influence of Eridu was predominant. 

We may call the early civilization of Babylonia Sumerian. 
The race who first developed it spoke an agglutinative language, 
and to them was due the invention of the pictorial hieroglyphs 
which became the running-hand or cuneiform characters of later 
days, as well as the foundation of the chief cities of the country 
and the elements of its civilization. The great engineering works 
by means of which the marshes were drained and the overflow 
of the rivers regulated by canals went back to Sumerian times, 
like a considerable part of later Babylonian religion and the 
beginnings of Babylonian law. Indeed Sumerian continued to 
be the language of religion and law long after the Semites had 
become the ruling race. 

Arrival of the Semites. — When the Semites first entered the 
Edin or plain of Babylonia is uncertain, but it must have been 

at a remote period. The cuneiform system of writing 
influence. was stu ^ m process of growth when it was borrowed 

and adapted by the new comers, and the Semitic 
Babylonian language was profoundly influenced by the older 
language of the country, borrowing its words and even its 
grammatical usages. Sumerian in its turn borrowed from 
Semitic Babylonian, and traces of Semitic influence in some of 
the earliest Sumerian texts indicate that the Semite was already 
on the Babylonian border. His native home was probably 
Arabia; hence Eridu (" the good city ") and Ur (" the city ") 



would have been built in Semitic territory, and their population 
may have included Semitic elements from the first. It was in 
the north, however, that the Semites first appear on the monu- 
ments. Here in Akkad the first Semitic empire was founded, 
Semitic conquerors or settlers spread from Sippara to Susa, 
Khana to the east of the Tigris was occupied by " West Semitic " 
tribes, and " out of " Babylonia " went forth the Assyrian." 
As in Assyria, so too in the states of Babylonia the patesi or 
high-priest of the god preceded the king. The state had grown 
up around a sanctuary, the god of which was nominally its ruler, 
the human patesi being his viceregent. In course of time many 
of the high-priests assumed the functions and title of king; 
while retaining their priestly office they claimed at the same time 
to be supreme in the state in all secular concerns. The god 
remained nominally at its head; but even this position was lost 
to him when Babylonia was unified under Semitic princes, and 
the earthly king became an incarnate god. A recollection of his 
former power survived, however, at Babylon, where Bel-Merodach 
adopted the king before his right to rule was allowed. 

Early Princes. — The earliest monuments that can be approxi- 
mately dated come from Lagash (Tello). Here we hear of a 
" king of Kengi," as well as of a certain Me-silim, king . 

of Kis, who had dealings with Lugal-suggur, high- dynasty. 
priest of Lagash, and the high-priest of a neighbouring 
town, the name of which is provisionally transcribed Gis-ukh 
(formerly written Gis-ban and confounded with the name of 
Opis). According to Scheil, Gis-ukh is represented by Jokha, 
south of Fara and west of the Shatt el-Hai, and since two of its 
rulers are called kings of Te on a seal-cylinder, this may have been 
the pronunciation of the name. 1 At a later date the high-priests 
of Lagash made themselves kings, and a dynasty was founded 
there by Ur-Nina. In the ruins of a building, attached by him 
to the temple of Nina, terra-cotta bas-reliefs of the king and 
his sons have been found, as well as the heads of lions in onyx, 
which remind us of Egyptian work and onyx plates. These 
were "booty" dedicated to the goddess Bau. E-anna-du, the 
grandson of Ur-Nina, made himself master of the whole of 
southern Babylonia, including " the district of Sumer " together 
with the cities of Erech, Ur and Larsa (?). He also annexed 
the kingdom of Kis, which, however, recovered its independence 
after his death. Gis-ukh was made tributary, a certain amount 
of grain being levied upon each person in it, which had to be 
paid into the treasury of the goddess Nina and the god Ingurisa. 
The so-called " Stele of the Vultures," now in the Louvre, was 
erected as a monument of the victory. On this various incidents 
in the war are represented. In one scene the king stands in his 
chariot with a curved weapon in his right hand formed of three 
bars of metal bound together by rings (similar, as M. L. Heuzey 
has pointed out, to one carried by the chief of an Asiatic tribe in 
a tomb of the 12th dynasty at Beni-Hasan in Egypt), while his 
kilted followers with helmets on their heads and lances in their 
hands march behind him. In Another a flock of vultures is 
feeding on the bodies of the fallen enemy; in a third a tumulus 
is being heaped up over those who had been slain on the side of 
Lagash. Elsewhere we see the victorious prince beating down 
a vanquished enemy, and superintending the execution of other 
prisoners who are being sacrificed to the gods, while in one curious 
scene he is striking with his mace a sort of wicker-work cage 
filled with naked men. In his hand he holds the crest of Lagash 
and its god — a lion-headed eagle with outstretched wings, sup- 
ported by two lions which are set heraldically back to back. 
The sculptures belong to a primitive period of art. 

E-anna-du's campaigns extended beyond the confines of Baby- 
lonia. He overran a part of Elam and took the city of Az on the 
Persian Gulf. Temples and palaces were repaired or erected at 
Lagash and elsewhere, the town of Nina — which probably gave 

1 They are also called high-priests of Gunammide and a contract- 
tablet speaks of " Te in Babylon," but this was probably not the 
Te of the seal. It must be remembered that the reading of most of 
the early Sumerian proper names is merely provisional, as we do not 
know how the ideographs of which they are composed were pro- 
nounced in either Sumerian or Assyrian. 



BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA 



103 



its name to the later Nina or Nineveh — was rebuilt, and canals 
and reservoirs were excavated. He was succeeded by his brother 
En-anna-tum I., under whom Gis-ukh once more became the 
dominant power. As En-anna-tum has the title only of high- 
priest, it is probable that he acknowledged Ur-lumma of Gis-ukh 
as his suzerain. His son and successor Entemena restored the 
prestige of Lagash. Gis-ukh was subdued and a priest named 
Illi was made its governor. A tripod of silver dedicated by 
Entemena to his god is now in the Louvre. A frieze of lions 
devouring ibexes and deer, and incised with great artistic skill, 
runs round the neck, while the eagle crest of Lagash adorns the 
globular part. The vase is a proof of the high degree of excellence 
to which the goldsmith's art had already attained. A vase of 
calcite, also dedicated by Entemena, has been found at Nippur. 

The eighth successor of Ur-Nina was Uru-duggina, who was 
overthrown and his city captured by Lugal-zaggisi, the high- 
priest of Gis-ukh. Lugal-zaggisi was the founder of the first 
empire in Asia of which we know. He made Erech his capital 
and calls himself king of Kengi. In a long inscription which he 
caused to be engraved on hundreds of stone vases dedicated to 
El-lil of Nippur, he declares that his kingdom extended " from 
the Lower Sea of the Tigris and Euphrates," or Persian Gulf, to 
" the Upper Sea " or Mediterranean. It was at this time that 
Erech received the name of " the City," which it continued to 
bear when written ideographically. 

Semitic Empire of S argon of Akkad.— The next empire founded 
in western Asia was Semitic. Semitic princes had already 
_^ f established themselves at Kis, and a long inscription 
has been discovered at Susa by J. de Morgan, belonging 
to one of them, Manistusu, who like Lugal-zaggisi was a con- 
temporary of Uru-duggina. Another Semitic ruler of Kis of the 
same period was Alusarsid (or Urumus) who " subdued Elam and 
BarahsS." But the fame of these early establishers of Semitic 
supremacy was far eclipsed by that of Sargon of Akkad and his 
son, Naram-Sin. The date of Sargon is placed by Nabonidus at 
3800 B.C. He was the son of Itti-Bel, and a legend related how 
he had been born in concealment and sent adrift in an ark of 
bulrushes on the waters of the Euphrates. Here he had been 
rescued and brought up by " Akki the husbandman " ; but the day 
arrived at length when his true origin became known, the crown 
of Babylonia was set upon his head and he entered upon a career 
of foreign conquest. Four times he invaded Syria and Palestine, 
and spent three years in thoroughly subduing the countries of 
" the west," and in uniting them with Babylonia " into a single 
empire." Images of himself were erected on the shores of the 
Mediterranean in token of his victories, and cities and palaces 
were built at home out of the spoils of the conquered lands. 
Elam and the northern part of Mesopotamia were also subjugated, 
and rebellions were put down both in Kazalla and in Babylonia 
itself. Contract tablets have been found dated in the years of 
the campaigns against Palestine and Sarlak, king of Gutium or 
Kurdistan, and copper is mentioned as being brought from Magan 
or the Sinaitic peninsula. 

Sargon's son and successor, Naram-Sin, followed up the 
successes of his father by marching into Magan, whose king he 
took captive. He assumed the imperial title of " king 
&™ m ' of the four zones," and, like his father, was addressed 
as a god. He is even called " the god of Agade " 
(Akkad), reminding us of the divine honours claimed by the 
Pharaohs of Egypt, whose territory now adjoined that of Baby- 
lonia. A finely executed bas-relief, representing Naram-Sin, 
and bearing a striking resemblance to early Egyptian art in many 
of its features, has been found at Diarbekr. Babylonian art, 
however, had already attained a high degree of excellence; two 
seal cylinders of the time of Sargon are among the most beautiful 
specimens of the gem-cutter's art ever discovered. The empire 
was bound together by roads, along which there was a regular 
postal service; and clay seals, which took the place of stamps, are 
now in the Louvre bearing the names of Sargon and his son. A 
cadastral survey seems also to have been instituted, and one of 
the documents relating to it states that a certain Uru-Malik, 
whose name appears to indicate his Canaanitish origin, was 



Ur 
dynasty. 



governor of the land of the Amorites, as Syria and Palestine were 
called by the Babylonians. It is probable that the first collection 
of astronomical observations and terrestrial omens was made for 
a library established by Sargon. 

Bingani-sar-ali was the son of Naram-Sin, but we do not yet 
know whether he followed his father on the throne. Another son 
was high-priest of the city of Tutu, and in the name of 
his daughter, Lipus-Eaum, a priestess of Sin, some 
scholars have seen that of the Hebrew deity Yahweh. 
The Babylonian god Ea, however, is more likely to be meant. 
The fall of Sargon's empire seems to have been as sudden as its 
rise. The seat of supreme power in Babylonia was shifted 
southwards to Isin and Ur. It is generally assumed that two 
dynasties reigned at Ur and claimed suzerainty over the other 
Babylonian states, though there is as yet no clear proof that 
there was more than one. It was probably Gungunu who 
succeeded in transferring the capital of Babylonia from Isin to 
Ur, but his place in the dynasty (or dynasties) is still uncertain. 
One of his successors was Ur-Gur, a great builder, who built or 
restored the temples of the Moon-god at Ur, of the Sun-god at 
Larsa, of Ishtar at Erech and of Bel at Nippur. His son and 
successor was Dungi, whose reign lasted more than 51 years, and 
among whose vassals was Gudea, the patesi or high-priest of 
Lagash. Gudea was also a great builder, and the materials for 
his buildings and statues were brought from all parts of western 
Asia, cedar wood from the Amanus mountains, quarried stones 
from Lebanon, copper from northern Arabia, gold and precious 
stones from the desert between Palestine and Egypt, dolerite from 
Magan (the Sinaitic peninsula) and timber from Dilmun in the 
Persian Gulf. Some of his statues, now in the Louvre, are carved 
out of Sinaitic dolerite, and on the lap of one of them (statue E) 
is the plan of his palace, with the scale of measurement attached. 
Six of the statues bore special names, and offerings were made to 
them as to the statues of the gods. Gudea claims to have con- 
quered Anshan in Elam, and was succeeded byhis sonUr-Ningirsu. 
His date may be provisionally fixed at 2700 B.C. 

This dynasty of Ur was Semitic, not Sumerian, notwithstanding 
the name of Dungi. Dungi was followed by Bur-Sin, Gimil-Sin, 
and Ibi-Sin. Their power extended to the Mediterranean, and 
we possess a large number of contemporaneous monuments in 
the shape of contracts and similar business documents, as well as 
chronological tables, which belong to their reigns. 

After the fall of the dynasty, Babylonia passed under foreign 
influence. Sumuabi (" Shem is my father"), from southern 
Arabia (or perhaps Canaan), made himself master of northern 
Babylonia, while Elamite invaders occupied the south. After a 
reign of 14 years Sumuabi was succeeded by his son Sumu-la-ilu, in 
the fifth year of whose reign the fortress of Babylon was built, and 
the city became for the first time a capital. Rival kings, Pungun- 
ilaandlmmerum,are mentioned in the contract tablets as reigning 
at the same time as Sumu-la-ilu (or Samu-la-ilu) ; and under 
Sin-muballidh, the great-grandson of Sumu-la-ilu, the Elamites 
laid the whole of the country under tribute, and made Eri-Aku 
or Arioch, called Rim-Sin by his Semitic subjects, king of Larsa. 
Eri-Aku was the son of Kudur-Mabug, who was prince of 
Yamutbal, on the eastern border of Babylonia, and also " governor 
of Syria." The Elamite supremacy was at last shaken off by 
the son and successor of Sin-muballidh, Khammurabi, 
whose name is also written Ammurapi and Kham- m urab\ 
muram, and who was the Amraphel of Gen. xiv. 1. 
The Elamites, under their king Kudur-Lagamar or Chedor- 
laomer, seem to have taken Babylon and destroyed the temple of 
Bel-Merodach; but Khammurabi retrieved his fortunes, and in 
the thirtieth year of his reign (in 2340 B.C.) he overthrew the 
Elamite forces in a decisive battle and drove them out of Baby- 
lonia. The next two years were occupied in adding Larsa and 
Yamutbal to his dominion, and in forming Babylonia into a 
single monarchy, the head of which was Babylon. A great 
literary revival followed the recovery of Babylonian independ- 
ence, and the rule of Babylon was obeyed as far as the shores of 
the Mediterranean. Vast numbers of contract tablets, dated in 
the reigns of Khammurabi and other kings of the dynasty, have 



io4 



BABYLONIA AND ^ASSYRIA 



been discovered, as well as autograph letters of the kings them- 
selves, more especially of Khammurabi. Among the latter is one 
ordering the despatch of 240 soldiers from Assyria and Situllum, 
a proof that Assyria was at the time a Babylonian dependency. 
Constant intercourse was kept up between Babylonia and the 
west, Babylonian officials and troops passing to Syria and 
Canaan, while " Amorite " colonists were established in Baby- 
lonia for the purposes of trade. One of these Amorites, Abi-ramu 
or Abram by name, is the father of a witness to a deed dated 
in the reign of Khammurabi's grandfather. Ammj -ditana, the 
great-grandson of Khammurabi, still entitles himself " king of 
the land of the Amorites," and both his father and son bear the 
Canaanitish (and south Arabian) names jof Abesukh or Abishua 
and Ammi-zadok. 

One of the most important' works of this " First Dynasty of 
Babylon," as it was called by the native historians, was the 
compilation' of a code of laws (see Babylonian Law). This was 
made by order of Khammurabi after the expulsion of the Elamites 
and the settlement of his kingdom. A copy of the Code has been 
found at Susa by J. de Morgan and is how in the Louvre, The 
last king of the dynasty was Samsu-ditana the son of Ammi- 
zadok. He was followed by a dynasty of n Sumerian kings, 
who are said to have reigned for 368 years, a number which must 
be much exaggerated. As yet the name of only one of them has 
been found in a contemporaneous document. They were over- 
thrown and Babylonia was conquered by Kassites or Kossaeans 
from the mountains of Elam, with whom Samsu-iluna had already 
come into conflict in his 9th year. The Kassite dynasty was 
founded by Kandis/ Gandis or Gaddas (about 1780 B.C.), and 
lasted for 576! years. Under this foreign dominion, which offers 
a striking analogy to the contemporary rule of the Hyksos in 
Egypt, Babylonia lost its empire over western Asia, Syria and 
Palestine became independent, and the high -priests of Assur 
made themselves kings of Assyria. The divine attributes with 
which the Semitic kings of Babylonia had been invested dis- 
appeared at the same time; the title of " god " is never given to 
a Kassite sovereign. Babylon, however, remained the capital 
of the kingdom and the holy city of western Asia, where the 
priests were all-powerful, and the right to the inheritance of the 
old Babylonian empire could alone be conferred. 

Rise of Assyria. — Under Khammurabi a Samsi-Hadad (or 
Samsi-Raman) seems to have been vassal-prince at Assiir, and 
the names of several of the high-priests of Assur who succeeded 
him have been made known to us by the recent German excava- 
tions. The foundation of the monarchy was ascribed to Zulilu, 
who is described as'living after Bel-kapkapi or Belkabi (1900 B.C.), 
the ancestor of Shalmaneser I. Assyria grew in power at the 
expense of Babylonia, and a time came when the Kassite king of 
Babylonia was glad to marry the daughter of Assur-yuballidh of 
Assyria, whose letters to Amenophis (Amon-hotep) IV. of Egypt 
have been found at Tell el-Amarna. The marriage, however, led 
to disastrous results, as the Kassite faction at court murdered 
the king and placed a pretender on the throne. Assur-yuballidh 
promptly marched into Babylonia and avenged his son-in-law, 
making Burna-buryas of the royal line king in his stead. Burna- 
buryas, who reigned 22 years, carried on a correspondence with 
Amenophis IV. of Egypt. After his death, the Assyrians, who 
were still nominally the vassals of Babylonia, threw off 
neseri." a ^ disguise, and Shalmaneser I. (1300 B.C.), the great- 
great-grandson of Assur-yuballidh, openly claimed the 
supremacy in western Asia. Shalmaneser was the founder of 
Calah, and his annals, which have recently been discovered at 
Assur, show how widely extended the Assyrian empire already 
was. Campaign after campaign was carried on against the 
Hittites and the Wild tribes of the north-west, and Assyrian 
colonists were settled in Cappadocia. His son Tukulti-In-aristi 
conquered Babylon, putting its king Bitilyasu to death, and 
thereby made Assyria the mistress of the oriental world. Assyria 
had taken the place of Babylonia. 

For 7 years Tukulti-In-aristi ruled at Babylon with the 
old imperial title of " king of Sumer and Akkad." Then the 
Babylonians revolted. The Assyrian king was murdered by his 



son, Assur-nazir-pal L, and Uadad-nadih-akhi made king of 
Babylonia.- But it was not until several years later, in "the reign 
of the Assyrian,: king Tukulti-Assur, that'a reconciliation was 
effected between the two rival kingdoms. The next Assyrian 
monarch, Bel-kudur-uzUr, was the last of the old, royal line. He: 
seems to have been slain fighting against the Babylonians, who 
were still under the rule of Hadad-nadin-akhi, and a hew dynasty 
was established at Assur by In-aristi^pileser, who claimed to be 
a descendant of the ancient prince Erba-Raman. His ■ ■ . : 
fourth successor wasTiglath-pileser I., one of the great p if e tet'i. 
conquerors of Assyria, who carried his arms towards 
Armenia on the north and Cappadocia on the west; he hunted 
wild bulls in the Lebanon and' was presented with a crocodile 
by the Egyptian king. In 1107 B.C., however, he sustained a, 
temporary defeat at the hands of Merodach-nadin-akbi (Marduk- 
nadin-akhg) of Babylonia, where the Kassite dynasty had finally 
succumbed to Elamite attacks and a new line of kings. was on the 
throne. 

Of the immediate successors of Tiglath-pileser I. we know, 
little, and it is with Assur-nazir-pal III. (883-858 B.C.) that our 
knowledge of Assyrian history begins once more to 
be fairly full. The empire of Assyria was ■ again ex- #«/£" 
tended in all directions, and the palaces^ temples and pal ill. 
other buildings raised by him bear witness to a con- 
siderable development of wealth and -art. Calah became the 
favourite residence of a monarch who was distinguished even 
among Assyrian conquerors for his revolting cruelties. His 
son Shalmaneser II. had a long reign of 3^ years, 
during which the Assyrian capital was converted into' Beser //, 
a sort of armed camp. Each year the Assyrian armies 
marched out of it to plunder and destroy. Babylon was occupied 
and the country reduced to vassalage. In the west the con- 
federacy of Syrian princes headed by Benhadad of Damascus and 
including Ahab of Israel (see Jews, § io)was shattered in 853 B.C., 
and twelve years later the forces of Hazael were annihilated and 
the ambassadors of Jehu of Samaria brought, tribute to " the 
great king." The last few years of his life, however, were dis<J 
turbed by the rebellion of his eldest son, which well-nigh proved: 
fatal. Assur, Arbela and other places joined the pretender^ and 
the revolt was with difficulty put down by Samsi-Raman (or 
Samsi-Hadad), Shalmaneser's' second son, who soon afterwards 
succeeded him (824 B.C.). In 804 b.c. Damascus was captured 
by his successor Hadad-nirari IV., to whom tribute was paid by 
Samaria. 

With Nabu-nazir, the Nabonassar of classical writers, the so- 
called Canon of Ptolemy begins. When he ascended the throrie' 
of Babylon in 747 b.c. Assyria was in the throes of a 
revolution. Civil war and pestilence were devastat- nazlr. 
ing the country, and its northern provinces had been 
wrested from it by Ararat. In 746 B.C. Calah joined the rebels, 
and on the 13th of Iyyar in the following year, Pulu or Puly who 
took the name of Tiglath-pileser III., seized the crown and 
inaugurated a new and vigorous policy. 

Second Assyrian Empire. — Under Tiglath-pileser III. arose the 
second Assyrian empire, which differed from the first in its greater, 
consolidation. For the first time in history the idea 
of centralization was introduced into politics; the p n e ser'iii. 
conquered provinces were organized under an elaborate 
bureaucracy at the head of which: was the king, each district 
paying a fixed tribute and providing a military contingent. The 
Assyrian forces became a standing army, which, by successive 
improvements and careful discipline, was moulded into an 
irresistible fighting machine, and Assyrian policy was directed 
towards the definite object of reducing the whole civilized world 
into a single empire and thereby throwing its trade and wealth 
into Assyrian handsi With this object, after terrorizing Armenia 
and the Medes and breaking the power of the Hittites, Tiglath- 
pileser HI. secured the high-roads of commerce to the Medi- 
terranean together with the Phoenician seaports and then made 
himself master of Babylonia. In 729 B.C. the summit of his 
ambition was attained, and he was invested With the sovereignty 
of Asia in the holy city of Babylon. Two years later, in Tebet 



Photos, Mansell &• Co. 



BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA 



Plate I. 




STELE OF VICTORY OF NARAM-SIN, 
KING OF AGADE. Louvre. 




COPPER VOTIVE FIGURE OF ARAD- 
SIN, KING OF LARSA. 





FIGURE OF GUDEA, PATESI OF 
LAGASH. Louvre. 




BOUNDARY-STONE SCULPTURED 
WITH EMBLEMS OF THE GODS; 
REIGN OF NEBUCHADREZZAR I. 




RELIEF REPRESENTING ASSUR- 
BANI-PAL SPEARING A LION. 





COLOSSAL WINGED AND HUMAN- 
HEADED LION FROM THE 
PALACE OF ASSUR-NAZIR-PAL 



STATUE OF ASSUR-NAZIR-PAL, 
KING OF ASSYRIA. 



FIGURE OF A DYING LION, FROM 
THE LION-HUNT RELIEFS OF 
ASSUR-BANI-PAL. 




STATUE OF THE GOD NEBO- 
REIGN OF ADAD-NIRARI III. 



Plate II. 



BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA 




STAMP^^K-INSCRXP. LETTER ^ FRON ^JU^ATTA KING PRISM OF S^NACHERIB. TABLET FROM A|SUR ; 
™UR° F ' SPECIMENS OF KS f AND ASSYRIAN WRITING. ***«.»**»*. 



BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA 



■105 



Sean* 
cherlb. 



727 B.C.; he died, but his successor Ulula, who took the name of 
Shalmaneser IW, continued the policy he had begun. Shalma- 
neser died suddenly in Tebet 722 B.C., while pressing the siege 
of Samaria, and the seizure of the throne by another general, 
Sargon, on the 12th of the month, gave the Babylonians an 
opportunity to > revolt. In Nisan the Kalda prince, 
bafodan. h ' Merodach (Marduk)-baladan, entered Babylon and 
was there Crowned.legitimate king. For twelve years 
he successfully resisted the Assyrians; but the failure of his 
allies in the west to act in concert with him, and the overthrow of 
the Elamites, eventually compelled him to fly to his ancestral 
domains in the marshes of southern Babylonia. Sargon, who 
meanwhile had crushed the confederacy of the northern nations, 
had taken (717 B.C.) the Hittite stronghold of Carchemish and 
had annexed the future kingdom of Ecbatana, was now accepted 
as king by the Babylonian priests and his claim to be the suc- 
cessor of Sargon of Akkad acknowledged up to the time of his 
murder in 705 b.c His son Sennacherib, who succeeded 
him on the 12th of Ab, did not possess the military or 
administrative 1 abili ties of his father, and the success 
of his reign was not commensurate with the vanity of the ruler. 
He was never crowned at Babylon, which was in a perpetual 
state of revolt until, in 691 b.c, he shocked the religious and 
political conscience of Asia by razing the holy city of Babylon to 
the ground. His campaign against Hezekiah of Judah was as 
much a failure as his policy in Babylonia, ; and in his murder by 
his sons on the 20th of Tebet 681 B.C. both Babylonians and Jews 
saw the judgment of heaven. ' 

Esar-haddon, who succeeded him, was of different calibre from 
his father. He was commanding the army in a campaign against 
Ararat at the time of the murder; forty- two days 
TaJdon later the murderers fled from Nineveh and took refuge 
at the court of Ararat. But the Armenian army was 
utterly defeated near Malatia on the 12th of lyyar, and at the end 
of the day Esar-haddon was saluted by his soldiers as king. He 
thereupon returned to Nineveh and on the 8th of Sivan formally 
ascended the throne. 

One, of his first acts was to restore Babylon, to send back the 
image of Bel-Merodach (Bel-Marduk) to its old home, and to 
re-people the city with such of the priests and the former popula- 
tion as had survived massacre. Then he was solemnly declared 
king in the temple of Bel-Merodach, which had again risen from 
its ruins, and Babylon became the second capital of the empire. 
Esar-haddon's policy was successful and Babylonia remained 
contentedly quiet throughout his reign. In February (674 B.C.) 
the Assyrians entered upon their invasion of Egypt (see also 
Egypt: History), and in Nisan (or March) 670 B.C. an expedition 
on an unusually large scale set out from Nineveh. The Egyptian 
frontier was crossed on the 3rd of Tammuz (June), and Tirhaka, 
at the head of the Egyptian forces, was driven to Memphis after 
fifteen days of continuous fighting, during which the Egyptians 
were thrice defeated with heavy loss and Tirhaka himself was 
wounded. On the 22nd of the month Memphis was entered by 
the victorious army and Tirhaka fled to the south. A stele, 
commemorating the victory and represepting Tirhaka with the 
features of a negro, was set up at Sinjirli (north of the Gulf of 
Antioch) and is now in the Berlin Museum. Two years later 
(668 b.c.) Egypt revolted, and while on the march to reduce it, 
Esar-haddon fell ill and died (on the 10th of Marchesvan or 
October). Assur-bani-pal succeeded him as king of 
Assyria and its empire, while his brother, Samas-sum- 
yukin, was made viceroy of Babylonia. The arrange- 
ment was evidently intended to flatter the Babylonians by giving 
them once more the semblance of independence. But it failed to 
work. Samas-sum-yukin became more Babylonian than his 
subjects; the viceroy claimed to be the successor of the monarchs 
Whose empire had once stretched to the Mediterranean; even 
the Sumerian language was revived as the official tongue, and a 
revolt broke out which shook the Assyrian empire to its founda- 
tions. After .several years of struggle, during which Egypt re- 
covered its independence, Babylon was starved into surrender, 
and the rebel viceroy and his supporters were put to death. 



Assur- 
banl-pal. 



Egypt had already recovered its independence (660 B.C.) with 
the help of mercenaries sent by Gyges of Lydia, who had vainly 
solicited aid from Assyria against his Cimmerian enemies. Next 
followed the contest with Elam, in spite of the efforts of Assur- 
bani-pal to ward it off. Assyria, however, was aided by civil 
war in Elam itself; the country was wasted with fire and sword, 
and its capital Susa or Shushan levelled with the ground, But 
the long struggle left Assyria maimed and exhausted. It had 
been drained of both wealth and fighting population; the 
devastated provinces of Elam and Babylonia could yield nothing 
with which to supply the needs of the imperial exchequer, and 
it was difficult to find sufficient troops even to garrison the 
conquered populations. Assyria, therefore, was ill prepared to 
face the hordes of Scythians— or Manda, as they were called'by 
the Babylonians — who now began to harass the frontiers. A 
Scythian power had grown up in the old kingdom of Ellip, tfc 
the east of Assyria, where Ecbatana was built by a "• Manda Vi 
prince; Asia Minor was infested by the Scythian tribe of Cim- 
merians, and the death of the Scythian leader DugdammS (tne 
Lygdamis of Strabo i. 3. 16) was regarded by Assur-bani-pSl as 
a special mark of divine favour. : ; i 

When Assur-bani-pal died, his empire was fast breaking up. 
Under his successor, Assur-etil-ilani, the Scythians penetrated 
into Assyria and made their way as far as the borders 
of Egypt. Calah was burned, though the strong walls "i^iaence. 
of Nineveh protected the relics of the Assyrian army 
which had taken refuge behind them; and when the raiders 
had passed on to other fields of booty, a new palace was erected 
among the ruins of the neighbouring city. But Its architectural 
poverty and small size show that the resources of 'Assyria were 
at a low ebb. A contract has been found at Sippara, dated in 
the fourth year of Assur-etil-ilani, though it is possible that his 
rule in Babylonia was disputed by his Ra/D-shakeh (vizier)-, 
Assur-sum-lisir, whose accession year as king of Assyria occurs 
on a contract from Nippur (Niffer). The last king of Assyria 
was probably the brother of Assur-etil-ilani, Sin-sar-iskun 
(Sin-sarra-uzur), who seems to have been the Sarakos (Saracus) 
of Berossus. He was still reigning in Babylonia in his seventh 
year, as a contract dated in that year has been discovered 
at Erech, and an inscription of his, in Which he speaks of restor- 
ing the ruined temples and their priests, couples Merodach 
of Babylon with Assur of Nineveh. Babylonia, however, was 
again restless. After the over throw of Samas-sum-yukin, 
Kandalanu, the Chineladanos of Ptolemy's canon, had N h 
been appointed viceroy. His successor was Nabopo- i^ S ar!" 
lassar, between whom and the last king of Assyria war 
broke out. The Scythian king of Ecbatana, the Cyaxares of the 
Greeks, came to the help of the Babylonians. Nineveh was 
captured and destroyed by the Scythian army, along with thO^e 
cities of northern Babylonia which had sided with Babylonia, 
and the Assyrian empire was at an end. 

The seat of empire was now transferred to Babylonia. Nabopo- 
lassar was followed by his son Nebuchadrezzar II., whose reign 
of 43 years made Babylon once more the mistress of 
the civilized world. Only a small fragment of his oUus. 
annals has been discovered relating to his invasion of 
Egypt in 567 B.C., and referring to " Phut of the Ionians." Of 
the reign of the last Babylonian king, Nabonidus, however, and 
the conquest of Babylonia by Cyrus, we now have a fair amount 
of information. 1 This is chiefly derived from a chronological 
tablet containing the annals of Nabonidus, which is supplemented 
by an inscription of Nabonidus, in which he recounts his restora- 
tion of the temple of the Moon-god at Harran, as well as by a 
proclamation of Cyrus issued shortly after his formal recognition 
as king of Babylonia. It was in the sixth year of Naboijidus 
(549 B.C.) — or perhaps in 553— that Cyrus, "king of AnshanY 
in Elam, revolted against his suzerain Astyages, king of " the 
Manda" or Scythians, at Ecbatana. The army of AstyageS 
betrayed him to his enemy, and Cyrus (q.v.) established himself 
at Ecbatana, thus putting an end to the empire of the Scythians, 

1 For the events leading up to the conquests of Cyrus, see Persia: 
Ancient History, § v. The" chronology is not absolutely certain. 



io6 



BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA 



which the Greek writers called that of the Medes, through a 
confusion of Mada or "Medes " with Manda. Three years later 
we find that Cyrus has become king of Persia and is engaged in 
a campaign in the north of Mesopotamia. Meanwhile Nabonidus 
has established a camp at Sippara, near the northern frontier 

of his kingdom, his son — probably the Belshazzar of 
by Cyrus, other inscriptions — being in command of the army. 

In 538 B.C. Cyrus invaded Babylonia. A battle was 
fought at Opis in the month of June, in which the Babylonians 
were defeated, and immediately afterwards Sippara surrendered 
to the invader. Nabonidus fled to Babylon, whither he was 
pursued by Gobryas, the governor of Kurdistan, and on the 
16th of Tammuz, two days after the capture of Sippara, " the 
soldiers of Cyrus entered Babylon without fighting. " Nabonidus 
was dragged out of his fuding-place, and Kurdish guards were 
placed at the gates of the great temple of Bel, where the services 
continued without intermission. Cyrus did not arrive till the 
3rd of Marchesvan (October), Gobryas having acted for him in 
his absence. Gobryas was now made governor of the province 
of Babylon, and a few days afterwards the son of Nabonidus, 
according to the most probable reading, died. A public mourning 
followed, which lasted six days, and Cambyses accompanied the 
corpse to the tomb. Cyrus now claimed to be the legitimate 
successor of the ancient Babylonian kings and the avenger of 
Bel-Merodach, who was wrathful at the impiety of Nabonidus in 
removing the images of the local gods from their ancestral shrines 
to his capital Babylon. Nabonidus, in fact, had excited a strong 
feeling against himself by attempting to centralize the religion 
of Babylonia in the temple of Merodach (Marduk) at Babylon, 
and while he had thus alienated the local priesthoods the military 
party despised him on account of his antiquarian tastes. He 
seems to have left the defence of his kingdom to others, occupying 
himself with the more congenial work of excavating the founda- 
tion records of the temples and determining the dates of their 
builders. The invasion of Babylonia by Cyrus was doubtless 
facilitated by the existence of a disaffected party in the state, 
as well as by the presence of foreign exiles like the Jews, who had 

1 The following is a list of the later dynasties and kings of Baby- 
lonia and Assyria so far as they are known at present. For the 
views of other writers on the chronology, see § viii., Chronological 
Systems. 

The Babylonian Dynasties from dr. 2500 b.c 



Dynasty of Ur. 

Gungunu, cir. 2500 B.C. 

Ur-Gur. 

Dungi, more than 51 years. 

Bur-Sin, more than 12 years. 

Gimil-Sin, more than 9 years. 

Ibi-Sin. 

Idin-Dagan. 

Sumu-ilu. 

First Dynasty of Babylon. 2350 B.C. 
Sumu-abi, 14 years. 
Sumu-la-ilu, 36 years. 
Zabium, 14 years. 
Abil-Sin, 18 years. 
Sin-muballidh, 20 years. 
Khammurabi, 43 years. 
Samsu-iluna, 38 years. 
Abesukh, 25 years. 
Ammi-ditana, 25 years. 
Ammi-zadoq, 21 years. 
Samsu-ditana, 31 years. 

Dynasty of Sisku (?)/or 368 years. 
2160 B.C. 

Anman, 60 years. 
Ki-Nigas, 56 years. 
Damki-ilisu, 26 years. 
Iskipal, 15 years. 
Sussi, 27 years. 
Gul-ki[sar], 55 years. 
Kirgal-daramas, 50 years. 
A-dara-kalama, 28 years. 
Akur-duana, 26 years. 
Melamma-kurkura, 8 years. 
Ea-ga(mil), 9 years. 



Kassite Dynasty of 36 kings for 

576 years 9 months. 1780 B.C. 
Gandis, 16 years. 
Agum-sipak, 22 years. 
Bitilyasu I., 22 years. 
Ussi (?), 9 years. 
Adu-metas. 
Tazzi-gurumas. 
Agum-kakrime. 

Kara-indas. 

Kadasman-Bel, his son, corre- 
sponded with Amon-hotep 
(Amenophis) III. of Egypt, 
1400 B.C. 

Kuri-galzu II. 

Burna-buryas, his son, 22 years. 

Kuri-galzu III., his son, 26 years. 

Nazi-Maruttas, his son, 17 years. 

Kadasman-Turgu, his son, 13 
years. 

Kudur-bel, 6 years. 

Sagarakti-suryas, his son, 13 
years. 

Bitilyasu II., 8 years. 

Tukulti-In-aristi of Assyria (1272 
B.C.) for 7 years, native vassal 
kings being — 

Bel-sum-iddin, ij years. 

Kadasman-Bel II., l\ years. 

Hadad-sum-iddin, 6 years. 

Hadad-sum-uzur, 30 years. 

Meli-sipak, 15 years. 

Merodach-baladan I., his sort, 13 
years. 

Zamama-sum-iddin, I year. 

Bel-sum-iddin, 3 years. 



been planted in the midst of the country. One of the first acts 
of Cyrus accordingly was to allow these exiles to return to their 
own homes, carrying with them the images of their gods and their 
sacred vessels. The permission to do so was embodied in a 
proclamation, in which the conqueror endeavoured to justify 
his claim to the Babylonian throne. The feeling was still strong 
that none had a right to rule over western Asia until he had 
been consecrated to the office by Bel and his priests; and from 
henceforth, accordingly, Cyrus assumed the imperial title of 
" king of Babylon." A year before his death, in 529 B.C., he 
associated his son Cambyses (q.v.) in the government, making 
him king of Babylon, while he reserved for himself the fuller 
title of " king of the (other) provinces " of the empire. It was 
only when Darius Hystaspis, the representative of the Aryan 
race and the Zoroastrian religion, had re-conquered the empire 
of Cyrus, that the old tradition was broken and the claim of 
Babylon to confer legitimacy on the rulers of western Asia 
ceased to be acknowledged (see Darius). Darius, in fact, 
entered Babylon as a conqueror; after the murder of the 
Magian it had recovered its independence under Nidinta-Bel, 
who took the name of Nebuchadrezzar III., and reigned from 
October 521 B.C. to August 520 B.C., when the Persians took it 
by storm. A few years later, probably 514 B.C., Babylon again 
revolted under the Armenian Arakha; on this occasion, after 
its capture by the Persians, the walls were partly destroyed. 
E-Saggila, the great temple of Bel, however, still continued to 
be kept in repair and to be a centre of Babylonian patriotism, 
until at last the foundation of Seleucia diverted the population 
to the new capital of Babylonia and the ruins of the old city 
became a quarry for the builders of the new seat of government. 1 
VI. Assyria and Babylonia contrasted. — The sister-states 
of Babylonia and Assyria differed essentially in character. 
Babylonia was a land, of merchants and agriculturists; Assyria 
was ah organized camp. The Assyrian dynasties were founded 



Dynasty of I sin of 11 kings for 
1325 years. 1203 B.C. 
Merodach- .... 18 years. 



Nebuchadrezzar I. 
Bel-nadin-pal. 
Merodach-nadin-akhi, 22 years. 

Merodach- I J years. 

Hadad-baladan, an usurper. 
Merodach -sapik-zer-mati, 12 

years. 
Nabu-nadin, 8 years. 

Dynasty of the Sea-coast. 1070 B.C. 
Simbar-sipak, 18 years. 
Ea-mukin-zeri, 5 months. 
Kassu-nadin-akhi, 3 years. 

Dynasty of Bit-Bazi. 1050 B.C. 
E-Ulmas-sakin-sumi, 17 years. 
Ninip-kudur-uzur I., 3 years. 
Silanim-Suqamuna, 3 months. 

Dynasty of Elam. 1030 B.C. 
An Elamite, 6 years. 

Second Dynasty of Babylon. 

1025 B.C. 

Nebo-kin-abli, 36 years. 
Ninip-kudur-uzur II. (?) 8 

months 12 days. 
Probably 5 names missing. B.C. 
Samas-mudammiq . cir. 920 
Nebo-sum-iskun . cir. 900 
Nebo-baladan . . cir. 880 
Merodach-nadin-sumi cir. 860 
Merodach-baladhsu-iqbi cir. 830 
Bau-akhi-iddin . . cir. 810 
Probably two names missing. 
Nebo-sum-iskun, son of 

Dakuri . . . cir. 
Nabonassar, 14 years 
Nebo-nadin-suma, his son, 

2 years 
Nebo-sum-yukin, his son, 

I month 12 days . 

End of " the 22 nd dynasty. 



760 
747 

733 

731 



Dynasty of Sape. 
Yukin-zera or Chinziros, 3 B.C. 

years . . . . 730 

Pulu (Pul or Poros), called 

Tiglath-pileser III. in 

Assyria, 2 years . . 727 

Ulula, called Shalmaneser 

IV. in Assyria . . 725 

Merodach-baladan II. the 

Chaldaean . . .721 

Sargon of Assyria . . 709 

Sennacherib, his son . 705 

Merodach-zakir-sumi, I 

month . . . 702 

Merodach-baladan III., 6 

months ... 702 

Bel-ebus of Babylon . 702 

Assur-nadin-sumi, son of 

Sennacherib . . 700 

Nergal-yusezib . . 694 

Musezib-Merodach . . 693 

Sennacherib destroys 

Babylon . . . 689 

Esar-haddon, his son . 681 

Samas-sum-yukin, his son 668 
Kandalanu (Kineladanos) . 648 
Nabopolassar . . . 626 

Nabu-kudur-uzur (Nebu- 
chadrezzar II.) . 605 
Amil-Marduk (Evil-Mero- 

dach), his son . . 562 

Nergal - sarra - uzur (Ner- 

gal-sharezer) . . 560 

Labasi-Marduk, his son, 3 

months . . 556 

Nabu-nahid (Nabonidus) . 556 
Cyrus conquers Babylon . 538 
Cambyses, his son . . 529 

Gomates, the Magian, 7 

months . . ., 521 

Nebuchadrezzar III., na- 
tive king . . -521 
Darius, son of Hystaspes . 520 
Nebuchadrezzar IV., rebel 

king . . .5H 

Darius restored . .513 



BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA 



107 



by successful generals; in Babylonia it was the priests whom 
a revolution raised to the throne. The Babylonian king remained 
a priest to the last, under the control of a powerful hierarchy; 
the Assyrian king was the autocratic general of an army, at 
whose side stood in early days a feudal nobility, and from the 
reign of Tiglath-pileser III. onwards an elaborate bureaucracy. 
His palace was more sumptuous than the temples of the gods, 
from which it was quite separate. The people were soldiers 
and little else; even the sailor belonged to Babylonia. Hence 
the sudden collapse of Assyria when drained of its fighting 
population in the age of Assur-bani-pal. 

VII. Assyro- Babylonian Culture. — Assyrian culture came from 
Babylonia, but even here there was a difference between the 
two countries. There was little in Assyrian literature that was 
.Original, and education, which was general in Babylonia, was in 
the northern kingdom confined for the most part to a single class. 
In Babylonia it was of very old standing. There were libraries 
in most of the towns and temples; an old Sumerian proverb 
averred that " he who would excel in the school of the scribes 
must rise with the dawn." Women as well as men learned to 
read and write, and in Semitic times this involved a knowledge 
of the extinct Sumerian as well as of a most complicated and 
extensive syllabary. A considerable amount of Semitic Baby- 
lonian literature was translated from Sumerian originals, and 
the language of religion and law long continued to be the old 
agglutinative language of Chaldaea. Vocabularies, grammars 
and interlinear translations were compiled for the use of students 
as well as commentaries on the older texts and explanations of 
obscure words and phrases. The characters of the syllabary 
were all arranged and named, and elaborate lists of them were 
drawn up. The literature was for the most part inscribed with 
a metal stylus on tablets of clay, called laterculae coctiles by 
Pliny; the papyrus which seems to have been also employed 
has perished. Under the second Assyrian empire, when Nineveh 
had become a great centre of trade, Aramaic — the language of 
commerce and diplomacy — was added to the number of subjects 
which the educated class was required to learn. Under the 
Seleucids Greek was introduced into Babylon, and fragments 
of tablets have been found with Sumerian and Assyrian (i.e. 
Semitic Babylonian) words transcribed in Greek letters. 

Babylonian Literature and Science. — There were many literary 
works the titles of which have come down to us. One of the 



Zulilu " founder 
archy." 



Kings of Assyria. 
of the mon- 



Assur-rabi. 
Assur-nirari, his son. 
Assur-rim-nisesu, his son. 

Erba-Hadad, 

Assur-nadin-akhi I., his son. 
Assur-yuballidh I., his son. 

B.C. 

Assur-bil-nisi-su . cir. 1450 

Buzur-Assur . . . 1440 

Assur-nadin-akhi II. . 1410 

Assur-yuballidh, his son . 1390 

Bel-nirari, his son . . 1370 

Arik-den-ilu, his son . 1350 

Hadad-nirari I., his son . 1330 
Shalmaneser I., his son 

(built Calah) . . 1 3 10 

Tiglath-In-aristi I., his son, 1280 

conquers Babylon cir. 1270 

Assur-nazir-pal I., his son 1260 

Assur-narara and his son 

Nebo-dan . . .1250 
Assur-sum-Iisir . . 1235 
In-aristi-tukulti-Assur . 1225 
Bel-kudur-uzur 12 15 
In-aristi-pileser, descend- 
ant of Erba-Hadad . 1200 
Assur-dan I., his son . 1185 
Mutaggil-Nebo, his son . 1160 
Assur-ris-isi, his son . 1 140 
Tiglath-pileser I., his son. 1120 
Assur-bil-kala, his son . 1090 



Samsi-Hadad I., his 

brother 
Assur-nazir-pal II., his son 
Assur-irbi 

Hadad-nirari II. . cir. 
Tiglath-pileser II., his son 
Assur-dan II., his son 
Hadad-nirari III., his son 
Tukulti-In-aristi, his son 
Assur-nazir-pal III., his 

son .... 
Shalmaneser II., his son . 
Assur-danin-pal (Sardana- 

pallos), rebel king 
Samsi-Hadad II., his 

brother 
Hadad-nirari IV., his son . 
Shalmaneser III. 
Assur-dan III. 
Assur-nirari . 
Pnlu, usurper, takes the 

name of Tiglath-pileser 

III. . 
Ulula, usurper, takes the 

name of Shalmaneser IV. 
Sargon, usurper 
Sennacherib, his son 
Esar-haddon, his son 
Assur-bani-pal, his son . 
Assur-etil-ilani-yukin, his 

son .... 
Assur-sum-lisir 
Sin-sarra-uzur (Sarakos) . 
Destruction of Nineveh . 



B.C. 

1070 
1060 

960 

95° 
930 
911 



883 
858 

825 

823 
810 
781 
771 
753 



745 

727 
722 

705 
68 1 
668 

? 
? 

? 
606 



most famous of these was the Epic of Gilgamesh, in twelve books, 
composed by a certain Sin-liqi-unninni, and arranged upon an 
astronomical principle. Each division contains the story of a 
single adventure in the career of Gilgamesh. The whole story is 
a composite product, and it is possible that some of the stories 
are artificially attached to the central figure. (See Gilgamesh, 
Epic of.) 

Another epic was that of the Creation, the object of which was 
to glorify Bel-Merodach by describing his contest with Tiamst, 
the dragon of chaos. In the first book an account is given of 
the creation of the world out of the primeval deep and the birth 
of the gods of light. Then comes the story of the struggle 
between the gods of light and the powers of darkness, and the 
final victory of Merodach, who clove Tiamat asunder, forming the 
heaven out of one half of her body and the earth out of the other. 
Merodach next arranged the stars in order, along with the sun 
and moon, and gave them laws which they were never to trans- 
gress. After this the plants and animals were created, and 
finally man. Merodach here takes the place of Ea, who appears 
as the creator in the older legends, and is said to have fashioned 
man out of the clay. 

The legend of Adapa, the first man, a portion of which was 
found in the record-office of the Egyptian king Amenophis IV. 
(Akhenaton) at Tell-el-Amarna, explains the origin of death. 
Adapa while fishing had broken the wings of the south wind, 
and was accordingly summoned before the tribunal of Anu in 
heaven. Ea counselled him not to eat or drink there. He 
followed the advice, and thus refused the food which would have 
made him and his descendants immortal. 

Among the other legends of Babylonia may be mentioned 
those of Namtar, the plague-demon, of Urra, the pestilence, 
of Etanna and of Zu. Hades, the abode of Nin-erisgal or Allat, 
had been entered by Nergal, who, angered by a message sent to 
her by the gods of the upper world, ordered Namtar to strike 
off her head. She, however, declared that she would submit 
to any conditions imposed on her and would give Nergal the 
sovereignty of the earth. Nergal accordingly relented, and Allatu 
became the queen of the infernal world. Etanna conspired with 
the eagle to fly to the highest heaven. The first gate, that of 
Anu, was successfully reached; but in ascending still farther 
to the gate of Ishtar the strength of the eagle gave way, and 
Etanna was dashed to the ground. As for the storm-god Zu, 
we are told that he stole the tablets of destiny, and therewith 
the prerogatives of Bel. God after god was ordered to pursue 
him and recover them, but it would seem that it was only by a 
stratagem that they were finally regained. 

Besides the purely literary works there were others of the 
most varied nature, including collections of letters, partly official, 
partly private. Among them the most interesting are the letters 
of Khammurabi, which have been edited by L. W. King. 
Astronomy and astrology, moreover, occupy a conspicuous place. 
Astronomy was of old standing in Babylonia, and the standard 
work on the subject, written from an astrological point of view, 
which was translated into Greek by Berossus, was believed to 
go back to the age of Sargon of Akkad. The zodiac was a 
Babylonian invention of great antiquity; and eclipses of the 
sun as well as of the moon could be foretold. Observatories 
were attached to the temples, and reports were regularly sent 
by the astronomers to the king. The stars had been numbered 
and named at an early date, and we possess tables of lunar 
longitudes and observations of the phases of Venus. In Seleucid 
and Parthian times the astronomical reports were of a thoroughly 
scientific character; how far the advanced knowledge and method 
they display may reach back we do not yet know. Great atten- 
tion was naturally paid to the calendar, and we find a week of 
seven and another of five days in use. The development of 
astronomy implies considerable progress in mathematics; it 
is not surprising, therefore, that the Babylonians should have 
invented an extremely simple method of ciphering or have 
discovered the convenience of the duodecimal system. The 
ner of 600 and the sar of 3600 were formed from the soss or unit 
of 60, which corresponded with a degree of the equator. Tablets 



io8 



BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA 



of squares and: cubes, calculated from i to 60, have been found 
at Senkera, and a people who were acquainted with the sun-dial, 
the clepsydra, the lever and the pulley, must have had no mean 
knowledge of mechanics. A crystal lens, turned on the lathe, 
was discovered by Layard at Nimrud along with glass vases 
bearing the name of Sargon; this will explain the excessive 
minuteness of some of the writing on the Assyrian tablets, and 
a lens may also have been used in the observation of the heavens. 

Art and Architecture— -The culture of Assyria, and still more 
of Babylonia, was essentially literary; we miss in it the artistic 
spirit of Egypt or Greece. In Babylonia the abundance of 
clay and want of stone led to the employment of brick; the 
Babylonian temples are massive but shapeless structures of 
crude brick, supported by buttresses, the rain being carried off 
by drains, one of which at Ur was of lead. The use of brick 
led to the early development of the pilaster and column, as well 
as of frescoes and enamelled tiles. The walls were brilliantly 
coloured, and sometimes plated with bronze or gold as well as 
with tiles. Painted terra-cotta cones were also embedded in 
the plaster. Assyria in this, as in other matters, the servile 
pupil of Babylonia, built its palaces and temples of brick, though 
stone "was the natural building material of the country, even 
preserving the brick platform, so necessary in the marshy soil 
of Babylonia, but little needed in the north. As time went on, 
however, the later Assyrian architect began to shake himself 
free: from Babylonian influences and to employ stone as well as 
brick. The walls of the Assyrian palaces were lined with 
sculptured and coloured slabs of stone, instead of being painted 
as in Chaldaea. We can trace three periods in the art of these 
bas-reliefs; it is vigorous but simple under Assur-nazir-pal III., 
careful and realistic under Sargon, refined but wanting in bold- 
ness under Assur^bani-pal. In Babylonia, in place of the bas- 
relief we have the figure in the round, the earliest examples 
being the statues from Tello which are realistic but somewhat 
clumsy. The want of stone in Babylonia made every pebble 
precious and led to a high perfection in the art of gem-cutting. 
Nothing can be better than two seal-cylinders that have come 
down to us from the age of Sargon of Akkad. No remarkable 
specimens of the metallurgic art of an early period have been 
found, apart perhaps from the silver vase of Entemena, but at 
a later epoch great excellence was attained in the manufacture 
of such jewellery as ear-rings and bracelets of gold. Copper, too, 
was worked with skill; indeed, it is possible that Babylonia 
was the original home of copper-working, which spread westward 
with the civilization to which it belonged. At any rate the 
people were famous from an early date for their embroideries 
and rugs. The ceramic history of Babylonia and Assyria has 
unfortunately not yet been traced; at Susa alone has the care 
demanded by the modern methods of archaeology been as yet 
expended on examining and separating the pottery found in the 
excavations,; and, Susa is not Babylonia. We do not even know 
the date of 'the spirited terra-cotta reliefs discovered by Loftus 
and Rawlinson. The forms of Assyrian pottery, however, are 
graceful; the porcelain, like the glass discovered in the palaces 
of Nineveh, was derived from Egyptian originals. Transparent 
glass seems to have been first introduced in the reign of Sargon. 
Stone as well as clay and glass were employed in the manufacture 
of vases, and vases of hard stone have been disinterred at Tello 
similar to. those of the early dynastic period of Egypt. 

Social Life. — Castes were unknown in both Babylonia and 
Assyria, but the priesthood of Babylonia found its counterpart in 
the military aristocracy of Assyria. The priesthood was divided 
into a great number of classes, among which that of the doctors 
may be reckoned. The army was raised, at all events in part, 
by conscription; a standing army seems to have been first 
organized in Assyria. Successive improvements were introduced 
into it by the kings of the second Assyrian empire; chariots 
were superseded by cavalry; Tiglath-pileser III. gave the 
riders saddles and high boots, and Sennacherib created a corps 
of slingers. Tents, baggage-carts and battering-rams were 
carried on the march, and the tartan or commander-in-chief 
ranked next to the king. In both countries there was a large 



body of slaves; above them came the agriculturists and com- 
mercial classes, who were, however, comparatively little numerous 
in Assyria. The scribes, on the other hand, formed a more 
important class in Assyria than in Babylonia. Both countries 
had their artisans, money-lenders, poets and musicians. - 

The houses of the people contained but little furniture; chairs^ 
tables and couches, however, were used, and Assur-bani-pal is 
represented as reclining on his couch at a meal while his wife 
sits on a. chair beside him. After death the body was usually 
partially cremated along with the objects that had been buried 
with it. The cemetery adjoined the city of the living and wag 
laid out in streets through which ran rivulets of "pure" water. 
Many of the tombs, which were built of crude brick, were pro- 
vided with gardens, and there were shelves or altars on which 
were placed the, offerings to the dead. As the older tombs 
decayed a fresh city of tombs arose on their ruins. It is 
remarkable that thus far no cemetery older than the Seleucid 
or Parthian period has been found in Assyria. 

Authorities. — See A. H. Layard, Nineveh and Babylon (1853); 
E. de Sarzec and L. Heuzey, Decouvertes en Chaldee (1884 foil.); 
H. V. Hilprecht, The' Babylonian Expedition of the University of 
Pennsylvania (1893 foil.) ; J. P, Peters, Nippur (1897) ; E. Schrader, 
Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek (1889-1900); Records of the Past (new 
series, 1888-1892); Th. G. Pinches, " The Babylonian Chronicle," 
in Journ. R. A. S. (1887) ; H. Winckler, Altorientaliscjie Forschungen 
(1893 foil.), and The Tell-el-Antarm Letters (1896); G. Maspero, 
Dawn of Civilization (1896), Struggle of the Nations (1897), and 
Passing of the Entpires (1900); L. W. King, Letters of Khammurabi 
(1898-1900); H. Radau, Early Babylonian History (1900); R. W. 
Rogers, History of Babylonia and Assyria (1900) ; P. Hommel, 
Grundriss der Geographie und Geschichte des alten Orients (1904); 
Mitteilungen der deutschen Orientgesellschaft (1899). (A. H. S.) 

VIII. Chronological Systems:— The extreme divergence in the 
chronological schemes employed by different writers on the 
history of Babylonia and Assyria has frequently caused no 
small perplexity to readers who have no special knowledge of 
the subject. In this section an attempt is made to indicate 
briefly the causes which have led to so great a diversity of 
opinion, and to describe in outline the principles underlying 
the chief schemes of chronology that have been suggested; a 
short account will then be given of the latest discoveries in this 
branch of research, and of the manner in which they affect the 
problems at issue. It will be convenient to begin with the later 
historical periods, and then to push our inquiry 1 back into the 
earlier periods of Babylonian and Sumerian history. • 

Up to certain points no difference of opinion exists upon the 
dates to be assigned to the later kings wno ruled in Babylon apd 
in Assyria. The Ptolemaic Canon (see sect. II.) gives a list of 
the Babylonian, Assyrian and Persian kings who ruled, in 
Babylon, together with the number of years each of them 
reigned, from the accession of Nabonassar in 747 B.C. : to the 
conquest of Babylon by Alexander the Great in 331 B.C. The 
accuracy of this list is confirmed by the larger List of Kings 
and by the principal Babylonian Chronicle; the latter, like the 
Canon, begins with the reign of Nabonassar, who, it has been 
suggested, may have revised the calendar and have inaugurated 
a new epoch for the later chronology. The Ptolemaic Canon is 
further controlled and its accuracy confirmed by the Assyrian 
Eponym Lists, or lists of limmi (see sect. II.), "by means of 
which Assyrian chronology, is fixed from 911 B.C. to 666 B.C., 
the solar eclipse of June 15th, 763 B.C., which is recorded inthe 
eponymy of Pur-Sagale, placing the dead reckoning for these 
later periods upon an absolutely certain basis. 

Thus all historians are agreed with regard to the Babylonian 
chronology back to. the year 747 B.C., and with regard to that of 
Assyria back to the year 911 B.C. It is in respect of the periods 
anterior to these two dates that different writers have propounded 
differing systems of chronology, and, as might be imagined, the 
earlier the period we examine the greater becomes the discrepancy 
between the systems proposed. This variety of opinion is due to 
the fact that the data available for settling the chronology often 
conflict with one another, or are capable of more than one 
interpretation. 

Since its publication in 1884 the Babylonian List, of Kings has 
furnished the framework for every chronological system that has 



BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA 



109 



been proposed. In its original form this document gave a list, 
arranged in dynasties, of the Babylonian kings, from the First 
Dynasty of Babylon down to the Neo-Babylonian period. If 
the text were complete we should probably be in possession 
of the system of Babylonian chronology current in the Neo- 
Babylonian period from which our principal classical authorities 
(see sect. II.) derived their information. The principal points 
of uncertainty, due to gaps in the text, concern the length of 
Dynasties IV. and VIII.; for the reading of the figure giving 
the length of the former is disputed, and the summary at the 
close of the latter omits to state its length. This omission is 
much to be regretted, since Nabonassar was the last king but 
two of this dynasty, and, had we known its duration, we could 
have combined the information